International Journal of Current Research and Review
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IJCRR - 13(11), June, 2021

Pages: 59-64

Date of Publication: 04-Jun-2021

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Understanding the Time Dependent Transmissibility of COVID-19 Through Its Effective Reproduction Number (Rt)

Author: See Jie, Rajasvaran Logeswaran

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Background: Over six centuries ago, the most fatal pandemic ever recorded in human history, the Black Death (The Plague), emerged with an estimated death toll of 75-200 million. At present, COVID-19 has surfaced causing over 5 million infected and 340 thousand deaths worldwide, with the numbers still rising. Objective: This paper focuses on the significance of the effective reproduction number (Rt ) in the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2, to understand the time-dependent transmission pattern of this virus after intervention measures such as city lockdowns and social distancing. Studies done by various parties on estimating the Rt for different countries are discussed and interpreted. Results: It is found that all the countries studied still show an Rt of greater than 1, indicating that the COVID-19 outbreak is still ongoing. However, some countries are gradually keeping COVID-19 under control with a decreasing Rt after implementing intervention measures. Conclusion: COVID-19 is still spreading rapidly across the entire globe, and the soonest production of vaccines is expected to be early 2021, but it is estimated that it will take up to five years to be developed.

Keywords: COVID-19, SAR-Cov-2, Effective Reproduction Number, Time-Dependent Transmissibility

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It was not long ago when the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the Coronavirus Diseases 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak a pandemic, and as of 23rd May 2020, there have been 5,346,876 confirmed cases and 340,869 deaths worldwide, covering 213 countries and territories.1 Firstly emerged as an epidemic on the 31st of December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei Province in China, several Chinese scientists isolated and sequenced the genome of the virus.2 The virus was tentatively named by the WHO as the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) and later identified as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). According to the COVID-19 can affect certain groups which include the older populations and individuals who suffer from underlying health conditions that COVID-19 hypothetically induces mild symptoms to other respiratory infections that exhibited an ability to generate severe diseases towards the affected group.3

It was further explained that a clear understanding of the epidemiology of the virus was still being elucidated and the estimation of basic reproduction number (R0 ) as well as effective reproduction number (Rt ) was vital.

Basic Reproduction Number (R0)

In epidemiology, it is essential to estimate the actual or possible outbreaks of a particular disease, such as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV),4 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS),5 Tuberculosis (TB),6 and the recent Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The estimation of the possible outbreak during the start of an epidemic is usually represented by a parameter called Basic Reproduction Number (R0 ), which is widely used in assessing the transmissibility of pathogens as well as estimating the severity of the outbreak. R0  is defined as the expected number of secondary cases directly generated by one case in a population, whereby all individuals are susceptible to infection without any deliberate intervention in disease transmission.7 R0>1  indicates the outbreak of a disease, whereas R0 <1 means that the pathogen will eventually disappear. Although R0  does not explain the speed of spread after intervention controls such as social distancing and vaccination have been implemented, it is directly related to the type and intensity of interventions needed during the early stage of an outbreak. Upon successful development of the vaccine, R0  can be used to determine the critical coverage of immunization required to eradicate the disease. The critical vaccination coverage  can be estimated through Eq. (1), where  is the direct effect of vaccination.8

suggests the proportion of susceptible individuals be vaccinated, and the protection conferred to the population achieving the coverage is known as herd community.9

Effective Reproduction Number (Rt)

Although R0  is essential to understand the transmissibility of a disease and interventions strategies needed, it is estimated based on assumptions that the population is fully susceptible, which only happens during the beginning of an outbreak. During an outbreak, it is important to evaluate the time-dependent transmission potential of an infectious disease. This is estimated by calculating the Effective Reproduction Number (Rt ), i.e. the actual average number of secondary cases per primary case at time t, for t>010 Rt  is commonly used to characterize pathogen transmissibility during an epidemic due to its time and situation specificity,11 that takes into account the decline in susceptible individuals (intrinsic factor) and control measures implementation (extrinsic factor).12 Rt < 1 suggests that the disease outbreak has been brought under control at time t, whereas Rt>1 indicates that the outbreak is still ongoing. To bring an epidemic under control, the monitoring of Rt overtime provides feedback on the effectiveness of interventions and the importance to further intensify control efforts,13,14 given that the goal of intervention effort is to being Rt below the threshold value of 1 and subsequently close to 0 as soon as possible.

Estimation of Rt  for COVID-19

The study in15 carried out R0  and Rt  estimations in South Korea, but the cases are split into: total, Sincheonji, except Sincheonji, Daegu-Gyeonbuk and except-Daegu-Gyeonbuk subgroups, to thoroughly understand the transmission patterns of major cluster cases in South Korea. The exponential growth model16 was first fitted on the R0  values, followed by sensitivity analysis done on the exponential growth period. Due to the unknown generation time (GT) of COVID-19 at the time of the study, the serial interval was modelled using gamma distribution with mean ± standard deviation of 2.0 ± 1.0, 3.0 ± 1.5, 4.0 ± 2.0, 5.0 ± 2.5, and 6.0 ± 3.0 days, obtained by referring to the incubation period of two to 14 days. An initial R0  for total cases was estimated to be around 3.4. However, the outcome of the sensitivity test suggests that the R0  value is highly sensitive to the GT of COVID-19, hence the estimated R0  might not be reliable as the GT used was just based on assumptions. After the Sincheonji mass infection incident, the health authorities of Korea implemented a series of intervention procedures, including active COVID-19 testing, isolation, social distancing, school closures and active surveillance. By applying the same method, the Rt  was estimated and the result is illustrated in Figure 1. Although the Rt  of total cases show a downward trend, both “Except Sincheonji” and “Except Daegu-Gyeongbuk” clusters were still fluctuating, suggesting the possibility of another mass infection if not dealt with carefully. Nonetheless, thanks to the intervention approach, Rt  of most of the cluster groups gradually decreased. However, the estimated Rt maybe different from the actual Rt due to the unknown GT, Figure 1.

The exponential growth rate (EG) and time-dependent (TD) methods were employed using local transmission cases observed in Germany, France, Italy and Spain from 20th February 2020 to 9th March 2020.17 Under the EG method, the exponential growth stage of the outbreak is first fitted using a Poisson regression model, under the assumption that the GT of COVID-19 follows a gamma distribution.18 The Rt  is then calculated through the transformation of the EG rate. Through the TD method, Rt  is computed by averaging the overall transmission networks that are compatible with the observed epidemic curve.18 The TD method takes into account the yet-unrecorded cases because it uses a Bayesian statistical framework. Both EG and TD methods are highly dependent on the value of the GT, measured by the onset time lag between primary and secondary causes. As this is difficult to obtain, GT is assumed to be equal to the incubation period of 5.8 days with a standard deviation of 2.6 days.20 Sensitivity analysis is then carried out using an incubation period of 4 days with a standard deviation of 2.4 days.21 From the results in Table 1 for the different models up until 9th March 2020, the Rt  in all four countries were greater than two, indicating the progression of the COVID-19 outbreak. Stricter control measures are needed in these countries, especially France, Germany and Spain, to bring the pandemic under control. Besides that, lockdown measures had just been implemented in Italy and therefore Rt  should be constantly monitored to understand the effectiveness of the measure.

Some limitations of this study include that the models are highly dependent on the GT of COVID-19, which is relatively difficult to estimate. Further, the reported cases may be lower than the actual cases, which can affect the accuracy of the study. Despite the limitations, this study provides important findings of the transmissibility of COVID-19 in the four countries. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) should work closely with these countries, Table 1.

In the Rt  of COVID-19 for 32 countries outside of China with over 100 reported cases by 13th March 2020 were computed by applying the EG method [16]. Data on the daily reported new COVID-19 cases in these countries were used, alongside with assumption of mean serial interval of 4.7 days and standard deviation of 2.9 days.22, 23 Of these 32 countries, United States (2,294), France (3,671), Germany (3,675), Spain (5,232), Korea (8,086), Iran (11,364) and Italy (17,660) had more than 1,000 reported COVID-19 cases. Bahrain, Slovenia, Qatar, Spain, Denmark and Finland had Rgreater than four. The estimated Rt  of all 32 countries as of 13th March 2020 are shown in Table 2. The Rt  should be constantly monitored like some of the countries with relatively low Rt  (<4) have been reported to have a drastic increase of COVID-19 cases in the span of two months (from March to May). By 13th May 2020, the country with the highest number of reported cases (1,408,636) in the world was the United States, with a Rt  of 3.29. One of the reasons for the significant increase might be the lack of awareness of both the government and citizens, Table 2.

By using the daily reported cases, as released by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) including locally transmitted and imported cases of COVID-19 in South Korea from 20th January to 26th February 2020. 24 estimated the Rt  in Korea. To estimate the growth rate of the pandemic, it is crucial to identify the epidemic curve according to the dates of symptoms onset rather than the dates of reporting. However, the symptoms onset dates were only available for the first 28 imported cases. To handle this problem, symptoms onset dates were imputed by constructing 300 epidemic curves by dates of symptoms onset and obtaining a mean incidence curve after dropping the last three data points to adjust for reporting delays. By using the generalized growth model (GGM) to characterize the incidence curves for local and imported cases.25 This model describes the growth profile with the help of growth rate parameter (r) and scaling of growth rate parameter (p), where the GT “is assumed to follow a gamma distribution with a mean of 4.41 days and standard deviation of 3.17 days.25,26 The discretized probability distribution (ρi) of the generation interval is then simulated from the GCM and applied on:

where, Ij is the local incidence at the time tj , Jis the local incidence at the time tiand “1<α<1 quantifies the relative contribution of imported cases to secondary disease transmission.12 Finally, the Rt  is estimated “for 300 simulated curves assuming a Poisson error structure to derive the uncertainty bounds around the Rt  curve”.27 The Rt  was estimated to be 1.5 with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) of (1.4, 1.6) as of 26th February 2020, and the estimates indicate a sustained transmission of COVID-19 in Korea. This finding is lower compared to the Rtt estimated,15 which gave a Rt for total cases of more than 2 as of 26th February 2020.

The impact of the intervention on the spread of COVID-19 in India was studied in 28 by applying a compartmental model that separated the total human population (N ) into susceptible (S), exposed (E), symptomatic (I), asymptomatic (Ia, quarantined (Iq), hospitalized (H) and recovered (R), hence:

After close contacts with symptomatic or asymptomatic individuals, the susceptible population will become exposed. It is assumed that the symptomatic individuals have a higher transmission rate than asymptomatic individuals and the rate of a new infection is given by Eq. (4), where β is the transmission rate of the disease and n (<1) is the modification parameter for the reduction in the transmission rate from asymptomatic individuals:

Of all exposed individuals, p1  the fraction will be symptomatic, p2  fraction will be asymptomatic, whereas p3=1-p1-p2  will be quarantined. Symptomatic individuals will show severe symptoms after α-1  time and will be hospitalized. On the other hand, asymptomatic individuals will naturally recover at a rate of rα. Quarantined individuals will either naturally recover at a rate of rq or become infected and hospitalized at a rate of aq. Finally, hospitalized individuals will either recover at a rate r , or die at a rate of δ . The full transmission dynamics of this COVID-19 disease is illustrated in Figure 2.

The daily new infection curve of reported COVID-19 cases is then used to estimate Rt  by applying the following formula, which is derived from the renewal equation of the birth process:


where, b(t)  is the number of new cases on day t, and g(t)  is the generation interval distribution for COVID-19. However, one drawback of the model is that it only assumes asymptomatic individuals to recover naturally and have neglected the fact that there are possibilities for asymptomatic individuals to start showing symptoms and will be quarantined, hospitalized or die from the disease. This is supported by29, were out of the 13 residents of the Long Term Care Nursing Facility, Washington who were asymptomatically infected, 10 started developing symptoms after seven days.28, 29

The estimated Rt  of COVID-19 outbreak in India from 2nd March to 24th March 2020 is shown in Figure 3. Due to zero newly reported cases on 6th March 2020, Rt  of zero is observed. A high Rt  of 7.54 and 8.86 are also observed on the 6th and 17th days due to the exceptionally high reported cases those two days. Further projected the estimated COVID-19 cases in India until September by taking into account intervention methods such as lockdown, awareness programs, proper hand sanitization, etc 28. It is observed that the stronger the intervention, the sooner the pandemic will be brought under control, Figure 3.

A semi-mechanistic Bayesian hierarchical model was used in 30 to infer the impact of interventions across 11 countries in Europe, under the assumption that the changes in Rt are an immediate response to the effectiveness of interventions. To take into account the time lag between infection and death, the model estimates the changes in Rby computing backwards from the deaths observed over time to estimate the transmissions that happened a few weeks prior. Besides, it is assumed that each type of intervention method will have the same effect on Rt  overall countries, indicating that the results are strongly affected by the timing of intervention. In the infection model, the true number of infected individuals, c, is modelled using the widely used discrete renewal process.11, 31 The serial interval distribution was modelled using gamma distribution of g~Gamma(6.5, 0.62) , which is the time between when a person gets infected and the person infecting a second person.30,31 The serial interval is assumed to be the same for all countries. A piecewise constant function that scales Rt,m  from a baseline prior R0,m  and is driven by six different interventions, is k, detailed as in Table 3.

The indicator variable for intervention is denoted by Ik,t,m , which will be one if intervention k  has been implemented in country m  at time t , and 0 otherwise. The Rt in-country m at time t  is then computed by Eq. (6), where α  is a parameter used to characterize Rt,m  with a chosen independent prior distributions of αk~Gamma (0.5, 1) :

The R0,m is chosen to be R0~Normal(2.4, k), where k~Normal (0, 0.5) . Computed Rt  for all 11 countries is then plotted, alongside the timeline of different intervention measures, giving a clear visualization of the impact of intervention methods. An example of the impact of intervention on Rt  in Austria is illustrated in Figure 4. After undergoing sensitivity analysis, it is concluded that the choices of prior distribution do not affect the results from the main analysis. From Figure 4, it is apparent that Rt  in Austria drops each time an intervention measure is implemented.32 On 16th March 2020, the Rt  dropped drastically due to the implementation of 3 interventions on the same day, Figure 4.



COVID-19 is still spreading rapidly across the entire globe, and the soonest production of vaccines is expected to be early 2021, but it is estimated that it will take up to five years to be developed. It is important to continue monitoring the Rt  for different countries to completely understand the effect of the interventions and the potential need for other control measures. Based on the studies done in different countries to estimate Rt , there is no doubt that intervention measures such as social distancing can be carried out and is essential to keep the outbreak under control. Apart from that, by estimating the time to time Rt, countries that have successfully brought the spread of COVID-19 under control will be able to identify what interventions are the most effective, which can be used as a benchmark for other countries that are currently battling the disease. Once the vaccines are developed, it can also be identified by how fast the vaccine brings Rt  to below one.


The authors also wish to express gratitude to the management of Asia Pacific University of Technology & Innovation (APU) for their support.

Conflict of Interest

The authors involved in the current study does not declare any competing conflict of interest.

Funding and Sponsorship


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A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


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