IJCRR - 13(2), January, 2021
Date of Publication: 16-Jan-2021
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Prevalence of Obesity Among Children, Their Parents and to Assess the Practices Related to Restraining and Promoting Factors for Childhood Obesity
Author: Mahantesh Appanna Naganuri, Yayathee S
Abstract:Objective: To assess the prevalence of obesity among children and parents and to assess the restraining and promoting factors for childhood obesity. Methods: A multi-method research study was carried out over two months on 100 children of Class VIII, IX and X and their parents. Results: Results of the study revealed that 10 (10%) children were underweight, 81 (81%) children were normal, 8 (8%)children were overweight and 1 (1%) child was obese. In parents 2 (2%) were underweight, 68 (68%) were normal, 25 (25%) were overweight and 5(1%) were obese. Regarding the children and parents practices about childhood obesity, it was found that only 4( 4%) children practices were satisfactory. 71(71%) children practices were moderately satisfactory and 25(25 %) children practices were not satisfactory and in parents 30(30%) were satisfactory, 62(62%) were moderately satisfactory and 8(8%) were not satisfactory. Conclusion: Prevalence of obesity is a major concern in children as well as parents. Awareness through Structured teaching program about restraining and promoting factors for childhood obesity is needed to prevent and control the effects of obesity.
Keywords: Childhood obesity, Prevalence, Underweight, Overweight, Restraining, Promoting factors
The westernization of the life-style and eating pattern has become a solid reason for causing the metabolic disorder called ‘obesity’. It is defined as an abnormal accumulation of fat that causes health disorders. Unfortunately, obesity doesn’t take account of the age group; it is seen in all age groups and gender even in childhood with co-existing morbidity as the age advances. Despite all the advancements in clinical practices and recent developments in the pharmaceuticals, still obesity remains the global threat. Thus, present study focused on various factors that contribute to childhood obesity, as from the review of literature it was obtained that, obesity is not a single-factor disease rather it is multifactorial disorder. This study was conducted to address the problem in the selected urban school students at Gokak Karnataka. Study also includes the assessment of various childhood obesity factors, the effectiveness of the childhood obesity prevention interventions, and the imperative role of parents and teachers. Parents and teachers can play a vital role in regulating the repercussions in childhood obese individuals.1
BMI is used as a measure of crude population where an Individual’s weight (Kg) divided by the square of their height (m). In general an individual with a BMI, more than 30 is obese, while an individual with a BMI of 25 and more is termed as overweight 1. Studies suggest that bodyweight 20 percent more than the optimum tends to be associated with obesity 2.
School is a place where a major part of the time per day is spent learning. The children who obtain habits in school that leave a long term impact on one’s health, which is the direct reflection of their current well-being. Habits attained like consuming junk foods and gulping processed foods lead to putting on weight, which causes harmful effects on health. India treasures a superabundant amount of different cultures and food. It can also be said that India has a rich heritage of recipes and foods 3.
A study was centered on BMI and body fat percentage and was conducted among adolescent girls in Bangalore city. it was found that there were around 13.1% overweight cases and around 5.0% of obese adolescent school girls in Bangalore. The higher rate of BMI and body fat percent was observed during the pubertal period between the age group of 10-12 years old on average.4
A study on fast food consumption and snacks revealed that The most professed fried Indian snack is ‘Samosa’ most of them preferred samosa over pizza. pizza is least preferred. Chaat items are also preferred mostly by 99.2% population. But, 73.2% of them occasionally consume fast food. 32.5% of them had a favorable attitude towards fast food items. Around 20.3% of them were totally aware of the post-consumption consequences. A total of 63% had the opinion that these foods consumption has harmful effects. 3
The major stakeholders in reducing childhood obesity not only consist of children and adolescents. There is need of contribution from parents, school, health care professions, community and business leaders, and state and local area officials and in terms of wholeness ‘society’. 5
Material[DM2], Methods and Results:
This study was conducted in 4 schools of Gokak, Karnataka for a period of two months, Approval was taken respective head of schools and The study was approved [DM3] by the institutional research committee (Ref.No. SVU/Ph.D/RDC/2017)
The tool used for the data collection consisted of self administered semi structured questionnaire to assess the practices in school children and parents regarding restraining and promoting factors for childhood obesity.
Tool was divided into two parts Section I and Section II
Section I: Demographic Data
Section II: Self-administered semi-structured questionnaire on restraining and promoting factors related to childhood obesity
The first stage which includes descriptive research which is designed to conduct a large-scale survey regarding childhood obesity among school children, parents and, teachers. A simple random sampling technique was used.
Section –I : Findings of Demographic data of children
In relation to the age majority, 80(80%) were 13 years, 14(14%) were 12 years, 4(4%) were 14 years and 2(2%) were 11 years. With regard to the gender, 59(59%) were females and 41(41%) were males. Majority of 78(78%) children’s residence was in rural area and 22(22%) were from urban.
In relation to the travel to school, 37(37%) used of them public transport, 23(23%) used bicycle, 20(20%) go to school by walking, 17(17%) travel by school bus and 3(3%) use bike or auto.
Findings of Demographic data Parents:
In relation to the age of parents, majority 75(75%) were above 40 years, 13(13%) were between 36-40 years, 9(9%) were of 30-35 years age and 3(3%) were less than 30 years. With regard to relation, 58(58%) were mothers, 42(42%) were fathers. In the aspect of education, 47(47%) had completed PUC, 27(27%) had completed S.S.L.C, 17(17%) were graduates and above and 9(9%) were uneducated. Majority of parents 49(49%) had jobs, 22(22%) were doing Business, 20(20%) were unemployed or housewives and 9(9%) were doing agriculture.
In relation to the income per month, 44(44%) had income of above Rs. 20000, 33(33%) parents income was between Rs. 10000-20000, 17(17%) parents income was between Rs. 5001-10000/- and 6(6%) parents had less than RS. 5000/- per month income. In relation to the source of information, 30(30%) got information from television, 29(29%) got it from newspaper, 19(19%) got from social media, 19(19%) got from friends and 03(03%) were not having any information. In relation to the diet, 74(74%) were vegetarian and 26(26%) non-vegetarian.
With regard to number of children, 50(50%) parents had two children, 23(23%) had three children, 21(21%) had one child and 6(6%) had four and above.
Section –II: Findings related to BMI and Restraining, promoting factors
With regard to the body mass index BMI, 81(81%) had normal BMI, 10(10%) were underweight, 08(08%) were overweight and 01(01%) was obese.
Majority of the parents classified based on BMI, 68(68%) had normal weight, 25(25%) had overweight, 05(05%) were obese and 02(02%) had underweight.
-Restraining and promoting factors:
Questionnaire [DM4] for children includes,
Frequently consume Soft drinks 9. Prefer playing games over watching TV
Frequently consume Snacks/Crisps 10. Likes to play outdoor games
Frequently consume sweets 11. Limit meals outside home
Watch TV while having food 12. Monitor Height/Weight regularly
Prefer Junk foods over fruits 13. H/E is provided in school on obesity
Play video games 14. Daily separate timing for exercises
Time consuming home work
Daily follow routine exercises
Children were asked to respond Yes/No to the above questions
Questionnaire for parents includes,
Frequency of purchasing sweet beverages
Frequency of purchasing crispy snacks
Frequency of purchasing sweets (Parents were asked to choose between Never/Rarely/Frequently)
Restrict child watch TV while meal time
Did the meal routine set for child?
Were the children encouraged to eat vegetables?
Were limits set on the types of food they can snack on regularly?
Were limits set on types of soft drinks children can drink regularly?
Were the children reminded to drink water?
Were the children encouraged to play outdoors?
Were limits set on the amount of time children can watch TV
Did adult family members walk/cycle to get to or from places?
Parents were asked to respond Yes/No to No. 4-12 questions
According to the below table, When the questionnaire was administered to children, only 8 children's responses were satisfactory, 67 children's responses were moderately satisfactory and 25 children's responses were not satisfactory. In parents, 30 responses were satisfactory, 57 parent responses were moderately satisfactory and 13 children responses were not satisfactory.
Prevalence of overweight/Obesity:
In the present study overall prevalence of obesity in children was observed (1%) and overweight (8%) in total 100 children. BMI: When assessed for BMI in children only one (1%) was obese and 5 (5%) parents were obese.
A similar study conducted in Ahmedabad which revealed the Obesity and overweight prevalence of 14% in that overweight was (11.8%) and obesity (2.2%). Findings of similar study in Latur shows overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.98% in that 8.54% were overweight and 1.44% were obese. A study in Karnataka shows 9.63% of overweight/obese children in that 4.50% were overweight and 5.13% were obese.6
A study in Tamilnadu revealed that prevalence of overweight/obesity was 27% in that 20% were overweight and 7% were obese. Prevalence of obesity and overweight was comparatively less in a study conducted in Dakshina kannada and Udupi districts, overall it was 5.60%in that 3% overweight and 2.60% were obese.6
Restraining and promoting factors:
Majority (67%) of the children practices were moderately satisfactory, 25% children practices were not satisfactory and 8% children practices were satisfactory. In parents majority (57%) of them had moderately satisfactory practices, 30% of parents practices were not satisfactory and only 13% of parents practices were satisfactory.
Findings of similar study in School of central part of Bangalore shows that 87.78% of parents monitor the diet of their child, 81.78% parents feel that their child has adequate activity. Parents feel excessive academic activity and TV watching for lack of physical activity.7
Similar study on Attitude of mother on Childhood obesity and its prevention was carried out in Pududcherry, India. Findings revealed that mothers agreed with faulty food habits (40.83%), unhealthy lifestyle practices (55.83%), and parent dietary behavior (39.17%) is associated with obesity. Mothers agreed with high intake of sweet (41.67%) and chocolates (49.17%) ice creams (50%), fried foods (53.33%) induces obesity. 35% of mother accepted that, media influence the child eating behavior .8
Findings of the study revealed that overweight and obesity is very prevalent in children as well as parents and its growing numbers is a major concern. Results of Practices related to childhood obesity in children as well as parents shows it is satisfactory in only few respondents. A teaching program on childhood obesity will be helpful to improve the practices in children and parents which will in turn prevent the consequences like coronary artery diseases, diabetes, hypertension and chronic illnesses in their later life. Collective efforts from leaders of the society, school teachers, health professionals and parents are must to achieve a normal BMI in children and help them lead normal healthy life. Government should include activities related obesity prevention in school health program.
Acknowledgments: Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors also thank the help received from school management, teachers and parents. The authors are also grateful to [jjuhthis article has been reviewed and discussed.
Funding: No funding sources.
Conflict of interest: None declared
Ethical approval: Approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee ((Ref.No. SVU/Ph.D/RDC/2017)
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