International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 08 Issue 04, February, 2016

Pages: 51-53

Date of Publication: 21-Feb-2016


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SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF MASTOID PROCESS IN DRIED SKULLS OF NORTH KARNATAKA POPULATION

Author: Rajendrakumar D. Virupaxi, Sanjay Kumar Yadav, Suresh P. Desai, Veereshkumar Shirol

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Objectives: Morphometric and morphological study of the bones play an important role in determination of sex, age and identification of an individual and skull is the second important tool to pelvis in this regard. Mastoid process is a dimorphic bone situated at the basolateral region of the skull and remains least damaged due to its position. This study was an attempt to evaluate the use of mastoid process in the determination of sex. Methodology: This cross sectional study was carried out in the settings of Department of Anatomy and Forensic Medicine at North Karnataka for the period of one year from July 2014 to June 2015. A total of 100 complete undamaged dried skulls of known sex were used for the study, (50 male and 50 female skulls). Length of the mastoid process on both sides was recorded using the Frankfurt's plane. Measurements were taken by using Vernier caliper. Results: The mean mastoid process length among males at right was 30.20 \? 2.64 mm and at left it was 30.70 \? 3.09 mm compared to 26.20 \? 2.57 mm in females at right and 26.20 \? 3.49 mm at left respectively. The difference observed was statistically significant (p< 0.001). Conclusion: The mastoid length in females is significantly less compared to males at right as well as left.

Keywords: Mastoid process, Mastoid process length, Skull, Sexual dimorphism

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION
Identification of an individual and sex is one of the important factors in many circumstances like, mutilated bodies, skeletal remains, wars, and suicide and homicide cases. In the living identification is easy as many characters, particular physique and traits are unique to the individuals. But in cases of fragmented and mutilated bodies it is very difficult to identify the individual. Study of skeleton using individual bones exhibiting sexual dimorphism has been reported among different populations.1 Determination of the sex of human or human skeletal remains is an important initial step in its identification.

This skillful process is carried out by forensic and anatomy experts. Anthropological knowledge of human skeleton is one of the important parameters in identification of this biological profile.2 The first indicator for the sex determination is the pelvic bones and pelvis which is more accurate than the skull bones.3 The above study also confirmed by Saini et al,4 in 2012. Several studies have shown that cranium is also an excellent indicator for sexual dimorphism by morphometric and morphological analysis. It is probably the second best region of the skeleton next to the pelvis for this purpose.5 Krogman states that skull is the most dimorphic and easily sexed portion of skeleton after pelvis, providing up to 92% reliability6 Bayers2 and Pickering and Bachman7 also presented that skull plays the second best role to estimate the sex of the dead body. The skull measurements vary significantly in different populations of the world.

The mastoid process of the skull plays a vital role in determination of the sex as it is the most dimorphic bone present at the baso-lateral region of the skull. It is least vulnerable in this position. The mastoid region is favorable for sex determination for two reasons, the compact nature of the petrous bone and its protected position in the skull. Even in old age it remains intact. Usually skull is heavier in males as compared to females. Same thing holds good to mastoid process also, i.e. larger in males than in females. But it is subjective and it cannot be relied. A number of research studies have done in western countries on these aspects. Nagaoka T method was employed by some experts using two parameters on both sides of skull i.e. height and width of the mastoid.8

Some researchers used the triangular area between the points porion, mastoidale and asterion, measured from xerographic copy of skulls.9 Very few works have been done on this in India especially in Northern Karnataka population. Considering this entire scenario an attempt is made to determine the sex by using the mastoid length in this area. In present study 100 adult human dried skulls (50 male and 50 female skulls) of North Karnataka population were studied to determine the sexual dimorphism of mastoid process. A quantitative blind study of the mastoid length was studied by using the Frankfurt’s plane.

MATERIALS AND METHODS This cross sectional study included 100 dried skulls of known sex, (50 male and 50 female skulls) taken from KLE University’s department of Anatomy and Forensic Medicine. Written permission was taken from the respective departments. Adult normal skulls without any damage were taken for the study. Deformed skulls were excluded from the study. All were native of North Karnataka Region. Frankfurt’s plane was chosen and marked on the skull.

This line starts from the infraorbital margin, and upper border of the external acoustic meatus. (Figure 1). From this line on the mastoid process a vertical length was measured up to the tip of the mastoid process.10 With the help of digital verneir caliper length of the mastoid process was taken from the upper border of the external auditory canal at the level of the Frankfurt’s plane to the tip of the mastoid process on both sides. Figure 2 shows the measurement of the length of the mastoid process.

Statistical methods The mastoid process length of skulls was expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD0 and median with range. The comparison of mean length was done using independent sample ‘t’ test. Probability value (p) of <0.050 was considered as statistically significant.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The results obtained from the observation showed that, the mean mastoid length in male was 30.2mm (Range- 25.2 to 36.65) with the standard deviation of 2.64 on right side. In female skulls the mean mastoid length was 26.2mm on the right side. (Range- 21.04 to 33.3).The standard deviation obtained was 3.57. (Table.No.1). Mastoid mean length is greater in males than in females which was significant (p value <.001). The male left side mastoid mean length showed 30.7mm (Range 24.02 to 36.7) with the standard deviation of 3.09. Whereas left side female mastoid mean length was 26.2 mm with the range of 21.03 to 33.30.

The standard deviation obtained was 3.49. (Table No. 1.).In left side also the sexual dimorphism was significant as the p value is <0.001. In males mean difference between Right and Left side is 0.49 with the standard deviation of 1.77. (Paired t=1.179). No significant mean difference found in both right and left side (p=0.053). In females mean difference between Right and Left side is0 .01with the standard deviation of 1.63 (Paired t=0.055). There was no significant mean difference found in Right and Left side (p=0.956). From the above study it showed that in male skulls the mastoid length was more as compared to females, p<0.001 which was significant. Applying Gausian distribution rule there was no significant mean length difference on right and left side mastoid length measurements. Hoshi H11. Studied the mastoid process length and divided the mastoid process into three categories viz, M, N and F types. Male, neutral and female categories. As the mastoid length is more in males as compared to females, skull lies on mastoid process in males and lies on occipital condyles in females when skulls are kept on flat surface.

Many studies have been conducted on mastoid length in western countries. In Caucasian population,12 the mean mastoid length was 28.06 mm in males and in females it was 25.10 mm. As compared to Negroes, mean length was less in Caucasians. In Nigroes male mastoid length was 30.32 mm whereas female mastoid length was 26.34mm. Our study is comparable to Negro population. Mastoid length measured by the use of points porion, mastoidale and asterion is the best method for the sexual dimorphism.13. Still mastoid length was used as the better predictor for the sexual dimorphism.14

Sumati and Puranik also computed that the sex determination by measuring the mastoid length in North Indian population.15 Same study also done in China by Song et al.16 and in India by Patil and Mody.17 In our study, it showed clearly that there was variation between male and female mastoid length. Statistically also it was proved that t-test and p values showed significant difference between male and female mastoid length i.e. p<.001. The present study supports the mastoid length as the tool for sex determination.

CONCLUSION Present study showed that mastoid length is less in females as compared to males which is also proved statically (p<.001). This shows that mastoid length is the reliable parameter for sexual dimorphism as our study supports other studies conducted worldwide and also in Indian population.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am very thankful to Shri M. D. Mallapur Professor Department of Community Medicine who helped me in stastical analysis of this study. I also thankful to Mr. Harinarayan and Mr. Shalik who helped me in taking photographs in this study.

References:

1. Bilge Y, Kedici PS, Alacoc YD, Ulkuer KU, Likyaz YY. The identification of a dismembered human body; A multidisciplinary approach. Forensic Sci Int 2003; 137(2-3):141-6.

2. Bayers SN. Introduction to Forensic Anthropology. Boston: Pearson Education; 2008.

3. Phenice TW. A newly developed visual method of sexing the os pubis. Am J Phys Anthropol 1969;30:297-301.

4. Saini V, Srivastava R, Rai RK, Shamal SN, Singh TB, Tripathi SK. Sex estimation from the mastoid process. Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med S Palo 2012;58(1):15-20.

5. Bass WM. Human Osteology; A Labortary, Field manual of the Human Skeleton. Columbia: Missouri Archeological Society; 1971. 

6. Spradley MK, Jantz RL. Sex estimation in forensic anthropology: skull versus postcranial elements. J Forensic Sci 2011;56(2):289-96.

7. Bachman DL, Pickring RB. The use of Forensic Anthropology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1977.

8. Nagoka T, Shizushima A, Sawada J, Tomo S, Hoshino K, Sato H, et al. Sex determination using mastoid process measurements: Standards for Japanese human skeletons of the medieval and early modern periods. Anthropology Sic 2008;116: 105.3.

9. Paiva LA, Segre M. Sexing the human skulls through the mastoid process. Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med 2003;58/1:15-20.

10. Passey J, Mishra SR, Singh R, Sushobhana K, Singh S, Sinha P. Sex determination using mastoid process. Asian J Med Sci 2015;6(6):93-5.

11. Hoshi H. Sex difference in the shape of the mastoid process in norma occipitalis and its importance to the sex determination of the human skull. Okajma’s Folia Ana Japonica 1962;38:309-17.

12. Giles F, Elliot U. Sex determination by discriminant function analysis of crania. Am J Phys Anthropol 1963;21:53-68.

13. Nidugala H, Avadhani R, Bhaskar B. Mastoid process- A tool for sex determination, an anatomical study in South Indian skulls. International J Biomed Res 2013;04(02): 106-10.

14. Dasgupta A, Banerjee A, Kumar A, Rao SR, Jose J. Discriminant Function Analysis of mastoid Measurements in sex determination. J Life Sci 2012;4(1):1-5.

15. Patnaik SVVG. Determination of sex from mastoid process by discriminant function analysis. J Anat So India 2010;59(2):222- 8.

16. Song HW, Lin ZQ, Jia JT. Sex diagnosis of Chinese skulls using multiple stepwise discrinant function analysis. Forensic Sci Int 1992;54(2);135-40.

17. Patil KR, Mody RN. Determination of sex by discriminant function analysis ans stature by regression analysis a lateral cephalometric study. Forensic Sci In 2005;147(2-3):175-80.

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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

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‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


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A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
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A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
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A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
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A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
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A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
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A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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