International Journal of Current Research and Review
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IJCRR - 13(11), June, 2021

Pages: 99-103

Date of Publication: 04-Jun-2021

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Effect of Mobile Phone Radiations on Male Fertility: An Update

Author: Senthil Kumar B, Ganesha Prasad K

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:For many decades, male infertility due to unknown aetiology remains an unresolved issue that includes factors such as environmental changes and lifestyle factors. Male fertility is affected when the exposure to radiations and other hazardous substances were intense. Radiations have a drastic detrimental effect on the process of spermatogenesis inside the testis. This current update review mainly focuses on the effects of mobile phone radiation, which may contribute to the cause of male infertility. Exploration into various studies done by researchers showed the detrimental effect of radiofrequency radiations on male fertility when exposed over a longer period. Many studies proved that the radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) affects male fertility by enhancing irretrievable changes in semen parameters. Some studies also disprove the above. The current update review will give a helicopter view of different findings and hypothesis stated by various authors. Further, an elaborated study on the effect of mobile phone radiations on male fertility was already started in the institution.

Keywords: Male Infertility, Radiations, Hazards, Mobile phone, Radiofrequency radiations, Semen parameters

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Infertility had become one of the disorder that affects nearly 15% of couples of which 7.5% involves male infertility.1 Male infertility had turned to be an up to date downside problem because of abnormal semen characteristics. The semen quality has deteriorated in recent years worldwide. The majority of infertile or sub-fertile male showed either immotile sperm and/or DNA damage.2 The impact of mobile device radiation on male fertility is that the subject of recent interest and investigations.3 Cell phones are widely used among all age group people particularly adults and it’s been noticed that people use them for long hours for various purposes. These phones emit radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (EMW), a low-level radiofrequency (RF), at a frequency that ranges between 800 and 2200 MHz.4 Men carry mobile phones in their pockets or in holders which are designed close to their procreative/reproductive organs. Thus, it’s vital to predict the consequences of cell phone hazards on male fertility. Although several recent epidemiological studies have updated that prolong use of mobile phones could play a role in male infertility.5,6 Mobile phones would possibly influence the genital systems via EMW thermal and non-thermal effects and that they could interfere with normal spermatogenesis and end in a significant decrease in semen quality.7-9

Electromagnetic fields and mobile phone radiations:

Radiation will be characterized into ionized and non-ionized radiations. The non-ionizing radiations are of two forms: 1) Extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs), and 2) Radiofrequency (RF) EMFs - which are produced by wireless radio waves/microwaves products.10 The frequencies within the range of 100 kHz to 300 GHz refer to RF and represent solely the vicinity of the electromagnetic spectrum. The source of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure affects the semen parameters.  The advanced technology of intermediate frequency had become another source of exposure to electro-magnetic fields. This specific frequency range falls between the low frequency (low frequency- 0.1 Hz–1 kHz) and the radio frequency (RF) (10 MHz–300 GHz).7 Harmful EMW emitted from cell phones could interfere with normal spermatogenesis and end up in a significant decrease in semen quality. Electromagnetic waves will have an effect on reproductive function through both thermal and non-thermal effects.7

Epidemiological and experimental studies on mobile phone radiations

Many studies showed the damaging effects of RF-EMR on Leydig cells, seminiferous tubules, and specifically, the spermatozoa were clearly defined.1 Though RF-EMR reduces androgen (testosterone) levels, impairs spermatogenesis and causes sperm DNA damage11, the connection between RF-EMR devices and male infertility remains polemical. The negative effects of cell phones on sperm parameters in 361 male is detected.11 Similarly, Fejes et al.6 showed the correlation statistics between the daily mobile phone usage duration and semen quality in 371 male. There are two more reports available that also added up the effect of cell phones on sperm motility in humans.6,12 Epidemiologic studies reported that mobile phone use has associations with some semen quality parameters, but the findings across these research studies are not entirely consistent and standard for all the examined semen parameters.12,13.

Many epidemiological and experimental studies have reported that RF-EMWs have potential adverse effects on human health. They will interfere with nervous system function and cause headache, fatigue, impaired cognitive function, sleep disturbances and an increased risk of tumour14,15; it also affects the cardiovascular system and thus increases resting blood pressure.16 Recent epidemiologic (cross-sectional or prospective) studies have highlighted the role of mobile phone exposure on sperm motility, morphology and viability, suggesting a drastic reduction in male fertilization potentiality.22 These studies examined the relationship of mobile phone use and its impact on semen parameters and concluded that mobile phone use could cause a decrease in fertility.17

Mobile phone radiations and male fertility

Various studies have stated the effect of mobile phones on semen parameters. In one of the study, it has been proved that the semen parameters were abnormal when the mobile phones are carried in the pocket near the testicles.18 Similarly; Fejes et al.6 have suggested that the habit of carrying a mobile phone in pockets and speaking durations were negatively correlated with sperm count. In another study, Agarwal et al.11 had reported that as mobile phone usage duration keeps increasing, the quality of sperm decreases. In controversial to the above two reports, Mehmet et al. did not find any effect on the semen profile due to prolonged mobile phone usage and the habit of carrying a mobile phone in their pockets near testicles.19

Effect of RF-EMF exposure on sperm parameters:

Prolonged mobile phone usage has been found to decreases the progressive motile sperm count, motility and viability along with an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS)which leads to abnormal sperm morphology.20,21 Recent studies added up that that Wi-Fi from laptops and computers may negatively affect sperm quality.22 EMF is found to be responsible for the decrease in fertilization rate23, reduced sperm count due to triggered apoptosis,24,25 reduced sperm quality26, hormonal changes within the testis6,11, developmental impairments in the embryonic period.27,28 Radio-frequency electromagnetic field exposure from mobile phones or alternative sources of microwaves adversely result in the decrease of the male fertilizing potential of spermatozoa. Many authors found that carrying mobile phones within the trouser pocket or on the belt pouches reduces sperm motility.29,30 Kesari et al. demonstrated that males who use mobile phones for longer duration exhibit inflated rates of abnormal sperm morphology.31

The exposure to RF-EMF resulting in male reproductive organ pathologies including a decrease in sperm quality is probably due to oxidative stress so increasing free radical levels or superoxide ends up in a decrease in sperm motility and viability that is triggered by inflated concentrations of superoxides.21 Free radicals oxidize the membrane phospholipids extracellularly, thus resulting in reduced sperm viability and reduced impaired motility.32

Studies proving that mobile phone radiation affects male fertility

Wdowiak et al. 2007 had reported that there was a decrease in the percentage of sperms and their motility which depending on the frequency of mobile phones usage.33 Agarwal et al. 2008 found that the usage of cell phones resulted in a decrease in sperm count, motility, viability, and normal morphology and these changes in sperm cell parameters depends on the daily exposure to cell phones and thus independent of the initial semen quality.11 He additionally found that RF electromagnetic waves emitted from cell phones showed reduced sperm motility and viability, increased ROS level, minimized TAC of semen (ROS?TAC score).21 Gutschi et al. 2011 found that mobile phone usage by the male was related to increased abnormal sperm morphology and increased serum testosterone and decreased gonadotrophin levels with no changes in FSH, and prolactin.34 Rago et al. 2013 found that the utilization of mobile phone for more than 4 hours daily was associated with increased sperm cell DNA fragmentation.13 Yildirim et al. 2015 found that exposure to RF?electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone and wireless internet was related to decreased total motile sperm count, increasingly motile sperm.35 Zhang et al. 2016 found that cell phone use might negatively have an effect on sperm quality in men by decreasing the semen volume, sperm count thus impairing malefertility.36

Studies disproving that mobile phone radiation affects male fertility

In a study conducted by El-Healy et al. on 262 males, they had found that each patient’s semen quality parameters did not show any difference among the mobile phone users depending on their daily use in minutes. However, the difference isn’t significant and their study showed that who those use mobile phone for quite 60 minutes daily have lower semen volume, vitality and morphological index compared to those who used a mobile phone for less than 60 minutes per day.37 Gutschi et al. stated that the use of cell phones has no deleterious effect on total sperm count.34 In a cross-sectional study conducted by Rago et al. in 63 healthy and fertile men who visited the andrology centre, showed that none of the standard sperm parameters was altered in the semen analysis report as per the daily mobile phone usage in hours.13 Feijo et al. found that sperm parameters weren’t considerably different in nonusers and users with increased mobile phone use and this study results are in line with the above authors.38

Effects of the mobile phone carrying on pockets

The effects of RF-EMR on the quality of the sperm parameters depending on the way of carrying mobile phones, on a sample of 52 men aged 18–35 years showed that men who carried a mobile phone in their hip pockets or on their belts had a lower sperm concentration than men who do not carry a phone or who carried it elsewhere.29 Also, in a hospital-based study conducted by El-Healy et al. they found that men who carried their mobile phone in their hip pockets had lower sperm motility proportion compared to male keeping mobile phones in a waist pouch, shirt pocket or hands, however, the difference was statistically insignificant. These results go with the study result of Agarwal et al., who postulated that keeping the mobile phone in a hip pocket in speak mode may negatively have an effect on sperm and thus impair male fertility.21

Effect of RF-EMF on sperm fertilization potential

According to Falzone et al., a reduction in sperm head area and its acrosomal percentage was reported among exposed sperm when compared to unexposed controls sperm.39 Adding on to that the mean of zona–bound sperm of the test hemizona and controls was significant respectively. Researchers further stated that though radiofrequency electromagnetic fields exposure failed to adversely affect the acrosomal reaction; it also had a remarkable effect on sperm morphology. Also, a drastic decrease in sperms binding to the hemizona was traced out. These results may indicate a major change of RF-EMF on sperm fertilization potential.39

Potential confounders in correlation mobile phone effects on male infertility

Various potential confounders, includes age factor, period of abstinence, tobacco and alcohol consumption, BMI, and beverages /fried food consumption, are thought to be valuable contributors to changes in semen quality in previous studies.40,41 In all the previous studies and the study was done by Zhang et al. age and lifestyle showed a strong correlation with semen quality; so, they ought to be adjusted to study the effect of other factors on semen quality.36 They conjointly analyzed the potential effects of the multiple sexual partners and use of condoms on semen quality, each of that was prompt to incline the sexually transmitted infections, thus inflicting changes in seminal parameters.42 However, they failed to notice the valid adverse relationship between them. Negative associations remained still after the adjustment of all the above confounders. Together, these studies indicate that certain aspects of mobile phone use might negatively have an effect on semen volume, sperm concentration and sperm count.36

Oxidative stress & DNA-damaged of spermatozoa due to RF-EMW

The development of oxidative stress or disturbance in free radical metabolism by mobile phone radiation has been shown in very few animal studies. Chronic exposure to RF-EMW can decrease the activity of catalase enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD), an antioxidant, and so decrease total inhibitor capability, however, experimental studies designed to estimate the malonaldehyde level and SOD activity show conflicting results.43,44 Friedman et al. showed that RF-EMW stimulates cell membrane NADH oxidase enzyme in mammalian cells and cause the production of ROS.45 This could be attributed to a rise in the activity of spermatozoal NADH oxidase enzyme after RF-EMW exposure. Aitken et al. had shown that human spermatozoa possess a multiple cell membrane oxidoreduction system that shares similarities with transmembrane NADH oxidase enzyme.46 Activation of cell membrane NADH oxidase enzyme might cause the production of ROS. This will be detected by luminol-based luminescence since luminal measures both intra and extracellular ROS.47 In most of the studies, the pathology has been defined by loss of sperm motility and viability moreover because of the induction of ROS generation and DNA injury. The potential mechanisms were given thoughts through which RF-EMR might elicit various effects on spermatozoa, for which a sensitive model system was used. A mechanistic model during which RF-EMR exposure leads to defective mitochondrial function related to elevated levels of ROS production and results in anti-oxidative stress that may add on to the varying phenotypes determined in response to RF-EMR exposure was proposed. This model can offer new impetus to the researcher and stimulate research that allows confident assessment of the reproductive organ involved hazards due to mobile phone usage.48


Mobile phone radiations and RF-EMF has a deleterious effect on various organs of the human body. The thermal and non-thermal effects of electromagnetic waves on reproductive functions remain an inconclusive issue. The radiations damaging the Leydig cells, seminiferous tubules and thus causing semen parameters alterations have to be kept in mind. The sperm quality deteriorates day by day in the male population due to mobile phone radiations. This area had to be thrown light and enormous research has to be done to change the idealistic view of the researchers. Awareness has to be created among adolescents to safeguard themselves from mobile phone radiations.

Acknowledgement – The authors wish to acknowledge the Vinayaka Mission’s Research Foundation (Deemed to be University) for funding the project.

Source of Funding – Vinayaka Mission’s Research Foundation Deemed to be University, Salem – 636308, Tamil Nadu

 Conflict of Interest - Nil,

Authors’ Contribution – The first author compiled the article and the co-author helped in the literature review.


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A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


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