International Journal of Current Research and Review
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IJCRR - 13(11), June, 2021

Pages: 199-205

Date of Publication: 04-Jun-2021

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Molecular Assessment of Genetic Diversity Among Male, Female and Hermaphrodite Simarouba species Using Random Amplified Polymorphic Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid Markers

Author: Vaidya Gayatri, Naik GR

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Introduction: The Simarouba species is considered one of the promising feedstock for biodiesel producers as the seeds have high oil content and are non edible. These species can be grown well even in wasteland. As Simarouba is polygamodioecious in nature and have a long juvenile period assessment of genetic variability in Simarouba germplasm is essential for exploitation of genetic resource for plant improvement programs. Objective: The present investigation aims to find the genetic diversity of male, female and andramonieocus Simarouba species using RAPD markers. Methods: Fifty Random amplified polymorphic DNA primers were used for genetic analysis of male, female and hermaphrodite Simarouba species. The binary data obtained from the RAPD banding profile were analysed using Wards Squared Euclidean distance and construct dendogram through UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic average statestica). Jaccard similarity coefficient was constructed using NTSYS ( Numerical Taxonomy System, PC version 2.02e programme to determine genetic relation among Simaroba individuals. Results: RAPD primers yielded 223 amplicons of which 176 (78.92 % ) were polymorphic. An average number of bands per polymorphic primer observed is 4.46. Jaccard Similarity Matrix between male, female and hermaphrodite Simarouba genotypes varied from 0.06 to 0.81. Among the various combinations, maximum similarity of 81 % was observed between Female and hermaphrodite individuals. While maximum dissimilarity of 63 % was found between female and male individuals. Dendrogram generated by UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Method with Arithmetic Mean ) grouped female and male plants in separate groups. Conclusion: Molecular markers employed in this investigation showed genetic diversity between crop genotypes. This study provides development of strategies for genetic analysis and crop improvement in Simarouba species.

Keywords: Crop improvement, Genetic diversity, Polymorphism, RAPD

Full Text:


Simarouba glauca belongs to the family Simaroubaceae. It is a fast-growing, very important seed oil yielding multipurpose tree that grows even on marginal lands under water stress conditions.1 it also improves soil health. It is indigenous to the Amazon rainforest and other tropical areas in Mexico, Cuba, Haiti, Jamaica, and Central America; it was brought to India from Latin America in 1960. Simarouba species aid to control soil erosion and play a promising role in the conservation of soil and watersheds. The root system of the Simarouba species is well developed, which checks soil erosion, thus assisting soil microbial life and improving groundwater position. Plantation of these species facilitates wasteland reclamation, reduce greenhouse effect.2 These species break the wind.3 The oil cake being rich in nitrogen (8%), phosphorus (1.1%) and potash (1.2%) is good organic manure.2 The use of Simarouba press cake as a fertilizer has given good results on coffee, sugarcane, cotton and corn.4 The fruit pulp may be used in the production of vermicompost which is of excellent quality. Leaf litter makes good manure.5 Leaf litter (about 20kg/tree/yr.) makes good manure, improving soil fertility.6 Each well-grown tree yields 15-30 kg nutlets equivalent to 2.5 to 5.0 kg oil and about the same quantity of oil cake.5,7 The annual returns in kg/ha from a moderately well managed 10-year-old plantation of Simarouba is as follows. Oil:-1000-2000, Oil cake: - 1000-2000, Fruit pulp: - 8000-10000, Leaf litter:-10000-15000, Shell: - 4500-9000.6 The tree has high medicinal value used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and wood is used for furniture.8 Harnessing the full potential of non-traditional tree-borne oilseeds like Simarouba through systematic block plantations with elite material can carve out a niche that is noncompeting with current needs and support horizontal expansion of oilseeds, increase the green cover, reduce erosion, and generate employment in underdeveloped areas. The establishment of plantations of tree-borne oilseeds can solve the problems of conserving degraded lands, decrease the burden of shortages of fossil fuels and high energy import costs, and maintain a clean environment by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This would require systematic efforts towards tree improvement program. An assessment of genetic variability in Simarouba germplasm is essential for the exploitation of genetic resource for plant improvement programs.

Morphological features, biochemical and cytological studies have not solved the problem of germplasm characterization determination in the economically important dioecious crops. Different attempts to find molecular differences between male and female plants such as immune chemistry, differences in protein and enzyme, mRNA and tRNA polymorphism or RNA hybridization kinetics have been made in several diocious species9 these studies deal with gene expression and could just show the differential expression of shared genes between male and female plants. This has led to the advancement of strategies. Plant biotechnology is enriched with multidisciplinary approaches of DNA/RNA fingerprinting techniques. In recent years, this approach has been applied to develop gender-specific DNA and RNA markers with greater reliability and accuracy and proved useful for marker-assisted selection of male and female and hermaphrodite plants. The stage of plant growth and the environment, in which the plant grows, do not influence the differences in DNA sequence. Therefore, molecular markers are currently being used to study of genetic diversity and identity of crop genotypes.10

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) which is a polymerase chain reaction-based DNA fingerprinting technique.11,12 Differential PCR amplification of random genomic fragments using random decamer oligonucleotide primers are the basis of RAPD. DNA polymorphisms detected result from rearrangements or deletion at or between oligonucleotide primer binding sites in the genome. RAPD technique does not require sequence information of the genome that is being analyzed so it can be applied across species as universal primers.13 It has numerous applications such as identification of different cultivars genotypes, phylogenetics studies, diversity studies, selection of specific trait of interest, linkage mapping, etc.13-17 No prior knowledge of sequence information, cost efficiency, simple assaying procedure, less sophisticated equipment  and  no need for cloning and radioactive probes have made RAPD technique a valuable tool. In the present study, RAPD markers were used for molecular characterization and genetic variability of female, male, and hermaphrodite Simarouba plants.

Materials and methods

Morphological identification of sex of Simarouba plant by flower study

Immature leaf samples of both female (P1and P2) and hermaphrodite (P3 ad P4) plants were collected from University of Agricultural Science, Gandhi Krishi Vignan Kendra Bangalore. India. Male (P5) plant sample was collected from the plantation of Simarouba from University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. India, the samples were stored at -80oC. Leaf sample was picked from male, female, and hermaphrodite plants after complete observation of flower types that were used for DNA extraction. The androecium of male and bisexual flowers have ten stamens in two whorls, where as in female flowers, the androecium is represented by ten staminodes which are sterile stamens with poorly developed anthers not producing pollen grains.

RAPD study

Isolation of genomic DNA from Simarouba species

                Total genomic DNA was isolated from leaf tissues with the minor modifications in the CTAB method.18 About 0.3 g of leaf tissue was ground to a fine powder in liquid nitrogen and mixed with 700 µl of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) extraction buffer (100 mM Tris–HCl pH 8, 1.4 M NaCl, 20 mM EDTA pH 8, 2% CTAB, 1% b-mercaptoethanol, 1% PVP). This mixture was first incubated at 650C for 30 min, and then an equal volume of a phenol: chloroform: isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1) mixture was added, followed by centrifugation at 4,000 rpm for 30 minutes at 40C. The aqueous phase was decanted and transferred to a new microtube to reduce impurity between the two phases. The extraction steps were repeated using the same phenol: chloroform: isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1) mixture. The last aqueous phase was mixed with two-thirds volume of isopropanol and stored at -200C for at least 2 hours to precipitate the DNA, then centrifuged at 4,000 rpm for 15 minutes. The nucleic acid precipitate was washed with 70% ethanol, air-dried, and suspended in 50 µl of TE buffer.

Purification of DNA

The extracted DNA was treated with RNase (1mg/ml) (Qiagen, USA) incubated at 37oC for 1 hour. This was followed by Proteinase K (20mg/ml) treatment incubated at 37 oC for 30 minutes and sodium chloride to remove RNA, proteins, polysaccharides, and phenols, respectively.

Quantification of extracted DNA

The purity and quantity of the isolated DNA was determined by NanoDrop Spectrophotometer (ND 1000; Thermo Scientific, Wilmington, DE). The spectral ratio (A260 nm /A280 nm) was measured. The absorbance 1.0 at 260nm and 280nm determines the concentration of the nucleic acid (DNA) of 50 µg/ml in the sample. The ratio between the readings at 260 nm and 280 nm provides an estimate of the purity of nucleic acid. DNA preparation is pure when OD260/OD280 value is 1.8. If there is contamination with protein or phenol the OD260/OD280 will be slightly less than 1.8 and if more than 1.8 then it is contaminated with RNA

Total quantity of the DNA (µg/ml) = OD260 x 50 x dilution factor / 1000

Agarose gel electrophoresis

Agarose gel electrophoresis performed to check the quality of the extracted DNA samples from the plant samples. Agarose 0.8% (w/v) was prepared in 1x TAE buffer pH-8.0 (for 50x TAE, 242g Tris base, 37.2g ETDA, pH is adjusted with glacial acetic acid).The mixture is heated till agarose is completely dissolved and forms a clear solution. The molten agarose is poured in the gel mould which was set with the comb when cooled down at about 55oC. The set up was left for an hour at room temperature for solidification. The gel slab is placed in an electrophoresis unit, 1 x TAE buffer was poured to immerse the gel. DNA samples were prepared by mixing with 10µl of tracking dye Bromophenol Blue (50% Glycerol, 1Mm ETDA-pH-8.0, xylene cyanol and distilled water) and the samples were loaded with uncut λ DNA (Bangalore Genei, Bangalore, India) of known concentration in to the wells. Agarose gel was run for about two to three hours at a constant voltage of 5V/cm2 in electrophoresis tank. The gel was visualized under Gel Documentation System. The high intensity bands were considered as good quality DNA samples and smear were of poor quality.

Selection of RAPD Primers

            Fifty RAPD primers were obtained from Eurofins MWG Biotech, Bangalore India. These primers were screened with extracted DNA of male, female and andromonecious Simarouba plants. RAPD data analysis was done using only the amplifying primers.

PCR amplification

Fifty 10-base primers (Eurofins MWG Biotech, Bangalore India) were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to screen known sex to ascertain their potential of clear amplification in polymorphism and the reproducibility. The RAPD-PCR reactions were performed in 30 μl volumes in 100 μl PCR tubes (Tarson Pvt Ltd, India) (Table 1). The reaction mixture contained 30 ng of template DNA, 1 × amplification buffer (10 mM of Tris-HCl- pH 8, 50 mM of KCl, 1.8 mM of MgCl2 and 0.01 mg/ml gelatine), 2.5mM each of dCTP, dGTP, dATP, and dTTP, 5pM primers and 1U Taq DNA polymerase (Bangalore Genei, Pvt. Ltd., India). The RAPD-PCR analysis was performed in a 30 µl volume in gradient Thermo Cycler. The reactions were performed in a Master Cycler Gradient 5331 (Eppendorf version 2.30. 31-09, Germany). The reaction had an initial denaturation step at 940C for 5 min, followed by 35 cycles of 94 oC for 1 min, 37oC for 1 min, 72oC for 2 min. The final extension step was at 72 oC for 10 min. The reactions were cooled and held at 4oC (Table 2).

The RAPD-PCR products were separated on 1.5% (w/v) agarose (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) gel at 5 V/cm in 1 × TBE (89 mM Tris-HCl, 89 mM boric acid and 2 mM EDTA, pH 8.0) buffer. The agarose gels were stained with 0.5 μg/ml ethidium bromide, visualized under UV light and photographed on a digital gel-documentation system (SYNGENE). The molecular weights of the RAPD amplicons were estimated with a 100 bp DNA ladder.

Data Analysis

Scoring of RAPD banding profile

The RAPD allele size was determined based on the location of bands with respect to the ladder. The total no of allele was recorded for each RAPD marker in all the accessions by giving allelic number 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc.  Distinct visible and reproducible bands  were scored as 1 for the presence and 0 for absence in DNA profile photographs. Differings band intensities were not considered to avoid errors introduced by competition among priming sites during the initial rounds of RAPD-PCR analysis.19

Genetic similarity and cluster analysis

            The binary data obtained from the RAPD  banding profile were analysed using Wards Squared Euclidean distance, and was used to construct dendogram through UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic average statestica). Jaccard similarity coefficient was constructed using NTSYS (Numerical Taxonomy System, PC version 2.02e programme to determine genetic relation among Simaroba individuals.


 Where Na is the number of fragments present in the pattern a but not b.

            Nb is the number of fragments present in the pattern b but not a.

            Nab is the number of fragments commen for pattern a and b.


Morphological study of flowers of Simarouba to identify the gender

Simarouba is a polygamodioecious with three types of plants, pistillate, staminate and andromonoecious. The inflorescence is compound panicle with main axis showing racemose pattern and ultimate branches having dichasial / monochasial cymes. The time taken from bud initiation to anthesis is about 15 to 20 days. The male inflorescence has longer peduncle than the female. The length of panicle is 12-40 cm in pistillate whereas 45-55 cm in andromonoecious and staminate inflorescences. The bisexual flowers are the largest with 10-15 mm in diameter, followed by male inflorescence with 8—12 mm diameter, and the female flowers are the smallest with 5-7 mm diameter.  Female flowers were characterized by sterile stamens and anthers, which did not showed pollen grains whereas male and bisexual flowers showed active stemens with pollen grains production.

Isolation of Genomic DNA

            Genomic DNA was isolated by the CTAB method, purified by using RNase and proteinase treatment. it was analysed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The λDNA EcoRI digest (Merk, Bangalore) marker was used to determine the amplified DNA's molecular weight. The high quality DNA suitable for RAPD analysis was observed,  intact discrete bands of high molecular weight were seen in the agarose gel ( Figure 1).

Quantification of Isolated Genomic DNA

            The quantification of DNA was determined by Nanodrop spectrophotometer. The spectral ratio (A260/A280)of the DNA isolated from Simarouba individuals was found to be in the range of 1.8 to 2.1,  which is an indication of low polysaccharides and high quality (Figures 2-6).

RAPD-PCR  Analysis of Simarouba species.

RAPD-PCR has widely been used for population genetic studies as well for various amplification in the several plants. Attempts are made to screen for the primer, which would produce reproducible banding patterns for the genetic analysis of female, male, and hermaphrodite Simarouba plants. A set of 50 decamer primers were used to amplify the genomic DNA of male, female, and hermaphrodite individuals, of which 38 primers showed reproducible results.

Statistical Analysis

Total of 50 primers were screened to amplify the genomic DNA of Simarouba plants. The total number of bands amplified from polymorphic primers were 223, the percentage of total polymorphic bands is 78.92% and a number of amplified bands per primer are 4 (Table 3).The binary data of  RAPD-PCR amplification  was analysed using Wards squared Euclidean distance. Dendrogram analysis was done using gel documentation system. Phylogenetic variation was determined by converting  RAPD data into Jaccard's Similarity Coefficient and analyzed by unweighted pair method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) cluster analysis to produce phylogenetic tree. The similarity matrix (Table 4) reveals that the cultivars fall in the range of 0.63 to 0.81. Among the various combinations, maximum similarity of 81% was observed between P2 and P4 (Female and Andromonecious) cultivars, while maximum dissimilarity of 63% was found between P1(Female) and P5 (Male) cultivars.

Dendrogram generated (Fig.7) based on RAPD data, divided  Simarouba cultivars into two distinct clusters. Cluster I comprises of four plants, namely P1, P2, P3 and P4. Cluster II comprises of one plant namly P5. Cluster I is subdivided in to three sub-clusters (I, II, III),  sub cluster I comprises of single cultivar that is P1, sub-cluster II comprises of two closely related cultivars those  are  P2 and P4 and sub-cluster III consist of single cultivar that is P3. The position of P1(female) and P5(male) are at extreme end on dendrogram  indicating them as most divergent species. Cluster analyses based on Wards squared Euclidean distance shows combining results from fifty primers. On the linkage distance skill, it is evident that female and andrimoniceous plants are closely linked whereas  male and female are divergent.


In the present study, Random amplified polymorphic DNA primers were tested on diecious and hermaphrodite plants of Simarouba glauca. The Jaccard's similarity co-efficient constructed by binary data of the RAPD-PCR amplification was ranged between 0.63 to 0.81 among Simarouba individuals. The lowest coefficient (0.63 ) was found between male  and female  plant and the highest similarity coefficient (0.81) was found between female and andromonoecious plants. This reveals the least similarity between male and female plants. Dendrogram was constructed to determine the genetic relationship among the Simarouba individuals. Cluster analysis based on Squared Euclidean distance is represented by the results obtained from oligo primers. On linkage distant scale, it is evident that female and andromonoecious are closely linked. Male is distinctly linked to both female and andromonoecious. The individual of each sex does not form separate cluster; instead, they are mixed, indicating that they are evolution. The most extreme type of gender determination system is found where highly specialized gender chromosomes are found, which usually promotes dioecy in plants.20 The evolution of dioecy from the hermaphrodite species is considered unlikely, since the occurrence and establishment of two independent mutants, one for female and other for male sterility must occur simultaneously, and the mutant genes or multiple loci must be tightly linked so that generation of the hermaphrodites does not occur by recombination.21 As dioecism has raised in different families and genera of plants22 the development of molecular strategies of dioecious taxa has been a priority in breeding programmes for their greater economic potentials Marker-based differences in the genetic relationships between Simarouba genotypes showed that cluster tree analysis has grouped of male and female plants genotypes in separate groups


The use of molecular markers to distinguish the genders has been employed when the genetic mechanism of gender determination is not available. Molecular marker-based technology has proved a reliable strategy for detecting gender-associated markers in dioecious and bisexual plants. The RAPD marker technique is the cheapest, user friendly and reliable tool used for efficient fingerprinting of many plants. The oligo primers used in the present study were found consistent and reproducible. RAPD marker technique proved to be useful in the present investigation. Studies on marker technology regarding dioecy have rendered a better understanding of dimorphism's development and evolutionary process. 

Acknowledgments: Author gratefully acknowledges Department of Biotechnology Gulbarga University Gulbarga for providing the work felicity and Dr Shyam Sundar Joshi retired professor from Department of Botany University of Agricultural sciences. Bangalore. India to provide relative information and Professor S. J. Patil from Department of farm forestry University of Agricultural sciences. Dharwar. India to help for procuring the study materials.   

Conflict of interest: Authors declares that there is no conflict of interest.

Source of funding: There is no any source of funding or the present study

Authors contribution: Prof G R Naik have framed the study and cross checked the findings, and Dr Gayatri Vaidya has performed the experiments and analyzed the data, and prepared the manuscript.


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A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


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