International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - 2nd Wave of COVID-19: Role of Social Awareness, Health and Technology Sector, June, 2021

Pages: 71-76

Date of Publication: 11-Jun-2021


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To Assess the Attitude and COVID-19 Preparedness Among Postgraduate Medical Trainees in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Central India

Author: Patidar Shashikant, Chakma Chayan, Suresh Sneha, Bajaj Naresh

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Introduction: During this COVID-19 pandemic, post-graduate trainees being pillars of the healthcare system are subjected to a greater risk of acquiring the infection during their duty hours. It was warranted to assess their attitude and COVID-19 preparedness. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among the working post-graduate trainees in ShyamShah Medical College and associated hospitals at Rewa, Madhya Pradesh, India in the month of September 2020. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire comprising of 30 close-ended questions was circulated to gather the relevant information. A total of 200 PG students submitted their responses, out of which 111 complete responses were included in the statistical analysis. Results: Male: female participant ratio was 1.13:1. A total of 72% of participants knew their present COVID-19 status, whether positive (n=13) or negative (n=67). 4 of them were suffering from chronic diseases like asthma. 30-41% of them were taking COVID-19 prophylaxis like hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), vitamin-C, zinc, ayurvedic medicine etc. All participants who were COVID-19 positive thought that they were not well prepared against the virus during their duty hours while 44.1% of participants were anxious about the disease. A significant number of participants (91%) believed that even with all the preparedness it (Corona) may happen to anyone. Conclusion: In the present study, less than 6% of postgraduate trainees were found to have a positive attitude and satisfactory preparedness for self-protection during this critical period.

Keywords: Attitude, Central India, COVID-19, Medical students, Post-graduate trainees, Preparedness

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

In December 2019, multiple cases of pneumonia of unknown aetiology were identified in China Wuhan city. World Health Organization (WHO) named it COVID-19 and declared it as a pandemic on 11th March 2020.1-5 COVID-19 has so far affected the general population including a large number of health professionals around the world.6 Since the postgraduate trainees are one of the first hands of contact in the health care system, they are prone to greater risk of acquiring the infection during their duty hours. The emergence of COVID-19 made everyone reach out to Health care facilities and get prepared with their own best measures for the impact of the pandemic. Even medical fraternity around the world was changing and updating their protocols day today. As COVID-19 is a highly infectious disease spreading through asymptomatic contact, it has been diagnosed in every age-groups worldwide.7With time passing by, the attitude towards the disease has been changed among people. The preparedness for the infection has also varied from person to person. Even with maximum available knowledge and precautions are followed as per protocols, till September 2020, 2238 doctors were infected with the COVID-19 disease and of them, 382 lost their lives in India. Whereas in our college, 67 healthcare workers including 29 postgraduate medical students were diagnosed COVID-19positive with no mortality till the date of the present study. Hence this survey was warranted to assess the attitude and COVID-19 preparedness among postgraduate medical students in our tertiary care hospital in central India.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

This prospective, cross-sectional study was carried out in September 2020 among postgraduate trainees in Shyam Shah Medical College and associated hospitals at Rewa, Madhyapradesh in India. A self-administered, anonymous, questionnaire comprising of 30 close-ended questions was circulated to gather the relevant information. A total of 200 PG students submitted a response, out of which 111 complete responses were included in the statistical analysis. The study proposal was addressed to the institutional ethical committee and ethical clearance was obtained. During the process, all the information related to participants were kept confidential. All the data was collected from various departments of our institute.

At the end of the study, the data was analysed statistically by using SPSS ver 22.0. A p-value of <0.05 was considered for statistical significance. Categorical variables are shown as number and percentage. Qualitative data was analysed by using Pearson's Chi-square test.

RESULTS

Out of 231 postgraduates working in our institute, we have received 200 questionnaires back. Only 111 questionnaires were found complete. 59 (53.1%) were male and 52(46.8) were female. Maximum participants were less than 30 years of age (n=101; 90.9%). Maximum participants were from medicine, ophthalmology and paediatrics (n= 71; 63.9%) and half of the participants (50.5%) were first-year trainees. A total of 72% of participants knew their COVID-19status, whether positive (n=13) or negative (n=67) (Figure 1). 4 of them were suffering from chronic diseases like asthma. The majority of postgraduates (n=84; 75.6%) were already exposed to working in the COVID-19environment. Only 4 participants were using full PPE kit during their working hours; whereas others used only masks, gloves and face shields. 80.1% of participants used N95 masks regularly. We found that n=53(47.7%) participants were not able to maintain social distance, n=75(67.5%) were not practising handwashing for 2 minutes, whereas n=40(36.03%) were not using sanitiser with 70% isopropyl alcohol regularly during their duty hours. It was also noted that n=46(41.4%), n=45(40.5%) and n=34(30.6%) participants were taking prophylaxis for COVID-19 routinely using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), zinc and vitamin C and other like ayurvedic, homoeopathic measures respectively. 76(68.5%)  participants believed that quarantine is not necessary after every individual exposure with COVID-19 cases; suggesting immediate resuming of their normal duties (Table I and II).

All participants who were COVID-19 positive thought that they were not well prepared against the virus during their duty hours while 44.1% of participants felt anxious about the disease. A significant number of participants (91%) especially female postgraduate trainees (n=41; p <0.05) believed that even with all the preparedness it (Corona) may happen (Table III).

DISCUSSION

Recently, COVID-19 observed as a major healthcare issue worldwide and its highly infectious nature forced proper training to carry out safe practice to reduce the spread of this virus to the working staff by using PPE kit and proper sterilization of gloves etc.8 The present survey was therefore undertaken among postgraduates trainees in India to assess preparedness about COVID-19. Based on Items used for personal protection we have found that very few participants (<6%) have a positive attitude towards satisfactory preparedness for self-protection during these critical hours which may be because the majority of participants were first-year PGs who have very long duty hours. In contrast Arora et al. the majority (78.6%) of the participants had a positive attitude towards personnel protection against COVID-19.9 In the present study, we found that there is no statistically significant difference in awareness among the male and female participants whereas in Putrino et al. males were more aware of the disease as compared to female participants.10

We found that the pandemic caused anxiety among only 44.1% of participants while Arora et al.84.2% of the respondent were conscious that COVID-19 is highly infective for which they are well prepared.9

In the present study, 91% felt that they might get infected despite all safety measures. Similarly, De Stefani et al.made 87% of the dentists believe that their job falls under the very high-risk category of exposure.11 It is also following a study by Canetti et al. where the majority of the respondents believe that the risk of infection transmission is high in the dental practice.12In the present study we found that majority (80.1%) of medical postgraduates used N95 mask for their protection whereas proper handwashing along with N95 mask was used by 22.5% participants and among this 14.4% used 70% alcohol containing sanitiser and a very few participants (10.8%)used prophylactic pharmacotherapy along with the aforementioned. In contrast, nearly 85% of the dentists were well versed with the type of mask and were ready to use the N95 mask, especially when dealing with COVID-19 patients. In the present study, most of the participants agreed to wear an N95 respirator, a total of 35.8% felt that only fittest is sufficient to check the seal and 27.6% already knew that they should be properly trained to use it and make it comfortable.9

Maximum number i.e. 78.6% of the dentists in principle agree that wearing personal protective equipment like gloves, mask and goggles are effective to prevent transmission of COVID-19 as reported by Khader et al13 were 92.9% of respondents felt the same. In the present study, only 29.7% of participants used gloves, masks and goggles in ICUs and wards during their duty hours.

CONCLUSION

During this pandemic, post-graduate trainees act as pillars of the health care system tackling various cases including COVID-19 patients. Out of 231 working post-graduate medical students 94 of them had been posted in COVID-19ICU and wards rotation wise whereas 29 PGs got the infection. And it was found that only less than 6% of participants were found to have a positive attitude towards satisfactory preparedness for self-protection during these critical hours. Whereas all participants who were COVID-19 positive thought that they were not well prepared against the virus during their duty hours and 44.1% of participants were anxious about the infection. A significant number of participants (91%) also believed that even with all the preparedness it (Corona) may happen to anyone. Hence we recommend all the working postgraduates irrespective of their working environment should carry a positive attitude and exercise better preparedness during their routine duty hours. It could be the only way to halt the spread among the healthcare workers.

Acknowledgement: The authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors/editors/publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

Author's Contribution: All the authors contributed significantly in the preparation/writing/editing etc. wherever possible.

Source of Funding: Nil

Conflict of Interest: Nil

Ethical Clearance Letter No. IEC/MC/2021/5900 dated 06.04.2021

References:

1.         Huang X, Wei F, Hu L, Wen L, Chen K. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of corvid-19. Arch Iran Med. 2020;23(4):268-271.

2.         Chen Y, Liu O, Guo D. Emerging coronaviruses: genome structure, replication, and pathogenesis. J Med Virol. 2020;92(4):418-423.

3.         Backer JA, Klinkenberg D, Wallinga J. Incubation period of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-Nov) infections among travellers from Wuhan, China. Euro Surveill. 2020;25(6):20–8.

4.         Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1708–20.

5.         Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok KH. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):514–23.

6.         Zhang Z, Liu S, Xiang M. Protecting healthcare personnel from 2019-nCov infection risks: lessons and suggestions. Front Med. 2020;14(2):229-231.

7.         To KK, Tsang OT, Chik-Yand Yip C. Consistent detection of 2019 novel coronavirus in saliva. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;71(15):841-843.

8.         Meng L, Hua F, Bia Z. Coronavirus disease 2019. COVID-19 Emerging future challenges for dental and oral medicine. J Dent Res. 2020;99(5):481–7.

9.         Arora S, Abullais SS, Attar N, Pimple S, Saifullah ZK, Saluja P, et al. Evaluation of knowledge and preparedness among Indian dentists during the current COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study. J Multidiscip Healthcare. 2020;13:841-54.

10.       Putrino A, Raso M, Magazzino C. Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Italy: knowledge, management of patients and clinical experience of Italian dentists during the spread of contagion. BMC Oral Health. 2020;20:200.

11.       De Stefani A, Bruno G, Martinelli S, Gracco A. COVID-19 outbreak perception in Italian dentists. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(11): 3867.

12.       Cagetti MG, Cairoli JL, Senna A, Campus G. COVID-19 outbreak in North Italy: an overview on dentistry. A questionnaire survey. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jun; 17(11): 3835.

13.       Khader Y, Al Nsour M, Al-Batayneh OB Dentists’ awareness, perception, and attitude regarding COVID-19 and infection control: A cross-sectional study among Jordanian dentists. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2020;6(2):e18798

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Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

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Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by situs slot and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. situs slot "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma situs slot entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by situs slot et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression situs slot
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease situs slot
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List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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