International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 08 Issue 06, March, 2016

Pages: 14-17

Date of Publication: 22-Mar-2016

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Author: Niruba R., T. Kannan Kumar, Subha K. C., Vijiyalakshmi

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Background: World wide prevalence of obesity has reached a pandemic proportion. Obesity and Arterial wall stiffness are independent predictors of cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate how BMI affects arterial stiffness. Noninvasive method of measuring arterial stiffness can be applied to assess the elasticity of the vessel wall and reduce the cardiovascular morbidity. Study Design: Cross sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: Subjects n= 50 males, Age group 35-45 years. All participants had a sedentary life style, blood pressure and glycemic status were within normal limits. Subjects with history of peripheral vascular disease, smokers and any other illness that affects arterial compliance were excluded . Arterial stiffness was assessed from Augmentation index (AI) and stiffness index (SI). AI and SI was measured using IR1 model digital finger tip photo pulse plethysmograph. Results: Mean age = 38\?2 years, Mean BMI = 26\? 3, Mean Stiffness index = 7.4 \?1.4 m/s, Mean Augmentation index= 48 \?2.8 %.Pearson correlation was applied .BMI correlated positively with both augmentation index and stiffness index with r value is +0.437 and + 0.564 respectively. Conclusion: In our study both large and small artery stiffness were assessed. There was increase in arterial wall stiffness with increase in BMI. We conclude obesity affects arterial compliance, which might be the consequences of metabolic regulation, inflammatory pathways and other mechanisms

Keywords: BMI, Augmentation Index, Stiffness Index

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION In the present era, besides the genetic predisposition, adoption of sedentary lifestyle, lack of regular physical exercise, excessive intake of junk foods, stress of competitive world has made the environment conducive to the development of obesity (1). Obesity is associated with impaired function of the large arteries, which might be the consequence of metabolic regulation, inflammatory pathways, obstructive sleep apnoea or other mechanisms (2,3). Pulse wave analysis can measure stiffness index and augmentation index the surrogate markers of arterial stiffness (4).Thus Obesity and arterial wall stiffness are independent predictors for cardiovascular diseases. Thus correlating BMI and arterial stiffness can reduce the morbidity due to cardiovascular disease in overweight and obese individual. Aim: Assessment of vessel wall compliance among normotensive normoglycemic middle aged individuals and correlating it with their BMI. Study Design: Observational/cross sectional study.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: All participants gave a written informed consent to participate in this study. Institutional ethical committee clearance was obtained. Information details about sociodemographic characteristics, disease history, family history, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, drug intake and occupational history were obtained by a structured questionnaire. All participants had a sedentary lifestyle.

SUBJECTS Inclusion criteria: 50 healthy volunteers normoglycemic, normotensive males with no paternal or maternal history of diabetes, Age= 35- 45 yrs, Blood pressure = < 140/90 mmHg, Fasting blood sugar = 90-100 mg/dl.

Exclusion Criteria: Subjects with history of peripheral vascular disease, smokers, and any other illness that affects arterial compliance , subjects with family history of diabetes and hypertension were excluded from the study. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Height was measured using stadiometer and weight was measured using precalibrated weighing machine. Quetlet’s index was used to calculate Body mass index (weight/height in m2).Blood pressure was measured using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. Fasting blood glucose was measured to rule out diabetic mellitus.

Recording of digital volume pulse (DVP): Digital volume pulse was recorded by in house built instrument IR1 model digital finger photoplethysmography (5). The signal from the instrument placed on the right index finger was digitalized by digital converter with a frequency of 100 Hz which was connected to the computer. DVP was analyzed by software virtual oscilloscope. Digital volume pulse contains 2 peaks: Fig-1 1. Systolic peak. 2. Diastolic peak. Initially Systolic peak is formed by pulse wave transmitted from the left ventricle to the finger directly.(5) Second peak or diastolic peak arises from pulse wave transmitted along the aorta to the small arteries in the lower body, from where they are again reflected along the aorta as a reflected wave (5) (fig-1).This path length is proportional to the subject’s height (h). Pulse transit time (PTT or ΔT) is the time interval between systolic peak and diastolic peak. It was measured by software image tool . Magnitude of systolic and diastolic peak were also measured .Stiffness index is based on the subjects height (6). Stiffness index and Reflective index were calculated by the following formulas.

Stiffness index (SIDVP) = Subject’s height (h).

Pulse transit time (ΔT).

Reflection index (RI) = Magnitude of diastolic peak (b) × 100.

Magnitude of systolic peak (a).

RESULT Statistical analysis was done Using SPSS Software version 16.0. The descriptive statistics of BMI, Blood sugar, Systolic blood pressure, Diastolic blood pressure are mentioned in table 1. Pearson correlation was applied. Correlation between BMI with stiffness index and reflective index was analyzed among study group and it showed a positive correlation with r value is +.564 and +.437 respectively (Table 2).

DISCUSSION Our study showed a positive correlation of BMI with stiffness index and reflective index. Indicating increased body weight affects the vessel wall compliance. Reduction of weight can improve the elasticity in vessels as stated in study by alvarez et al and Abate et al that after weight loss, the increased stiffness is reversed in parallel with reduction of heart rate which might be due to neural sympathetic over activity(7,8). Obesity is the risk factors for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, such as ischemic heart disease and stroke (9,10). Calculating body mass index (BMI) is the easiest way to evaluate overweight and obesity (9).

Non-invasive measurement of vascular wall elasticity is an important diagnostic tool which allows one to collect information on the functional status of the arteries and enables early detection of pathologies before the onset of clinical symptoms (11,12). Central blood pressure and measures of arterial stiffness have been shown to be powerful predictors of major cardiovascular events, independent of the traditional risk factors (13), The augmentation index (AI), gives us small artery stiffness (13), calculated from the difference between the first and second systolic peaks expressed as a percentage of the pulse pressure, and a measure of systemic stiffness(14) .

The stiffness index is a measure of pulse wave velocity (PWV) in large arteries. It is a measure of the timing of the diastolic relative to the systolic component of PWV in the large arteries (height divided by time between systolic and diastolic peaks (15). Augmentation index (AI), a measure of enhanced wave reflection, has been proposed as a bedside measure of aortic stiffness (16). Indeed, high levels of leptin have been documented in individuals with obesity and found to be correlated with reduction in arterial distensibility (17). In addition to hypothalamic receptors, receptors for leptin have been observed on the vascular endothelium and on smooth muscle cell (18,19). Accordingly, leptin can exert receptor-mediated influence on vessel tone and growth and, in cell culture, stimulate vascular smooth muscle proliferation and migration (20).

In addition, leptin induces oxidative stress in endothelial cells, and this action triggers the transcription of oxidant-sensitive genes that participate in atherogenesis. Peripheral Pulse Pressure, central Pulse Pressure and augmentation index, which provide additional information on wave reflection, are considered “surrogates” of arterial stiff- cness (21,22,23). O Brein et al stated strong association exits between Ambulatory arterial stiffness index (ASSI) and most reliable parameters of arterial stiffness like pulse wave velocity and augmentation index (24). In our study we measured stiffness index (SI) and augmentation index (AI) which can assess large and small artery compliance respectively by noninvasive measurement. Dolan and Hansen et showed that relation between stiffness index and cardiovascular mortality was linear (25,26).

A positive relationship has been demonstrated between type 2 diabetes mellitus and increased large artery stiffness (27). It is noteworthy that in individuals with obesity, increased aortic stiffness also may contribute to the development of cardiac hypertrophy, in addition to hypertension (28,29,30). We conclude that in subjects without hypertension and diabetes, BMI correlated with stiffness of the large artery (stiffness index) and small artery wall (Augmentation index). Indicating overweight and obesity can independently contribute to altered vessel wall compliance.

CONCLUSION Vessel wall compliance as measured by arterial stiffness is altered in obese and overweight individual. Implicaion of Study: To improve the vessel wall compliance Life style modifications on diet and exercise are mandatory for obese and overweight and prevent further progression to cardiovascular diseases.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Authors acknowledge immense help received from the scholars who’s articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are grateful to the authors/ editors/ publishers of all those article journals and the books from where the literature of this article has been reviewed and discussed. I sincerely thank Professor Dr.K.N. Maruthy, for his extensive guidance in this research project. Source of funding : None Conflict of interest : None


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Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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