International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 13 Issue 07, April, 2021

Pages: 86-96

Date of Publication: 12-Apr-2021

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Micro-Algal Diet for Copepod Culture with Reference to Their Nutritive Value \? A Review

Author: Altaff K, Vijayaraj R

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Cultured copepods have been successfully used in the larviculture of various finfish larvae. Over the past few years, there have been several research articles published on copepod culture to cater to the needs of aqua hatcheries and discussed the important role of copepods as suitable feeds for marine finfish larviculture. However, the upscaling of copepod cultures to the commercial level is still a challenge. In this regard, the present review is focused on the culture of copepod utilizing various micro-algal diets with single or in combination with multiple species, and evaluation of nutritional importance of copepods for finfish larviculture. Therefore, the review article paves the way to improve the nutrition in copepod culture through ideal micro-algae andutilization in aqua hatcheries for better results in terms of larval performance in finfish larval rearing.

Keywords: Copepods, Micro-algae, Larviculture, Aquaculture, Nutrients, Finfish

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Hatchery rearing of commercially important finfish and shellfish larvae is important for successful farming of these species and live feed plays a vital role in this regard.1-3Live feeds are phytoplankton and zooplankton. They constitute the main component of the diet for finfish and shellfish larvae especially marine finfish. They are referred to as living capsules of nutrition because they contain essential nutrients such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, amino acids and fatty acids.4In marine aquaculture, the use of live feed can’t replace by formulated diets in some cases. Artemia nauplii and rotifers (Brachionus plications) are still the most commonly used live feed. A good alternative is the use of copepods for rearing finfish larvae with small Gabe which could lead to the cultivation of new finfish species.5,6 Based on the above rationale, the present review article discusses the utilization of a micro-algae diet for copepods larviculture. Most research on copepods have focused on their nutrition, reproduction or physiological aspects, and culture techniques using micro-algae culture have primarily been developed at the laboratory scale.

Need for alternative live feeds

Past few decades, the marine hatcheries are largely dependent on the production of rotifers and brine shrimp as they could be cultured successfully and offered as traditional live feeds for fish and crustacean larvae.7-10 Rotifers are relatively easy to culture and can rapidly achieve high culture densities.11 Artemia can be obtained commercially in the form of dry cysts and their nauplii exhibit a good tolerance to culture conditions and handling.12 Research focusing on the identification of alternative feed sources that overcome the inadequacies of traditional rotifer and Artemia live feeds is critical to increase the variety and survival of species that can be successfully cultivated, and ultimately enhance the growth, sustainability and economic performance of the aquaculture industry.13-16 Copepods appear to be the most valuable candidate for this role as they are the most important natural prey for a vast majority of marine finfish larvae16-19 and their inclusion as live prey in larviculture may increase the number of fish species that can be successfully reared. Table 1 summarize the size range and main nutritional characteristics of copepods compared to the rotifers and Artemialive feed. Copepod nauplii are generally smaller than the smallest strain of rotifers and Artemia nauplii, and higher levels of the major nutrient also indicated when compared to enriched rotifers and Artemia nauplii.20-23

For the past three decades, there has been continuing interest in the development of mass culture techniques for copepods to be used as live food in aquaculture.3,7 Copepods are the most common metazoans in the marine environment, with approximately 11,500 described species. Unlike traditional live feed, copepod nutritional profiles are rich in essential fatty acids, free amino acids and other essential micronutrients.13 Moreover, the small size of copepod nauplii is vital for the first larval feeding of various fish species (Table 2).

The copepod cultivation methods establishment with cost-effective protocols for mass production is still a challenge. Copepods have mostly been used at a pilot-scale or in locations where the abundant collection of natural zooplankton is possible. Still, the use of copepods as live feeds for marine fish larvae has generally led to considerably better results in terms of larval performance and quality, when compared with rotifers and Artemia nauplii.9The copepod nauplii may be produced in the rearing tanks or separate tanks and ponds. It has also been proposed that mass production of copepod resting eggs could facilitate the availability of copepod nauplii for aquaculture. However, research is needed on storage conditions of resting eggs concerning the survival and nutritional value of nauplii.18,36-38

Utilization of micro-algal diet for copepods larviculture

In aquaculture, micro-algae are used as a direct food source for various filter-feeding larval stages of organisms. They are also used as an indirect food source, in the production of copepod culture which in turn is used as food for the carnivorous larvae of many of the marine finfish species presently farmed.39-41 The intensive rearing of bivalves has so far relied on the production of live micro-algae, which comprises on average 30% of the operating costs in a bivalve hatchery. For culture of marine finfish larvae according to the green water technique the micro-algae are used directly in the larval tanks.42This technique is nowadays a normal procedure in marine larviculture. It has been widely reported to improve fish larval growth, survival and feed ingestion which showed that micro-algae seemed to provide nutrients directly to the larvae that contribute to nutritional quality as it plays an important role in the microflora diversification of both the tank and the larval gut.22 Whenever micro-algae are used as a direct food source or indirect food source in the production of copepods, the growth of the animals is usually superior when a mixture of several microalgal species is used. The micro-algae diets of copepods culture are listed in Table 2.

Nutritional importance of micro-algae

Increasing the needs for protein and the high cost of fish meal in recent years has led to the search for new alternatives, as animal and plant sources of protein for sustainable aquaculture.42 One such accessible and relatively inexpensive food component that could respond successfully to the challenging question raised by aquaculture is algae. Cultivation of microalgae is mandatory in hatchery as it is a basic and nutritious diet for live feed organisms, specifically the zooplankton.91 However, factors such as manpower requirement, infrastructure facilities and other related costs involved in the high-density culture escalate the price of the production. For the cost-effective production of micro-algae, new approaches have to be adopted with an improvised culture environment. Micro-algal species can vary significantly in their nutritional value, and this may also change under different cultural conditions.92,93

 In the laboratory-scale production of micro-algae, light plays a fundamental role in the development of microalgae through photosynthesis.94,95 It is one of the major environmental factors which control the performance of micro-algae through phototrophic growth and productivity. However, the extreme light intensity may result in photoinhibition which reduces the photosynthetic rates and growth. In the indoor culture based on the light-dark cycle periodicity duration of L D 12: 12 illumination, it could be modified to 14:10 L D or a maximum of 16:8 LD for optimizing photosynthesis of micro-algae For some microalgae and diatoms it has been reported that changes in the frequency of light-dark cycle enhance exponentially rate of photosynthesis. Some aquaculture hatcheries adopt a longer dark period compared to the light period for enhancing photosynthetic competence.96-99

 Many algae have been found to contain good nutritional properties. Several factors can contribute to the nutritional value of a micro-alga, which include their size and shape, digestibility, biochemical composition, nutrients profile and enzymes. These factors satisfy the nutritional requirements of the larvae feeding on the algae. Many studies have attempted to correlate the nutritional value of micro-algae with their biochemical and nutritional profile.100-101 In the primary growth phase of the micro-algae, they contain 30 to 40% protein, 10 to 20% lipid and 5 to 15% carbohydrate51 and the high dietary protein provided the best growth for Oithona davisae.102 The major nutritional composition (Carbohydrates, Protein and Lipid) of some commercially important micro-algal species is comparable with the available feed ingredients which are used in the aquafeed.

For the supply of sufficient nutrient for primary and secondary consumers, micro-algae should have the nutrient profile of protein (6–52%), carbohydrate (5–23%) and lipid (7–23%). Most microalgal species have a similar amino acid composition with enriched essential amino acids and high concentrations of ascorbic acid (1–16 mg g−1 dry weight) and riboflavin (20–40 μg g−1).103 Further high percentage of nutrient contents, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids were recorded in common micro-algae.104-109 Microalgal protein could be a plausible alternative to fishmeal protein because of its desired quality and amino acid profiles comparable with that of other reference protein sources.109 There are several studies on the utilization of biomass of Arthrospira sp.110, Chlorella sp.111 Scenedesmus sp.112 Nanofrustulum sp.113 and Tetraselmissuecica 114as valuable supplementary protein sources.

Lipids have a role as high energy storage molecules. Oil content in micro-algae can exceed 60% by weight of dry biomass, while levels of 20 to 50% are common. PUFAs derived from micro-algae such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are known to be essential bioactive molecules for various larval cultures.115  Dunstan et al.,116 reported the most micro-algal species to have moderate to high percentages of EPA (7 to 34%) as in the case of major micro-algae species such as Pavlova spp. and Isochrysis sp. A high amount of DHA (0.2 to 11%) is present inNannochloropsis spp. and diatoms consisting of the highest percentages of AA (4%).

Vitamins are essential micronutrients and their content can vary in different micro-algae. Brown and Miller117 reported that ascorbic acid shows the greatest variation (1 to 16 mg g-1) in different micro-algae. The β-carotene content ranged from 0.5 to 1.1 mg g-1. The vitamin B complex is rich in micro-algae and amount of different compounds of this vitamin showed variation in their levels (thiamin 29 to 109 μg g-1; riboflavin 25 to 50 μg g-1; niacin (0.11 to 0.47 mg g-1; pantothenic acid 14 to 38 μg g-1; pyridoxine 3.6 to 17 μg g-1; biotin 1.1 to 1.9 μg g-1; folates 17 to 24 μg g-1; cobalamin 1.8 to 7.4 μg g-1).  The α-tocopherol content of micro-algae ranged between 0.07 and 0.29 mg g-1.

Nutritional importance of copepods

Copepods can consume different unicellular micro-algae and also capable of feeding on filamentous algae which might provide all necessary nutrients. Several studies have demonstrated correlations between zooplankton productions and some amino acids and fatty acids content in dietary algae.118 The free-living copepod nauplii more particularly those of harpacticoid are highly suitable starter feed for marine finfish larvae due to their small size and nutritive value. The larvae of dolphinfish(Coryphaenahippurus) fed with harpacticoid copepod (Euterpinaacutifrons) nauplii showed desirable growth, survival and biochemical profile in the hatchery rearing. The mass culture system using micro-algae for the production of benthic marine harpacticoid copepod described by Sun and Fleeger could be an ideal starter feed for rearing larvae of many marine finfish with small mouth size.119

The high content of lipid is reported from many marine copepods and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and the saturated fatty acid (16:0) constituted predominant fatty acids. In Temoralongicornis andEurytemora sp. total lipid content reported between 7% and 14% of the dry weight of which DHA accounted 26- 42%, EPA 15-24% and Palmitic acid (16:0) 8-12%. Comparable lipid content of DHA, EPA and Palmiticacid ranging between 21% and 32.5%,15- 21% and 9-15% of total fatty acids, respectively is also reported from another calanoid copepod, Calanus finmarchicus.7

The calanoid copepods especially Acartiatonsa are a rich source of essential highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid.32 The fatty acid composition of Acartiatonsacontain high amount of monounsaturated fatty acid (411 mg g−1), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (360 mg g−1). A large amount of DHA and EPA (170 and 96 mg g−1, respectively) reported in this species.120 Several marine copepods have a high content of both docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (60% of total fatty acids).7 Also, the copepods are natural sources of the antioxidant, astaxanthin and vitamins C and E.32 The powerful antioxidants found in copepods can protect the HUFA’s against peroxidation and are also considered beneficial to the health of fish larvae.69 An exogenous supply of free amino acids (FAA) is necessary to support growth and survival in first feeding finfish larvae.121 Copepods contain higher levels of free amino acids when compared to rotifers and Artemia nauplii.32 Copepods generally contain more vitamins and trace minerals than traditional live feeds.122 Copepods are rich in vitamin E and ascorbic acid, suggesting a high antioxidative capacity and making them particularly suitable for larvae with potential for high growth rates.32 Furthermore, copepods are rich in pigment content, particularly astaxanthin, which may be an important source of retinoids for larval fish.32 A copepod diet has been reported to promote correct pigmentation in Atlantic halibut larvae, with 55% of the copepod fed larvae exhibiting correct pigmentation of the ocular and blindsides as compared to only 13% in those fed Artemia nauplii.123 Thus it is generally accepted that many copepods are the valuable nutrient source of live feed for marine larval finfish rearing. With varying food and feeding habits and reproductive strategies among even in closely related copepod species it necessary to venture in to establish their mass production protocols.  Further such research is needed to identify the copepod species which matches nutritionally and in size spectrum with the requirement of specific marine finfish larval rearing.


This review reveals the importance of micro-algal for the culture of copepods, nevertheless, such studies are mostly of small scale level and to reach cost-effective commercial-scale production, attempts should have made to enumerating new species for mass production. They have to be mass cultured with the knowledge of their reproductive potentials and reproductive strategies. Considering copepod suitability for successful rearing of many finfish larvae further research is urgently needed to assess the culture potential of more candidate copepods as prey for the rearing of early stages of marine finfish larvae which in turn might greatly benefit the mariculture industry.


            The authors express their gratitude to the Management of AMET University for providing research facilities to carry out this work. The authors are thankful to the Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India for funding a project (BT/PR30019/AAQ/3/929/2018) for Copepod culture studies. The authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references to this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors/editors/publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

Author Contributions

            All the authors contributed equally for this reviewwork.

Conflict of interest

            The authors have no conflict of interest.


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  67. Abolghasem EF, Majid S, Naser A, Hossein O, Shima MA. Laboratory culture of the Caspian Sea calanoid copepod Acartiaclausi(Giesbrecht, 1889) at different salinity levelsWorld J Fish Marine Sci 2011;3(6): 590-599.

  68.  Lauer MM, Bianchini A. Chronic copper toxicity in the estuarine copepod Acartiatonsa at different salinities. J Environ Chem Ecotoxicol 2010; 29(10):2297-2303.

  69. Leandro SM, Queiroga H, Rodríguez-Graña L, Tiselius P. Temperature-dependent development and somatic growth in two allopatric populations of Acartiaclausi (Copepoda: Calanoida). Mar Ecol 2006;322:189-197.

  70. McConville K, Halsband C, Fileman ES, Somerfield PJ, Findlay HS, Spicer JI. Effects of elevated CO2 on the reproduction of two calanoid copepods. Mar Pollut Bull 2013; 73(2): 428-434.

  71. Milione M, Zeng C. The effects of algal diets on population growth and egg hatching success of the tropical calanoid copepod, Acartiasinjiensis. Aquaculture 2007; 273(4): 656-664.

  72. Puello-Cruz C, Mezo-Villalobos S, González-Rodríguez B, Voltolina D. Culture of the calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus euryhalinus (Johnson 1939) with different microalgal diets. Aquaculture 2009;290(4):317-319.

  73. Rajkumar M. Suitability of the copepod, Acartiaclausi as a live feed for Seabass larvae (Latescalcarifer Bloch): Compared to traditional live-food organisms with special emphasis on the nutritional value. Aquaculture 2006; 261(2), 649-658.

  74. Kâ S, Carotenuto Y, Romano G, Hwang JS, Buttino I, Ianora A. Impact of the diatom-derived polyunsaturated aldehyde 2-trans, 4-trans decadienal on the feeding, survivorship and reproductive success of the calanoid copepod Temorastylifera. Mar Environ Res 2014; 93: 31-37.

  75. Santhanam P, Perumal P. Effect of temperature, salinity and algal food concentration on population density, growth and survival of marine copepod Oithonarigida Giesbrecht. Indian J Mar Sci 2012; 41(4), 369-376.

  76. Santhanam P, Ananth S, Kumar SD, Sasirekha R, Premkumar C, Jeyanthi S, Devi AS. An Intensive Culture Techniques of Marine Copepod Oithonarigida (Dioithonarigida) Giesbrecht. Basic Appl Zooplankton Biol 2019;36:367-394.

  77. Ananth S, Santhanam P. Intensive Culture, Biochemical Composition Analysis, and Use of Zooplankton Tisbe sp.(Copepoda: Harpacticoida) as an Alternative Live Feed for Shrimp Larviculture. Basic Appl Zooplankton Biol 2019;36:329-362.

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  79. Teixeira PF, Kaminski SM, Avila TR, Cardozo AP, Bersano JG, Bianchini A. Diet influence on egg production of the copepod Acartiatonsa (Dana, 1896). Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 2010; 82(2): 333-339.

  80. Alajmi F, Zeng, C. Evaluation of microalgal diets for the intensive cultivation of the tropical calanoid copepod, Parvocalanuscrassirostris. Aquac Res 2015;46(5):1025-1038.

  81. Wendt I, Thor P. Influence of prey species and concentration on egg production efficiency and hatching success in Acartiatonsa Dana (Copepoda, Calanoida). Crustaceana 2015; 88(6): 675-687.

  82. Zhang J, Ianora A, Wu C, Pellegrini D, Esposito F, Buttino I. How to increase productivity of the copepod Acartiatonsa (Dana): effects of population density and food concentration. Aquac Res 2015; 46(12): 2982-2990.

  83. Drillet G, Iversen MH, Sørensen TF, Ramløv H, Lund T, Hansen BW. Effect of cold storage upon eggs of a calanoid copepod, Acartiatonsa(Dana) and their offspring. Aquaculture 2006; 254 (4): 714-729.

  84. Kaviyarasan M, Santhanam P, Ananth S, Kumar SD, Rao GH, Jayakumar, Kandan, S. Mass production and biochemical composition of marine copepod Pseudodiaptomus Annandalei.  Int J Appl Res 2019; 9(2): 41-51.

  85. Jayalakshmi T, Santhanam PA Microcosm Study on the Impact of Acidification on Feeding, Survival, Nauplii Production Rate, Post-embryonic Development and Nutritional Composition of Marine Basic Appl Zooplankton Biol 2019;36:395-428.

  86. Jothiraj K, Santhanam P. Optimisation of the Culture Conditions of Nannocalanus minor (Copepoda: Calanoida Basic Appl Zooplankton Biol 2019;36:225-246.

  87. Kim HJ, Yamade T, Iwasaki K, Marcial HS, Hagiwara A. Phototactic behavior of the marine harpacticoid copepod Tigriopusjaponicus related to developmental stages under various light conditions. J Exp Mar BiolEcol 2019; 518: 151183.

  88. Burbano MF, Torres GA, Prieto MJ, Gamboa JH, Chapman FA. Increased survival of larval spotted rose snapper Lutjanusguttatus (Steindachner, 1869) when fed with the copepod Cyclopina sp. and Artemia nauplii. Aquaculture 2020; 519: 734912.

  89. Mzozo ZB, Matcher GF, Vine NG. Aspects of the feeding biology of the copepod Pseudodiaptomus hessei (Copepoda: Calanoida) under culture conditions. Aquac Res 2019; 50(4): 1329-1337.

  90. Perumal S, Ananth S, Nandakumar R, Jayalakshmi T, Kaviyarasan M, Pachiappan P. Intensive indoor and outdoor pilot-scale culture of marine copepods. Aquaculture 2015; 33-42.

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  93. Wild KJ, Trautmann A, Katzenmeyer M, Steinga H, Posten C, Rodehutscord M. Chemical composition and nutritional characteristics for ruminants of the micro-algae Chlorella vulgaris obtained using different cultivation conditions. Algal Res 2019; 38: 101385.

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  101. Webb KL, Chu FE. Phytoplankton as a food source for bivalve larvae. In: G. D. Pruder, C. J. Langdon and D. E. Conklin (Editors), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Aquaculture Nutrition: Biochemical and Physiological Approaches to Shellfish Nutrition, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge 1983; 272–291.

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  104. Becker E. Micro-algae as a source of protein. Biotechnol Adv 2007; 25: 207–210.

  105. Tibbetts SM, Milley JE, Lall SP. Chemical composition and nutritional properties of freshwater and marine microalgal biomass cultured in photobioreactors. J Appl Phycol 2015; 27:1109–1119.

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  109. Tibbetts SM, Milley JE, Lall SP. Apparent protein and energy digestibility of common and alternative feed ingredients by Atlantic cod, Gadusmorhua (Linnaeus, 1758). Aquaculture 2006; 261: 1314–1327.

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  111. Shields RJ, Bell JG, Luizi FS, Gara B, Bromage NR, Sargent JR. Natural copepods are superior to enriched Artemia nauplii as feed for larvae (Hippoglossushippoglossus) in terms of survival, pigmentation and retinal morphology: relation to dietary essential fatty acids. J Nutr 1999; 129(6):1186–1194.

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Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

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SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021

Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: To achieve a high standard of publication, we adopt Good Publishing Practices (updated in 2022) which are inspired by guidelines provided by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


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