International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - 13(2), January, 2021

Pages: 29-32

Date of Publication: 16-Jan-2021


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Relationship between Thyroid Disorder and Abnormal Menstrual Bleeding

Author: Anjana Chaudhary, Baljeet Kaur Bhatia

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Introduction: Menstrual disorders pose a huge burden on gynaecology OPD, accounting for approximately 20 % of attendance of OPD. Thyroid disorders are prevalent globally, and thyroid conditions are 10 times more prevalent in women than in men. Thyroid dysfunction can prompt menstrual problems and infertility. Thyroid autoimmunity is associated with different forms of thyroid dysfunction. Objective: To assess the relationship between thyroid disorder and abnormal menstrual bleeding. Methods: Study was conducted in 100 women (age 15-45 years) suffering with menstrual disorders. Women with complaints other than menstrual disorders were in the control category. Following demographic characteristics, general physical examination and pelvic examination were performed with special reference to thyroid dysfunction. Patients were subjected to routine investigations (to rule out coagulation defects) such as Hb, BT, CT and platelets. All patients were subjected to Electro Chemiluminescence assay for T3, T4 and TSH estimation in their serum. Results: Off all the kinds of menstrual irregularities, woman with amenorrhea, menorrhagia, oligomenorrhea, polymenorrhea and metrorrhagia were recorded. 55% of the cases in the study group were euthyroid while 45% of the cases were diagnosed with having thyroid disorder. In study group out of 45 cases having thyroid disorder of which 18 (18%) were overt hypothyroid and 11 (11%) were subclinical hypothyroid. Overt Hyperthyroid were 11 (11%) and subclinical hyperthyroid were 5% in the study group. Of the total 3 amenorrhea cases 2 (2%) were euthyroid while 1 case was hypothyroid. Out of 52 menorrhagia cases, 28 were euthyroid, 14(14%) were hypothyroid and 10 (10%) were hyperthyroid. 19 were oligomenorrhea cases of which 7 (7%) each were euthyroid and hypothyroidism while one case was hyperthyroid. Conclusion: Strong correlation of thyroid dysfunction with menstrual disorders has been observed. Morbidity due to thyroid dysfunction in women can be reduced if diagnosed timely and treated accordingly and unnecessary hormonal treatment and surgery can be avoided.

Keywords: Pelvic, Menstrual irregularities, Oligomenorrhea, Polymenorrhea, Metrorrhagia

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

Menstruation is a natural phenomenon regarding the discharge of blood from the uterus through the vagina, taking place at extra or less regular monthly durations during the reproductive age of females[i].Menstrual disorders pose a huge burden on gynecology OPD, accounting for approximately 20 % of attendance[ii]. It has been described clinically in different ways, such as menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, menometrorrhagia, polymenorrhea, polymenorrhagia and oligmenorrhea[iii]. Normal cyclic period results from the arranged connection between the endomertium and its managing factors. Changes in both of these oftentimes brings about strange bleeding. It influences upto 33% of ladies of child bearing age[iv].

Thyroid hormones assume a significant part in reproductive physiology through direct impacts on the ovaries and by implication by communicating with sex hormone-binding globulin. Thyroid dysfunction can prompt menstrual problems and infertility[v]. The onset of thyroid disorders is growing with age, and 26% of premenopausal and menopausal women are reported to be diagnosed with thyroid disease[vi]. Thyroid disorders are prevalent globally, and thyroid conditions are 10 times more prevalent in women than in men[vii]. Since the 1950s, the effect of hypothyroidism on the menstrual cycle has been recognised, leading to changes in cycle length and blood flow[viii]. Menorrhagia is commonly observed in women with hypothyroidism. On the other hand, hyperthyroidism is associated with amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea, and the drop in flow is proportional to the magnitude of thyrotoxicosis[ix].

Thyroid autoimmunity has been shown to be associated with different forms of thyroid dysfunction. Operational intervention such as curettage and hysterectomy may be prevented through early diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction in patients with menstrual disorders and their management[x].

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The current research was performed in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 100 women each from the 15-45-year reproductive age group were chosen in study as well as in control group . The research group included women with menstrual disorders such as menorrhagia, oligomenorrhea, polymenorrhea, metrorrhagia, hypomenorrhea and amenorrhea and no detectable disease in the genital tract. Women with complaints other than menstrual disorders were in the control category. The research excluded patients with menstrual disorder with any known organic pathology, such as uterine fibroid, adenomyosis, tuberculosis, polyps, uterine malignancy, etc., and patients with intrauterine contraceptive device in utero.

Detailed demographic and personal history regarding age, parity, age of menarche, menstrual disorders and dysmenorrhea was taken. In women with menstrual complaints, general physical examination and pelvic examination were performed with special reference to thyroid dysfunction; in cases with a provisional diagnosis of AUB. To rule out the structural causes associated with menstrual irregularities, ultrasonography (USG-Abdomen and Pelvis with endometrial thickness) was performed. Patients were subjected to routine investigations (to rule out coagulation defects) such as Hb, BT, CT and platelets. All patients were subjected to Electro Chemiluminescence assay for  T3, T4 and TSH estimation in their serum.

If TSH, T3, and T4 were within the normal range (TSH level = 0.39-6.16 μIU / ml, free T3 level = 1.4-4.2 pg / ml, and free T4 level = 0.8-2.0 ng / ml), patients were considered as euthyroid; when TSH was elevated with T3 and T4 below the normal range, they were classified as subclinical hypothyroidism. Overt hypothyroidism was diagnosed with high TSH and low levels of T3 and T4, subclinical hyperthyroidism with low TSH and normal levels of T3 and T4, and overt hyperthyroidism with low levels of TSH and high levels of T3 and T4.

Statistical analysis was done, for qualitative data to measure p value, Chi-square test and fisher exact test were used, and unpaired student t test and non-parametric Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test were used to statistically compare the quantitative data between two classes for T3, T4, TSH, and anti-TPO antibody values. The difference was deemed statistically significant with a p value of < 0.05.

RESULTS

Various parameters analyzed were

• Age

• Parity

• Menstrual irregularities

• Thyroid status

• Association of menstrual irregularities with thyroid dysfunction.

The study and control groups were comparable in respect of age

Of all the kinds of menstrual irregularities, 3 (3%) had amenorrhea, 52 (52%) had menorrhagia, 19 (19%) had oligomenorrhea, 15 (15%) had polymenorrhea and 11(11%) had metrorrhagia.

Table 1: Menstural Irregularities

55% of the cases in the study group were euthyroid while 45% of the cases were diagnosed of having thyroid disorder. While in control group 85% of the cases were euthyroid while 15% were having thyroid disorder

Table 2: Thyroid disorder in study and control group

In study group out of 45 cases having thyroid disorder of which 18 (18%) were overt hypothyroid and 11 (11%) were subclinical hypothyroid. Overt Hyperthyroid were 11 (11%) and subclinical hyperthyroid were 5% in study group. In control group one (1%) case was overt hypothyroid and 8 (8%) were subclinical hypothyroid, while  4 (4%) were over hyperthyroid and 2 (2%) ware subclinical hyperthyroid.

Thyroid anti TPO antibodies were present in 25 (25%) of the cases in study group as compared to 3 (6%) cases in control group. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.005).

Table 3: Thyroid dysfunction and menstrual disorder

Of the total 3 amenorrhea cases 2 (2%) were euthyroid while 1 cases was hypothyroid. Out of 52 menorrhagia cases 28 were euthyroid, 14(14%) were hypothyroid and 10 (10%) were hyperthyroid. 19 were oligomenorrhea cases of which 7 (7%) each were euthyroid and hypothyrois while one case was hyperthyroid. Out of 11 metrorrhagia cases 6 (6%) were euthyroid, 4 (4%) were hypothyroid while 1 (1%) case was hyperthyroid.

DISCUSSION

Thyroid problems in general and hypothyroidism in particular is more commonly seen in women of reproductive age. Reproductive years and menopausal years are significantly influenced by the thyroid status of the women. Hypo and hyperthyroidism, both are associated with menstrual disturbances although hormonal and other biochemical aberrations are different9. Thyroid status of the women influences the menarche, pubertal growth and development, fertility and foetal development, menstrual cycles, postpartum period, reproductive years, and postmenopausal years.

In our study 53% of the cases were observed with menorrhagia which was most common complaint among the patients with menstrual disorders. Similar observations were seen in other studies f Pahwa et al[i]  (50 %) and Padmaleela et al[ii]  (50 %), where menorrhagia was the most common complaint. In the present study 55% were euthyroid in study group while 85% were euthyroid in control group. This shows the commonness of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in patients with menstural problems is very nearly two times higher than in the control population. Kaur et al[iii] observed that 14% of the cases had hypothyroidism while in study by Pahwaa et al11 22 % cases of hypothyroidism and 76 % of euthyroidism were reported. Gowri et al[iv]  observed 17.6 % women with hypothyroidism, 2.7 % with subclinical hypothyroidism, and 4.7 % with hyperthyroidism.

 In the present study of the total 3 amenorrhea cases 2 (2%) were euthyroid while 1 cases was hypothyroid. Out of 52 menorrhagia cases 28 were euthyroid, 14(14%) were hypothyroid and 10 (10%) were hyperthyroid. 19 were oligomenorrhea cases of which 7 (7%) each were euthyroid and hypothyrois while one case was hyperthyroid. Out of 11 metrorrhagia cases 6 (6%) were euthyroid, 4 (4%) were hypothyroid while 1 (1%) case was hyperthyroid. Kaur et al13 observed that the patient with hyperthyroidism was found to have hypomenorrhea. Pahwa et al11 in their study observed that two hyperthyroid patients, both had menorrhagia. While Padmaleela et al.12 observed that among the hyperthyroid patients, 42.8 % had menorrhagia, 28.6 % had polymenorrhea, and 14.3 % had oligomenorrhea.

CONCLUSION

In this study strong correlation of thyroid dysfunction with menstrual disorders has been observed. Morbidity due to thyroid dysfunction in women can be reduced if diagnosed timely and treated accordingly and unnecessary hormonal treatment and surgery can be avoided.

Acknowledgement[D1] 

Conflict of Interest: Nil

Source of Funding: Nil

References:

  1. House S, Mahon T, Cavill S, editors. Menstrual hygiene matters. A resource for improving menstrual hygiene around the world. Module one: Menstrual hygiene –the basics. Available from URL: www.wateraid.org/~/media/Files/Global/MHM%20files/Compiled_L

  2. Albers JR, Hull SK, Wesley RM. Abnormal uterine bleeding. Am Fam Physician. 2004 Apr 15; 69(8):1915-26.

  3. Talukdar B, Mahela S (2016) Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopausal women: Correlation with sonographic findings and histopathological examination of hysterectomy specimens. J Midlife Health 7(2): 73-77.

  4. Nicholson WK, Ellison SA, Grason H, Powe NR. Of ambulatory care use for gynecologic conditions; A national study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;184(4):523-30.

  5. Poppe K, Glinoer D. Thyroid autoimmunity and hypothyroidism before and during pregnancy. Hum Reprod Update. 2003 Mar-Apr; 9(2):149-61.

  6. Hollowell JG, Staehling NW, Flanders WD, Hannon WH, Gunter EW, Spencer CA, Braverman LE. Serum TSH, T(4), and thyroid antibodies in the United States population (1988 to 1994): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Feb; 87(2):489-99.

  7. Cappola AR, Ladenson PW.  Hypothyroidism and atherosclerosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Jun; 88(6):2438-44

  8. Bals-Pratsch M, De Geyter C, Müller T, Frieling U, Lerchl A, Pirke KM, Hanker JP, Becker-Carus C, Nieschlag E. Episodic variations of prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, melatonin and cortisol in infertile women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Hum Reprod. 1997 May; 12(5):896-904.

  9. Manjeera LM, Kaur P. Association of thyroid dysfunction with abnormal uterine bleeding. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2018;7:2388-92.

  10. Ajmani NS, Sarbhai V, Yadav N, Paul M, Ahmad A, Ajmani AK. Role of Thyroid Dysfunction in Patients with Menstrual Disorders in Tertiary Care Center of Walled City of Delhi. J Obstet Gynaecol India. 2016;66(2):115-119. doi:10.1007/s13224-014-0650-0

  11. Pahwa S, Shailja G, Jasmine K. Thyroid dysfunction in dysfunctional uterine bleeding. J Adv Res Bio Sci. 2013;5(1):78–83.

  12. Padmaleela K, Thomas V, Lavanya KM. Thyroid disorders in dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) among reproductive age group women- a cross-sectional study in a tertiary care hospital in Andhra Pradesh India. Int J Med Pharma Sci. 2013;4(1):41–46.

  13. Kaur T, Aseeja V, Sharma S. Thyroid dysfunction in dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Web Med Central Obstet Gynaecol. 2011;2(9):1–7

  14. Gowri M, Radhika BH, Harshini V. Role of thyroid function tests in women with abnormal uterine bleeding. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2014;3(1):54–57.

Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A study by Dorothy Ebere Adimora et al. entitled \"Remediation for Effects of Domestic Violence on Psychological well-being, Depression and Suicide among Women During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-cultural Study of Nigeria and Spain\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 23
A study by Muhas C. et al. entitled \"Study on Knowledge & Awareness About Pharmacovigilance Among Pharmacists in South India\" is awarded Best article for Vol 14 issue 22
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A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
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A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
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A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



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International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

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