International Journal of Current Research and Review
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IJCRR - 12(18), September, 2020

Pages: 25-34

Date of Publication: 22-Sep-2020

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A Recent Report on 'Plants with Anti-Candida Properties'

Author: Darshan Kumar, Ayesha, Madhulika Jha, Pankaj Gautam, Himanshu Joshi, Navin Kumar

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Fungal infections are drawing attention because of the high mortality and morbidity rate associated with them. Candida, Cryptococcus, Pneumocystis, and Aspergillus are the main members of fungal genera responsible for life-threatening fungal infections all over the world. Candida exists as commensal opportunistic pathogens in the natural flora of human beings. Members of this genus have specialized virulence attributes which include adhesion, biofilm formation, yeast to hyphal transition, cell surface hydrophobicity, and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes. C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, and C. tropicalis are key species, mainly responsible for 95% of candidiasis worldwide. Azoles, amphotericin B, echinocandins and terbinafine are the main synthetic drugs against the pathogens. Rising resistance to antifungals demands the development of alternative drugs, especially of plant origin. In this review, we have included the selected plants having significant anti-Candida potential, based upon recent studies.

Keywords: Candida, Candidiasis, Biofilm, Anti-Candida, Phytoactive, Synthetic drugs, MIC, Camellia sinensis, Hypericum havvae.

Full Text:


Fungi are considered to be one of the potential health hazards to animals including humans. Annually, fungal diseases are responsible for over 1.5 million deaths and infecting over a billion people worldwide. Candida, Cryptococcus, Pneumocystisand Aspergillus are the main fungal genera responsible for such infections1. The occurrence of life-threatening fungal infections has increased in immune-compromised AIDS patients, blood cancer, neonates, and organ transplants2,3. Fungal infections present a possible danger to health worldwide owing to their elevated mortality and morbidity rate 4. Mortality associated with the fungal disease is similar to that of tuberculosis (more than 1.6 million) and above 3-fold more than malaria 1.

Candida is a well-known group of fungi containing around 20 pathogenic species. It is a member of the Saccharomycetes class, the Saccharomycetales order, and the Saccharomycetaceae family. Ubiquitous, opportunistic, dimorphic, and commensal fungi are representatives of this group. The natural flora of the gastrointestinal tract, the mucosal oral cavity, and the human reproductive organs comprises of various species of Candida5.

Candidiasis is a condition of Candida infection which causes shallow mucocutaneous infections, invasive tissue, and bloodstream infections6,7. C. albicans, the most common pathogenic species, is followed by C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis8. Clinical isolates have been reported to be resistant to existing antifungals, particularly azoles, echinocandins, and polyene9. Hydrophobicity of the cell surface, hyphal transformation hydrolytic enzyme secretion and development of biofilm over abiotic and biotic surfaces are well established primary virulence features of the Candida10,11. Most important features of Candida spp. are the ability to form a biofilm, a three-dimensional multicellular structure mainly composed of proteins, carbohydrates, phosphorus, hexosamine, and, uronic acid. Biofilm facilitates adhesion and maturation on the biotic and abiotic surfaces, ranging from the mineral surface and mammalian tissues to synthetic polymers and indwelling medical gadgets, resulting in drug resistance12,13,14.

For decades plants have been known as the primary source of medicinal products among common citizens. Additionally, several countries still used plants as major remedies, particularly in Africa and Asia. Several plants had exhibited successful anti-Candida activities which are required to be tested for efficacy and safety15.


Candidiasis is due to the Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida (NAC) infection, which is mostly known to cause high rates of mucosal infection to humans worldwide.1 Candida infects mucosal tissues, including mouth, oesophagus, gastrointestinal, vagina, and deep tissue infection16. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (thrush or yeast infection) continues to be a worldwide health problem for women17,18. Candida infection is common in hospitalized patients having a weak immune system or immunocompromised patients and elderly people 19. More than 30 species of Candida have been recognized as the causative agent of candidiasis and approximately 95% of the contaminations are caused by its four species: C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, and C. tropicalis20, 21.

 Nearly 50% of individuals have Candida yeast in the oral cavity which is responsible for the superficial infection. However, Candida infection can spread through the body and can end-up in life-threatening incidences, specifically in immunocompromised patients 22, 23.

The global burden of candidiasis is given in Table-1.

(Table 1. Global burden of candidiasis)


Azoles and its derivatives (fluconazole, voriconazole, Itraconazole, ketoconazole) are primarily used antifungals 24-25. Isolates of Candida have been reported to develop resistance to the existing antifungals (fluconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, etc). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, NIH, USA), about 7% of all Candida bloodstream isolates tested at CDC were resistant to fluconazole and about 1.5% were resistant to Echinocandin (Figure 1).

(Photo Source: CDC Report)

Increasing resistance to selected drugs encouraged the clinical practice of other drugs also e.g. amphotericin B, echinocandins, terbinafine, etc. as shown in Table-2 along with its mode of action.

(Table 2. Synthetic anti-Candida drugs)


Plants and their extracts have been used in traditional medicine since prehistoric times due to its availability and efficacy without toxicity33. Plants produce numbers of natural active compounds for defence against fungi, insects, and herbivorous mammals. And many more phytoactive compounds have biological activities34. The use of herbal medicines has been widely accepted in many developed and developing countries. Herbal remedies are widely used in Asia, mainly India and China, and are now getting popularity in the UK and Europe, as well as in North America and Australia33,35. WHO estimated that around 80% population of the developing countries (like Latin America, Asia, Africa, etc.) depends on traditional therapy based on herbal medicines for their primary health care needs. In the year 2000, the global trade of medicinal plants and their products was reported to be US$ 60 billion, with a projected forecast to touch US$ 5 trillion by 205035. India and China are the top global exporters of herbal drugs due to its systematic traditional knowledge of plant-based medicines and culture.

In the modern era, natural products are the source of bioactive substances with possible medical uses in pharmacy and dentistry. Natural ingredients include essential oils and their elements and can form part of several classes of compounds, most commonly phenylpropenes and terpenes with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and curative properties 36. Looking at the rising demand for plant-based drugs, we tried to compile the details of plants showing anti-Candida properties (Table-3).

(Table. 3: Plants having anti-Candida properties)

Table-3 is an effort to compile some recent studies in the subject matter in a tabulated form.

                Biofilm is an important pathogenic implication of the Candida to survive the existing synthetic drug, which is responsible for drug resistance. Some of the plant extracts and their phytoactive compounds have exhibited remarkable anti-biofilm properties; e.g. Berberis vulgaris,42 Buchenaviatomentosa Eichler,44 Cinnamomum zeylanicum,47 Curcuma longa L.,48,49 Matricaria chamomilla,55 Peganum harmala L.58  and Sanguinaria Canadensis 61. Berberine, Sanguinarine, Harmaline, Curcumin, and many other phytoactive compounds have been reported to decrease the viability of Candida biofilm significantly42,48,49,61.


Since the prehistoric period, plants have been the source of medicine in different countries like India and China. According to a WHO report, approximately 80% of the premier health issues in developing countries depend on traditional medicine. Currently, the scientific research community and government health agencies are focusing on the studies related to the bioactive compounds. Phytoactive compounds are generally safe and easily available for commercial-scale drug production. Therefore, it’s encouraging to develop an effective and safe drug against microbial human pathogens from natural resources. Nature holds ample resources for the discovery of new and highly effective herbal drugs. It may be concluded from the table-3 that two plants Camellia sinensis and Hypericum havvae have remarkable anti-Candida properties and can be used to develop alternative anti-Candida drugs. Camellia sinensis have shown promising results against many pathogenic species of the Candida e.g. C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. Tropicalis, and C. Glabrata, and Hypericum havvae was effective against C. glabrata, C. kreusei, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, and C. tropicalis.

Source(s) of Funding: No funding is involved.

Conflicting Interest: The authors declare no conflicting interest.


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A study by Dorothy Ebere Adimora et al. entitled \"Remediation for Effects of Domestic Violence on Psychological well-being, Depression and Suicide among Women During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-cultural Study of Nigeria and Spain\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 23
A study by Muhas C. et al. entitled \"Study on Knowledge & Awareness About Pharmacovigilance Among Pharmacists in South India\" is awarded Best article for Vol 14 issue 22
A study by Saurabh Suvidha entitled \"A Case of Mucoid Degeneration of Uterine Fibroid with Hydrosalphinx and Ovarian Cyst\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 21
A study by Alice Alice entitled \"Strengthening of Human Milk Banking across South Asian Countries: A Next Step Forward\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 20
A study by Sathyanarayanan AR et al. entitled \"The on-task Attention of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder-An Eye Tracker Study Using Auticare\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 19
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A study by Shafaque M. et al. entitled \"A Case-Control Study Performed in Karachi on Inflammatory Markers by Ciprofloxacin and CoAmoxicillin in Patients with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 17
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A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


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