International Journal of Current Research and Review
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IJCRR - 13(2), January, 2021

Pages: 143-147

Date of Publication: 16-Jan-2021

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Foetal Anomalies: Correlative Study of Sonography and Autopsy

Author: Aiswarya Lekshmi RV, G Raju, K Chandrakumari

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Background: Sonography is performed without risk to mother or foetus for a scientific anatomical survey of the external features and all organs related to each system. Objectives: In this study by comparing Ultrasound and Autopsy of intrauterine congenitally anomalous foetuses contrasting findings were detected. Methods: The results of Limb anomalies, Palmar crease defect, Cleft palate and Cleft lip, Club foot, Diaphragmatic hernia, Gastrointestinal anomalies like Omphalocele, Imperforate Anal defects are considered. Results: Four categorizations of anomalies with the comparison of Ultrasound and Autopsy findings are done. Conclusion: Categorization plan shows that each Ultrasound and Autopsy findings are influenced by Socio-economic status and Dietary habits. Early diagnosis of malformations and awareness to parents can be helpful for Medical termination of pregnancy and prevention in subsequent pregnancies.

Keywords: Autopsy, Categorization, Sonography

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The aim of this study is to analyse the potential use of Prenatal scan done throughout intrauterine life from 6-20 weeks for the assessment and diagnosis of defective embryological anomalies.Sonography is performed without risk to mother or foetus for a scientific anatomical survey of the  external features  and  all  organs related to each system.Two broad subsets of foetal anomalies are major and minor. Minor anomalies about 14% which won’t seriously interfere with viability or physical well being which can or cannot be detected during Prenatal sonography. In this study pattern of different embryological anomalies and sex ratios of foetuses were conducted.

Materials and methods


                      Fifty Antenatal Ultrasound scan reports of defective embryological anomalies and their foetal specimens obtained after medical termination of pregnancy or delivery.

Study Design

                      Descriptive Study Case series.

Data Analysis

                       Student t-test using SPSS Software version 17 and Microsoft Excel.


          This study ( SGMC : IEC No.10/95/01/2014/)  was conducted during the period of 2014 to July 2016. Ultrasound scanning reports obtained from Ittyavirah Scan Centre, Thiruvananthapuram. Specimens of those foetuses were obtained from various hospitals were delivery or medical termination was conducted including Placenta. Autopsy was  conducted  at  Sree  Gokulam Medical College & Research Foundation, Thiruvananthapuram.

Inclusion criteria

         Embryologically defective foetuses detected by Autopsy, agreeing with their Ultrasound Scan reports.

Exclusion criteria

         Embryologically defective foetuses whose Ultrasound Scan reports are not available.

Detailed recording of the history of the patients were obtained from parents in the form of a Proforma including

1. Maternal age

2. Duration of Gestation

3. History of Consanguineous marriage

4. Socio-economic status

5. History of the maternal consumption of medicine taken by the mother during pregnancy.

6. History of dietary habits

7. Exposure to radiation, chemicals.

8. History of abortions or still births.

9.  Previous history of defective embryological  anomalies.

10. Similar history in the family .    

       The cases were followed up till delivery or Medical termination of pregnancy at various hospitals in Thiruvananthapuram. The fetuses after expulsion / delivery were collected. The external appearances of the babies were examined & noted down and compared with the Ultrasound reports.

       Collected foetuses and Placenta were obtained ranging from sixteen to twenty weeks of gestation were preserved in 10% formalin which is the fixative used.

         Consent for Autopsy was obtained from parents after explaining the necessity. The Autopsies were conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Sree Gokulam Medical College after comparing with the Ultrasound report. Each foetuses were exploded using surgical knife, scissors and forceps. Internal findings correlated with the Ultrasound and other extra findings looked for. Updating of findings were done by Periodical  photography. Placenta also studied.


              Correlating the findings of Prenatal, Ultrasound and Foetal Autopsy of the specimens of varied Congenital anomalies classification was done system wise under the following four categories.  

Category A – Both findings (Ultrasound and Autopsy) were agreed.

Category B – Additional data of other anomalies detected.                     

Category C - Foetal autopsy revealed only certain Ultrasound findings.

Category D - Ultrasound and Autopsy findings were totally mismatching.

Limb Anomalies

                     Sixteen foetuses showed Talipes Equino Varus. Out of that four specimens had shortening of Upper and Lower segments of both limbs due to Skeletal dysplasias as given in Graph 1: Limb Anomalies and Table 1: Limb Anomalies.

Talipes Equino Varus             

                “A combination of talus and pes together with an elevated heel resembling that of a horse (L.Equinus, horse); which is also turned inwards (Varus).Inverted foot, Plantarflexed ankle, Adducted forefoot as shown in Fig 01,Fig 02 and Fig 03(turned toward the midline in an abnormal manner). Incidence is approximately one per thousand live births with males affected twice than females.1,2        

Three fetuses were there with Omphalocele as shown in Fig 04, Fig 05, Table 02 and Graph 02.

   Other findings in one foetus

  i.    Short neck with oedema around

  ii.   Head twisted towards right

 iii.   Left lower limb absent

 iv.   Spine with Scoliosis

  v.   Right foot with 1,2 and 3 toes fused

 vi.   Ambiguous genitalia

vii.   Omphalocele contain Intestine and Liver

viii.  Umbilical cord contain one Umbilical artery.

  ix.  Kidney was Horse shoe shaped shown in Fig 06

Second specimen

 i.  Short neck

ii.  Dysmorphic facies

iii. Fusion of digits of Hand and Feet.

iv. Left Foot Talipes Equino Varus.

v.  Single Palmar Crease.

vi. Lungs were two lobbed.

Third Specimen

                Presented only with Omphalocele.

Cleft Palate

            Cleft Palate constitute 4% of the total anomalies as shown in Table 3, Graph 3 and Fig 07. One was a male baby with dysmorphic facies, low set ears with flattened ear lobes, upper lip bilateral cleft lip with cleft palate, nose poorly formed, polydactyly with six digits in left hand and right foot, phallus is short with  Hypospadiasis.

Diaphragmatic Hernia        

       There were three cases of Diaphragmatic Hernia which shows the frequency is more on the left side as shown in Table 4, Fig 08.

Imperforate Anus

             Detected in three foetuses shown in Table 5, Graph 4. Two of them were with Mermaid syndrome .

Single Palmar  crease

         It was hydrops baby with multiple Congenital anomalies, dysmorphic facies, short neck, fusion of digits of hand and feet, left foot Talipes Equino Varus, Single Palmar crease, Omphalocele  and  both lungs were  two  lobbed shown in Fig 09,Table 6 and Graph 5. 


            In this study Ultrasound and  Foetal Autopsy findings of  Foetuses up to 20 weeks of gestation were compared and contrasted; obtained four category results in which                                                                                     

Category A – Both findings (Ultrasound and Autopsy) were agreed.

Category B -  Additional data of other systemic anomalies detected.

Category C -  Foetal autopsy revealed only certain Ultrasound findings.

Category D – Ultrasound and Autopsy findings were totally mismatching.          

    Antonsson et al(3) examined Ultrasound and Autopsy on an equivalent methodological basis and came to a conclusion that autopsy could have significant limitation in CNS malformations. During this study we could ready to notice a high degree of correlation between Ultrasound and Autopsy in twenty two cases. 44% of Foetal anomalies revealed in Ultrasound were demonstrated in Autopsy also. These anomalies are grouped under Category A which incorporates neural tube defects, Cystic hygroma, Hydrops foetalis and Omphalocele.

     Akgun et al(4) in 2007 concluded that analysis of Foetal autopsy following termination of pregnancy enables the diagnosis of anomalies which isn't detected by Ultrasound. In Category B, limb anomalies, Skeletal defects and Genitourinary anomalies are included mostly. Skeletal dysplasia are often revealed through Ultrasound, but confirmation is required from autopsy. Renal Cystic diseases could even be difficult to define on an Ultrasound scan as Oligohydramnios is usually associated. Other anomalies like Cardiovascular, Cleft lip / Cleft palate and Urinary tract defects are detected in autopsy (Category B) 38% . 

     Category C included mainly complex, CNS because it gets macerated due to improper preservation of the foetus after death and also due to the delay in autopsy. Moreover it should be borne in mind that certain conditions of expulsion hinder examination as they involve an excessively long period of foetal retention resulting in maceration in Utero and tissue lysis, of brain tissue especially and Cardiovascular anomalies like Valve insufficiencies due to the small size of the heart, Pericardial and Pleural effusions. Seven cases were included in Category C which constitute 14% of the entire anomalies.

      In Category D there was total disagreement between Ultrasound and Autopsy. Two cases comes under Category D which constitute 4% of the entire anomalies.

      Finally this categorization evidently shows that both Ultrasound and Autopsy may have some important limitations in diagnosing Foetal abnormalities and both are complementary.

     The mothers who had undergone Ultrasound scanning and were found to be having Congenitally abnormal foetuses were grouped consistent with the Socio-economic status into High, Middle and Low income groups.


              Reasons for Common defective embryological anomalies are

 i.   Genetic factors (Chromosome and Single gene mutation)

ii.   Environmental factors (Infectious agents, Chemical compounds, Radiations)

iii.  Use of medication by mother

iv.  Maternal metabolic diseases

v.   Multiple pregnancies

vi.  Maternal stress

vii. Prematurity of the Infant.

               By this study the potential and limitations of Ultrasound and Autopsy and categorization into four categories was possible. Even though Ultrasound fairly detects the malformations, Foetal autopsy is vital for obtaining extra information.Ultrasound findings rely upon the accuracy of the machine and the experience of the person. The Autopsy also depends on the ability and experience of a Specialist Paediatric Pathologist. Placental examination is also can give supportive findings like Macroscopic study of the Placenta, Position of Umbilical cord, Foetal and Maternal surfaces of the Placenta and Evidence of Placental infections. Earlier detection of Foetal anomalies by Ultrasound leads to early termination of  Pregnancy without Autopsy. This results in missing important informations from Paediatric Pathologist which can cause risk of repetition in the subsequent pregnancies.

      Defective embryologically malformed infants is prone for morbidity and mortality. Treatment and Rehabilitation of these infants is tough. Recovery is usually not possible. So early diagnosis, interpretation and awareness to parents is very crucial.

Conflicts of  interest

                                 All authors have none to declare.

Financial support and sponsorship

                                 No funding to declare.                                


                                 We acknowledge the contribution of Dr.Alex.K.Ittyavirah, Radiologist and Ultrasonologist, Ittyavirah Scan and Research Centre, Thiruvananthapuram and therefore the faculties of the department of Anatomy. 


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A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


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