International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, Google Scholar, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services)

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Full Html

IJCRR - 13(8), April, 2021

Pages: 157-161

Date of Publication: 25-Apr-2021

Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

Public Health Measures for Pertussis Immunization in Pregnancy- A Rationalized Study

Author: Sahoo PK, Sahoo G, Kar B, Kar D, Bhuyan R

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Introduction: Pertussis (Whooping Cough) is a serious disease having the highest incidence and severe, potentially life-threatening complication rates among young infants. Death due to pertussis occurs mostly in infants of < 3months of age. Unfortunately, infants are unable to build their protection until they get vaccinated at 6-8 weeks of birth. Thus they remain unprotected in the first months of life and during this time they are at the greatest risk of contracting the disease and falling very sick. On one hand, the babies don't have immunity of their own and on the other hand, they come in contact with individuals in the older age group whose immunity has decreased over time and get infected. Immunization strategy to a particular group such as infant caregivers and family members (Cocooning Strategy) achieved some success. Pertussis vaccination to pregnant ladies protects infants under the passive and active transplacental transfer of maternal antibodies giving protection to the infants till they build their immune system through vaccination. Studies demonstrate that acellular pertussis vaccination ensures safety both for mother and infant. The efficient transplacental transmission of maternal pertussis antibodies effectively prevents pertussis in young infants during the first months of life. Objective: A study reported higher pertussis antibody concentrations in the period between birth and administration of the first dose of vaccine in infants born to mothers immunized with Tdap vaccine during pregnancy. Besides Cocooning and neonatal immunization, vaccination of pregnant women offers hope to prevent the incidence of pertussis in infants of < 3 months of age. The best timing of pertussis vaccination in pregnancy is yet to be determined. Conclusion: The American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (ACOG) recommends administering the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) to pregnant women during each pregnancy in the 27-36 week gestational period or with at least 2 weeks before the expected date of delivery.

Keywords: Acellular pertussis vaccine (aP), Maternal immunization, Pertussis, GMC (Geometric Mean Concentration), Safety and immunogenicity, Serious adverse event (SAD), Tdap vaccine, Whole-cell pertussis vaccine (wP).

Full Text:


Globally pertussis (Whooping Cough) is acknowledged as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in young infants. A significant number of morbidity and mortality due to pertussis infection is noticed in infants of < 3 months of age.1 Despite being a vaccine-preventable disease and the existence of high coverage of effective immunization programmes, the disease continues to be one of the least controlled infections affecting all age groups and also a public health concern.2

As per the estimate of the World Health Organisation (WHO) 50 million cases and 30,000 deaths approximately occur throughout the world every year.2 The disease burden was reported to be the greatest in early infancy (among both unvaccinated and under-vaccinated infants) and teenagers.3-5 An estimated 5.1 million pertussis cases occurred globally in 2014 in infants resulting in 85,900 deaths. Low and middle-income countries having low vaccination coverage were worst affected with more than 80% of cases and 95% of deaths.5,6 Due to a less robust surveillance system, the true picture of disease burden in these countries is not estimated perfectly. However, despite> 95% vaccine coverage in resource-rich nations, pertussis is still a very poorly controlled vaccine-preventable disease.7-10

Pertussis, caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis, is endemic in all countries. Despite effective vaccination programmes and high vaccine coverage achievement, epidemic cycles do occur every 2-5 years (typically 3-4 years).11 The reported rate of pertussis incidence in early infancy ( below 3 months ) per 1 lakh infants was 235 in the USA in 2017, 1368 in Pakistan and 4800 in South Africa in 2016.4,5,12 Out of reported 15,662 cases in 2019 in the USA, 1202 cases occurred under 6 months of age and age incidence per 1 lakh cases was 62.5, the highest in all age groups.13 Incidence and death rates due to Pertussis Outbreaks which occurred in California and Canada in 2010, Washington State in 2012 and Italy in 2012 and 2014 were highest in early infancy.14 Death due to pertussis almost exclusively occur in infants below the age of 3 months and out of these 76% of deaths are in the age group of < 2 months.15,16

In India, during the year 1987, 2011 and 2017 the reported incidence of pertussis cases were 1,63,000,39,091 and 23,779 respectively. In 2017, states like MP, Jharkhand, Assam, UP, West Bengal and UT Dadra & Nagar Haveli reported the maximum cases and 6 deaths only.17 Due to under-reporting the actual number will be much more taking into consideration of low vaccination coverage with primary and booster doses of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT) vaccine in the country. The data on pertussis infection and disease are very much deficient in adolescents and adults. Actual Bordetella pertussis infection rates in the community, causing typical pertussis disease in infants and children, is not available.18


Bordetella pertussis is a tiny, fastidious Gram-negative coccobacillus and infects the ciliated epithelial cells of the respiratory tract in human beings. Adjusting to the environmental conditions the Bordetella species alter their phenotype and express virulence factors like pertussis toxin (PT), pertactin (PRN) filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), fimbriae (FIM) type 2 and type 3, lipooligosaccharide (LPS), adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) and tracheal cytotoxin (TCT). Though the pathogenesis of pertussis is not clear, FHA, PRN and FIM facilitate attachment to the epithelial cells and PT, TCT and ACT permit evasion of host immune factors destroying the epithelial cells.2

The available data suggest the evolution of strains with time with different isolates in the pre and post-vaccination era. Moderate changes have been detected in the genomic sequences of PT, FIM and PRN in the circulating strains2. Circulation of antigen-deficient isolates of PRN has been observed in areas where aP vaccine is used.19 However, to date there is no evidence of less effectiveness of vaccines against different B.pertussis allelic variants.2

Mode of transmission

Through droplets transmission, pertussis spreads from infected to healthy individuals. In its early catarrhal stage, the organism is very much contagious with a secondary attack rate of almost 90% in non-immune household contacts.12 Though infectivity diminishes rapidly after the catarrhal stage, the possibility of transmitting infection for 3 weeks or more, persists following the onset of typical coughing attacks. Adolescents and adults are the remarkable sources of transmission to unvaccinated young infant contacts. In a systematic review of the identified source of infection in infants below the age of 6 months, it was observed that the contacts in the family contributed 74%-96% of cases.20 The pooled analysis demonstrated that out of the household contact cases, 39% (95%, CI: 33%-45%) were mothers, 16% (95%, CI: 12%-21%) were fathers and 5% (95%, CI: 2%-10%) were grandparents.2

Acellular Pertussis Vaccine

The use of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine caused a decline in morbidity and mortality of pertussis. Public anxiety regarding the safety of wP vaccines and increased concerns on the frequently encountered local side-effects forced the researchers to develop acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines in Japan in 1981. Later in 1986, the vaccine was licensed in the US and at present is in use in developed countries.21 wP vaccines were replaced by vaccines due to the added advantage of significant lesser side-effects. The reproducible production process, use of purified antigens and removal of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and other parts of the bacterial cell wall during purification of soluble antigenic material, is another significant added advantage. These vaccines contain one or more of the separately purified antigens like pertussis toxin (PT), pertactin (PTN), fimbrial hemagglutinins 2 and 3 (FIM type 2 and type 3), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA). Vaccines differ from one another both in the number and quantity of antigen components and the bacterial clone used for primary antigen production, purification and detoxification methods, incorporated adjuvants and the use of preservatives like thiomersal.2 The efficacy and duration of protection offered by Tdap vaccines are similar to that of whole-cell vaccines.18

Evolution of pertussis vaccination in pregnancy

Most of the morbidity and mortality, on account of pertussis disease, occurs in infants below the age of 3months1. Vaccination of neonates with pertussis vaccine starts at 2 months of age when 1st dose of DTaP/DTwP vaccination is initiated, the earliest possible vaccination being at 6 weeks of age in developing countries.22 Thus a window of significant vulnerability to contract infections from family members and care givers does exist. 19-23 The infant would be protected against pertussis infection during the first months of life through the effective transplacental transmission of maternal antibodies against pertussis disease. Ordinarily, these transplacentally acquired antibodies are detected at least up to 6-8 weeks of birth when the 1st dose of immunization is usually started but the antibody concentration required to protect against pertussis infection is not known.18 Cocooning approach to vaccinating previously unimmunised family members, caregivers and women in the postpartum period with Tdap vaccine to provide a protective cocoon of immunity around the neonate was initiated following the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations in 2006.24, 25  However, the cocooning approach with high coverage which requires multiple doses for parents and family members as a minimum proved challenging and was not cost effective.2 Studies demonstrate the inherent limitations in adopting the cocooning approach as a stand-alone prevention strategy against pertussis in infants. However, it is still a recommended component in the multi-prong strategy to lessen pertussis disease burden.25 To provide protection both for the mother and the neonate during the earliest weeks of life, in June 2011, the ACIP recommended administering a dose of Tdap to all pregnant women after 20 weeks of gestation.26 ACIP, again in 2013, issued its updated recommendation that irrespective of prior history of vaccination with Tdap vaccine, one dose of Tdap vaccine must be administered during each pregnancy, the timing being between 27-36 weeks of gestation. However, maternal immunization may safely be executed at any time during pregnancy, if the situation warrants conditions like wound management, pertussis outbreaks or other life-threatening circumstances where the protection requirement supersedes the benefit of immunization during 27-36 weeks of gestation.27 From 2013, other reported evidence suggest in favour of Tdap vaccination during the later part of the second or early part of the third trimester with at least 2 weeks gap between vaccination and delivery.28

The rationale of pertussis vaccination in pregnancy

Definite evidence exists regarding the effectiveness of maternal pertussis immunization in reducing infection in infants in first few months after birth, the most vulnerable high risk period of pertussis morbidity and mortality. First, maternal immunization is recognized as an ideal dual strategy offering direct protection of the infant through maternal antibody induction and transplacental transfer to infants for protection from birth in one hand and indirect infant protection through prevention of infection and transmission of maternal infection on the other. Second, theoretically Tdap, being an inactivated vaccine can pose no concern on safety in pregnant ladies. Third, pertussis is not identified to create more morbidity in women during pregnancy. So Tdap can be administered in the later part of pregnancy thus avoiding concerns regarding interference with fetal development or associated pregnancy loss, much common in the 1st trimester. Another added advantage of vaccination towards the later part of pregnancy is that maternal antibodies are highest due to highly efficient placental transport from approximately 34 weeks of gestation. Theoretically, this timing optimizes maternally derived antibodies level in neonate for more sustained protection. Fourth, Tdap induces the production of maternal antibodies of the immunoglobulin G1 subclass which in turn are transported transplacentally both actively and passively to the neonate. Fifth, these antibodies are required to persist for a short period only in the neonate for protection against fatal and severe infant disease till the first dose of the primary series vaccination is administered and the infant builds his immune system.29 Sixth, in situations where maternal immunization is not fully protective, infants born to Tdap vaccinated pregnant women demonstrated significantly less morbidity, including risk of hospital and intensive care unit admission if they suffer from pertussis.27

Vaccination safety in pregnancy

Several studies regarding the safety and immunogenicity of vaccines in different age groups have established better tolerance and lower adverse event rate than wP vaccines. Studies conducted on Tdap vaccination in pregnancy did not reveal increased adverse events in any form including pregnancy loss or poor neonatal outcome.29 In 2011, the US adopted to vaccinate Tdap unvaccinated pregnant women, with Tdap vaccine irrespective of the interval from prior tetanus toxoid containing vaccine administration.31 Later this was updated to administer Tdap during the third trimester of every pregnancy.27 After a pertussis epidemic, causing several infant casualties, the United Kingdom adopted Tdap vaccination in pregnancy in 2012 and other countries followed later.29

Since the original US recommendation of 2011, several studies reported on the evaluation of Tdap maternal immunization safety. Munoz FM et al. in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, demonstrated no Tdap-associated serious adverse events in mothers and infants.30-32 A similar predominantly short-lived post-vaccination adverse event was reported in 52 women who received Tdap and 51 women who received TT during pregnancy in a randomized control study in Vietnam by Hoang HT et al. without any occurrence of Tdap-associated SAE.33-36 In an observational cohort study. Donegan et al reported no evidence of increased risk of early or late stillbirth in Tdap vaccinated pregnant women after vaccination.34 Concomitant administration of influenza vaccination with Tdap in pregnancy did not result in the increased incidence of adverse events or untoward birth outcome.35 Tdap being a combination vaccine with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, concern arose that frequent use of TT may cause adverse events. However, Sukumaran et al. In a retrospective cohort study did not find any significant differences in rates of adverse events or poor birth outcomes.36

The immune response following immunization

The Us Phase 1-2 study demonstrated that Tdap immunization was immunogenically resulting in 5.6-fold greater GMC of pertussis toxin (PT) antibodies both in mothers and infants at birth with pregnant ladies, vaccinated with Tdap during pregnancy than those who did not receive the vaccine.33 In another cohort study, infant cord samples at delivery taken from 312 women, vaccinated with Tdap during 3rd trimester of pregnancy as per the required norm, reported GMC to PT to be 47.3 IU/ml whereas in 314 women without Tdap vaccination in pregnancy it was 12.93 IU/ml only (P<0.001).37

The possibility of vaccination to pregnant women interfering with the induction of antibody production in infants after their primary immunization is a factor of concern. However, the up to date available critical evaluation of the immunological data suggests that induction of high antibodies in infants at delivery for sustenance through the critical first months of life is of paramount benefit in the prevention of mortality due to pertussis in infants rather than possible mild interference with infant immune response that can be taken care of by booster immunization after 12 months of age.38

Effectiveness of maternal immunization in preventing pertussis in infants

Two studies conducted recently in United Kingdom provide clear cut evidence regarding pertussis vaccination to pregnant women protecting infants at very young age. Amirthalingam et al demonstrated that vaccine effectiveness was 91% (95% CL 84% to 95%) in preventing pertussis in infants below the age of three months in case the pregnant woman received vaccination at least 7 days prior to delivery.39 Dabrera et al. also found similar results in a case control study of infants with pertussis in England and Wales.40


In spite of various strategies, pertussis still remains a public health concern and is a significant life-threatening problem for young infants infected with pertussis. Vaccinating pregnant women is most likely the best cost-effective strategy for disease prevention in infants, too young to be immunized. Probably it is more effective and favourable than cocooning which may have some impact in preventing disease in particular settings to achieve significant coverage in a phased and timely manner. Although the optimal timing of maternal immunization is still debatable (there is a lack of consensus for the vaccination timing in pregnancy) and whether the observed immune interference in infants (correlation between the presence of antibodies and immunity to pertussis) has any clinical relevance, this strategy has shown safety, immunogenicity and effectiveness in preventing disease in young infants in countries using aP vaccine. 41 The benefit of this strategy needs to be further evaluated in women, receiving primary vaccination with aP vaccine in childhood and also, evaluation should be carried out in resource-poor countries where wP vaccine is used in National immunization schedule. It is desired that efforts should continue to optimize pertussis vaccine uptake by pregnant women. ACOG advises obstetrician-gynaecologists and obstetric caregivers to strongly recommend Tdap vaccination to all pregnant women in each pregnancy between 27-36 weeks of gestational age. Along with other strategies the development of a robust maternal pertussis vaccination program can eradicate infant pertussis-associated deaths globally.

Conflict of interest: Nil

Financial support: Nil

Author Contribution:

Prasanna Kumar Sahoo, Gangadhar Sahoo and Ruchi Bhuyan conceived, planned, designed the manuscript. Prasanna Kumar Sahoo drafted the manuscript. Bhagirathi Kar and Dattatarey kar collected the materials, edited and revised the manuscript.


  1. Van Rie A, Wendelboe AM, Englund JA. Role of maternal pertussis antibodies in infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005;24(5): S62-5.

  2. World Health Organization. Pertussis vaccines: WHO position paper—August 2015. Weekly Epidemiological Record. Revel Epidém Hebd 2015;90(35):433-58.

  3. Smith BM. Determining sequence types of circulating Bordetella pertussis strains isolated from South African infants (Doctoral dissertation).

  4. Masseria C, Martin CK, Krishnarajah G, Becker LK, Buikema A, Tan TQ. Incidence and burden of pertussis among infants less than 1 year of age. Pedia Infect Dis J 2017;36(3): e54.

  5. Omer SB, Kazi AM, Bednarczyk RA, Allen KE, Quinn CP, Aziz F, et al. Epidemiology of pertussis among young Pakistani infants: a community-based prospective surveillance study. Clinic Infect Dis. 2016;63(4):S148-53.

  6. Worz C, Martin CM, Travis C. Vaccines for Older Adults. Consult Pharm 2017;32(9):6-13.

  7. Cherry JD. Epidemic pertussis in 2012-the resurgence of a vaccine-preventable disease. N Engl J Med 2012; 367(9):785-7.

  8. Chiappini E, Stival A, Galli L, De Martino M. Pertussis re-emergence in the post-vaccination era. Bri Med Con Infect Dis. 2013; 13(1): 1-2.

  9. Guiso N, von König CH, Forsyth K, Tan T, Plotkin SA. The Global Pertussis Initiative: report from a round table meeting to discuss the epidemiology and detection of pertussis. Vaccine 2011;29(6):1115-1121.

  10. Mooi FR, de Greeff SC. The case for maternal vaccination against pertussis. Lancet Infect Dis 2007; 7(9): 614-624.

  11. Edwards KM, Decker Md. Pertussis vaccines. In: Plotkin S, Orenstein W, Offit P. eds.Vaccines, 6th ed. Philadelphia, Saunders, 2013: 447-492.

  1. Gkentzi D, Katsakiori P, Marangos M, Hsia Y, Amirthalingam G, Heath PT, et al. Maternal vaccination against pertussis: a systematic review of the recent literature. Arch Dis Child-Fetal and Neonatal Edition. 2017; 102(5):F456-463.

  2. Tan T, Dalby T, Forsyth K, Halperin SA, Heininger U, Hozbor D, et al. Pertussis across the globe: recent epidemiologic trends from 2000 to 2013. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2015;34(9): e222-232.

  3. Chiappini E, Berti E, Sollai S, Orlandini E, Galli L, de Martino M. Dramatic pertussis resurgence in Tuscan infants in 2014. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2016; 35(8): 930-931.

  4. National Vaccine Advisory Committee. The National Vaccine Advisory Committee: Reducing patient and provider barriers to maternal immunizations. Pub Health Rep 2015:10-42.

  5.  IAP Guidebook on Immunization 2018-19 by Advisory  Committee on Vaccines & Immunization Practices (ACVIP), 3rd edition;134.

  6. Vashishtha VM, Bansal CP, Gupta SG. Pertussis vaccines: position paper of Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP). Ind Pediatr 2013;50(11):1001-1009.

  7.  Hegrle N, Guiso N. Bordetella pertussis and pertactin-deficient clinical isolates: lessons for pertussis vaccines. Expert Rev Vacc 2014;13(9):1135.

  8.  Wiley KE, Zuo Y, Macartney KK, McIntyre PB. Sources of pertussis infection in young infants: a review of key evidence informing targeting of the cocoon strategy. Vaccines 2013; 31(4): 618-625.

  9.  IAP Guidebook on Immunization 2018-19 by Advisory Committee on Vaccines & Immunization Practices (ACVIP), 3rd edition; p-137.

  10.  Robinson CL, Romero JR, Kempe A, Pellegrini C, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended immunization schedule for children and adolescents aged 18 years or younger—United States, 2017. MMWR. Morb Morta Weekly Rept. 2017; 66(5):134.

  11.  Bisgard KM, Pascual FB, Ehresmann KR, Miller CA, Cianfrini C, Jennings CE, Rebmann CA, Gabel J, Schauer SL, Lett SM. Infant pertussis: who was the source? Pediatr Infect Dis J 2004;23(11):985-989.

  12. Skoff TH, Kenyon C, Cocoros N, Liko J, Miller L, Kudish K, Baumbach J, Zansky S, Faulkner A, Martin SW. Sources of infant pertussis infection in the United States. Pediatrics 2015; 136(4): 635-641.

  13.  Murphy TV, Slade BA, Broder KR, Kretsinger K, Tiwari T, Joyce MP, Iskander JK, Brown K, Moran JS. Prevention of pertussis, tetanus, and diphtheria among pregnant and postpartum women and their infants. Morbidity  Mortal Week Rep 2008;57:1-51.

  14. Healy CM, Baker CJ. Infant pertussis: what to do next? Clin Infect Dis 2012; 54(3):328-330.

  15. Canters for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Updated recommendations for use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) in pregnant women and persons who have or anticipate having close contact with an infant aged. MMWR. Morbidity  Mortal Week Rep 2011; 60(41): 1424-1426.

  16.  Updated recommendation for use of tetanus toxoid,reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) in pregnant women-Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Morbidity Mortal Week Rep. 2013; 62: 131-135.

  17.  Update on Immunization and Pregnancy: Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis Vaccination. Committee on Obstetric Practice and Immunization and Emerging Infections Expert Group, No. 718, September 2017,>articles>2017/19.

  18. Tessier E, Campbell H, Ribeiro S, Fry NK, Brown C, Stowe J, et al. Impact of extending the timing of maternal pertussis vaccination on hospitalized infant pertussis in England, 2014-2018. Clin Infect Dis. 2020: doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa836.

  19. Winter K, Cherry JD, Harriman K. Effectiveness of prenatal tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination on pertussis severity in infants. Clin Infect Dis. 2016; 64(1): 9-14.

  20.  Sawyer M, Liang JL, Messonnier N, Clark TA. Updated recommendations for use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) in pregnant women—Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Morbid Mortal Week Rep 2013; 62(7): 131.

  21. Hoang HT, Leuridan E, Maertens K, Nguyen TD, Hens N, Vu NH, et al. Pertussis vaccination during pregnancy in Vietnam: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Vaccine 2016;34:151-159.

  22.  Donegan K, King B, Bryan P. Safety of pertussis vaccination in pregnant women in UK: observational study. Br Med J 2014;349:4219

  23. Sukumaran L, McCarthy NL, Kharbanda EO, McNeil MM, Naleway AL, Klein NP, et al. Association of Tdap vaccination with acute events and adverse birth outcomes among pregnant women with prior tetanus-containing immunizations. J Am Med Assoc 2015;314(15):1581-1587.

  24.  Healy CM, Swaim L, Rench M, Harrison M, Martin M, Baker CJ. Third-Trimester Tdap Immunization Elicits Substantial Pertussis Toxin Immunoglobulin G in Neonates. In Open Forum Infectious Diseases 2015 Dec 1 (Vol. 2, No. suppl_1). Oxford University Press.

  25. Cherry JD. Editorial commentary: the effect of Tdap vaccination of pregnant women on the subsequent antibody responses of their infants. Clin Infect Dis 2015;61(11):1645-1647.

  26.  Amirthalingam G, Andrews N, Campbell H, Ribeiro S, Kara E, Donegan K, et al. Effectiveness of maternal pertussis vaccination in England: an observational study. Lancet 2014;384(9953):1521-1528.

  27.  Dabrera G, Amirthalingam G, Andrews N, Campbell H, Ribeiro S, Kara E, et al. A case-control study to estimate the effectiveness of maternal pertussis vaccination in protecting newborn infants in England and Wales, 2012–2013. Clin Infect Dis 2015;60(3):333-337.

  28.  Eberhardt CS, Blanchard-Rohner G, Lemaître B, Boukrid M, Combescure C, Othenin-Girard V, et al. Maternal immunization earlier in pregnancy maximizes antibody transfer and expected infant seropositivity against pertussis. Clin Infect Dis 2016; 62(7): 829-836.

  29. van den Biggelaar AH, Poolman JT. Predicting future trends in the burden of pertussis in the 21st century: implications for infant pertussis and the success of maternal immunization. Expert Rev Vacc 2016;15(1):69-80.


Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021

Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A study by Dorothy Ebere Adimora et al. entitled \"Remediation for Effects of Domestic Violence on Psychological well-being, Depression and Suicide among Women During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-cultural Study of Nigeria and Spain\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 23
A study by Muhas C. et al. entitled \"Study on Knowledge & Awareness About Pharmacovigilance Among Pharmacists in South India\" is awarded Best article for Vol 14 issue 22
A study by Saurabh Suvidha entitled \"A Case of Mucoid Degeneration of Uterine Fibroid with Hydrosalphinx and Ovarian Cyst\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 21
A study by Alice Alice entitled \"Strengthening of Human Milk Banking across South Asian Countries: A Next Step Forward\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 20
A study by Sathyanarayanan AR et al. entitled \"The on-task Attention of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder-An Eye Tracker Study Using Auticare\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 19
A study by Gupta P. et al. entitled \"A Short Review on \"A Novel Approach in Fast Dissolving Film & their Evaluation Studies\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 18.
A study by Shafaque M. et al. entitled \"A Case-Control Study Performed in Karachi on Inflammatory Markers by Ciprofloxacin and CoAmoxicillin in Patients with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 17
A study by Ali Nawaz et al. entitled \"A Comparative Study of Tubeless versus Standard Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) \? A Randomized Controlled Study\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 16.
A study by Singh R. et al. entitled \"A Prospective Study to Find the Association of Astigmatism in Patients of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in a Tertiary Health Care Centre in India (Vindhya Region MP)\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 15
A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in

Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: To achieve a high standard of publication, we adopt Good Publishing Practices (updated in 2022) which are inspired by guidelines provided by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

Copyright © 2024 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions