International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 08 Issue 09, May, 2016

Pages: 07-11

Date of Publication: 12-May-2016


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DELAY ANALYSIS OF ADHOC NETWORK USING NS 2.34

Author: Samiksha Nikam, B. T. Jadhav

Category: Technology

Abstract:Ad hoc network is popular nowadays due to the easy disposition and self-configuring nature. Hence, routing related issues encounter challenges in the ad hoc network. Such network is mainly used for transmission of text, picture and video data. The speed of data delivery decides the quality of service of the network. The quality of service depends upon the protocol used for data transmission. Efficient routing protocol improves the quality of service. The efficiency of the protocol is decided by evaluating different performance parameters like throughput, delay, packet drop, routing load, packet delivery ratio etc. The end to end delay is one of the most important performance parameter sofad-hoc network. It plays a major role in deciding the quality of service. The delay is measured as total time is taken by the packet to reach the destination. Delay in ad hoc network gets affected by the mobility of nodes, and a number of nodes connected to the network. The objective of this research paper is to analyze delay of ad hoc network for DSDV routing protocol. The delay is measured in high and low mobility scenario by changing various parameters of ad hoc network such as a number of nodes, pause time, speed, and connections between the nodes. Network simulator ns2.34 is used for this.

Keywords: Ad-hoc Network, DSDV, NS2.34, Performance Measurements, Delay

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION In ad hoc network nodes can enter and leave a network as per their wish. Hence, routes may break or new route forms during data communication process. Various routing protocols are designed for the ad hoc mobile network. The mobility of the nodes is major challenges researchers have to face while designing routing protocols. [2][12]. Due to self-organized nature of ad hoc network, it is very much popular nowadays. Most of the people using the adhoc network for transmission of multimedia data. The requirement for such transmission is that delay should be minimum. Delay in ad hoc network depends on the factors such as node density, the number of connected nodes, and the speed and mobility of the nodes. In this research paper researcher analyses the delay of ad hoc network in two different scenario such as, 1. By assigning maximum and minimum values for network parameters and running a simulation to evaluate delay for various combinations. 2. The delay is measured in low and high mobility scenario by changing number of nodes and speed of nodes.

DESTINATION-SEQUENCED DISTANCE-VECTOR (DSDV) PROTOCOL It is a first table driven ad-hoc network protocol. It is a hop by hop table distance vector routing protocol. In this protocol, each node maintains arouting table that contains all possible destinations within network and number of routing hops to each destination. The information in the routing table is updated by increasing sequence number which avoids counter to infinity problem. The sequence number shows freshness of route and route with higher sequence number are favorable. Each mobile node of ad hoc network maintains a routing table which stores information about all available destinations, the number of hops and a sequence number. Using this routing table packets are transmitted between the nodes. Routing tables can be exchanged between neighbors at regular interval to keep an up to date view of network topology. The tables are also forwarded if a node observes a significant change in local topology [4] [7][12].

PERFORMANCE METRIC The delay is the important performance parameter of ad hoc network. A network’s delay is defined as the time required forsuccessful delivery of data packets to the destination node. [1][7]. Delay performance parameter is an important entity to decide efficiency of the routing protocol. In DSDV protocol routes are already stored in routing table hence route establishment time is negligible. However due to the mobility of nodes routes get fail and this increases the delay in the network. In this research paper delay is measured by changing various network parameters in a different scenario.

SIMULATION PROCESS The simulations were performed using Network Simulator (NS2.34). Fig 1.2 shows various steps used in the simulation. Initially scenario and traffic files are generated. These files are used as input for TCL script. After execution of TCL script, two files are created i.e. NAM file and trace files. Trace files are used to analyze the behavior of the network. Trace files are analyzed using AWK scripts. Detailed simulation process steps are as follows. 1. Generate scenario and topology files using cbrgen and setdest commands. 2. Write TCL script (.tcl Extension file) 3. Execute TCL script (Use ns Command) 4. Generate Trace and NAM file. 5. Select performance parameters. (Delay). 6. Execute AWK script to measure performance parameter delay of protocol. 7. Plot a graph. Experiment No.1. The goal of the experiment is to examine and compute delay of ad hoc network when DSDV routing protocol is used.

To evaluate the delay of ad hoc network we consider 10 random simulation runs to generate 10 random scenario patterns. The result is calculated by taking an average of those 10 outputs. To carry out simulation experiment parameter values set to maximum and minimum levels as shown in table 1.1. As four input parameters are selected total 2^4 = 16 combinations are possible. Table 1.2 shows a simulated experimental reading for sixteen combinations of four input parameters.

ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENT 1 Case 1: Pause time means the amount of time for which node remains stable in the network. The pause time term relates with mobility of the nodes. Low pause referred as high mobility and high pause time referred as low mobility. In first case network mobility is high (P.T. = 0).It is observed that in high mobility scenario to maintain low delay in the network number of connections in between the nodes should below. Case 2: The mobility of the nodes plays an important role to maintain delay in ad hoc network. It is observed from Table1.3 that in a low mobility scenario delay is maintained at moderate level (i.e.10 to 20 ms). This is because in low mobility situation frequency of route failure is less and in DSDV protocol routes are already stored hence less time is required for route discovery. This reduces delay. Case 3: In the third case it is observed that in high mobility scenario as the number of connections between the nodes increased it will increase the delay significantly.

EXPERIMENT NO 2: In the previous experiment, we consider maximum and minimum values for the parameters and calculate delay. It is observed that delay depends on mobility and number of connections between the nodes depicted in table 1.3. To strengthen the collective analysis perform in the first experiment second experiment is performed. In this experiment simulation is run for case 1 and case2. Here case 3 is not considered because low delay always desirable in networking Case 1: In this case mobility is high i.e. P.T. =0.A number of nodes and speed of the nodes is variable. Nodes vary from 15 to 60 and speed of nodes changes from 10 to 50 ms. A number of connections between the nodes are5 and 10 respectively. The reading of the experiment is shown in table 1.4. either 5 or 10 respectively. The experimental data is stored in table 1.5

Analysis of Experiment 2: It is observed from table 1.4 that in high mobility scenario when a number of connections in between the nodes is 5 delays is less than 10 ms. When the number of connections between the nodes increases to the number10 delay increases more than 10 ms. This shows that a number of connections between the nodes affect the delay of ad hoc network. To maintain low delay in ad hoc network when DSDV protocol is used for routing try to keep a number of connections in between the nodes minimum. It is observed from table 1.5 that in low mobility scenario when a number of connected nodes are either 5 or 10 then delays maintain between 10 to 20 ms. It is concluded that delay depends on mobility and connection between the nodes of ad hoc network. By regulating these parameters low delay can be preserve in the ad hoc network.

EXPERIMENT NO 3: To scrutinize effect of a number of connections on delay in ad hoc network this experiment is performed. In this experiment speed of the nodes is kept constant at 40ms. And a number of nodes are 100. Connections between the nodes vary from 5 to 75 and delays measured in high and low mobility scenario. The reading is shown in table1.6.

Analysis of Experiment No 3 It is observed that as the number of connections increases delay is increasing in both the cases. However in low mobility case delay maintain at a lower level than high mobility scenario. In high mobility scenario nodes are continuously moving. In DSDV protocol, each node maintains a routing table which contains information of other nodes in a range. The continuous movement of nodes requires frequent updating of routing tables this increases the delay in the network.

CONCLUSION This simulation-based study is conducted to analyze delay of ad hoc network when DSDV routing protocol is used. Ad hoc network has dynamic topology which raises various performance issues. The delay is important parameters for performance measurement. It is observed from the first experiment that in high mobility scenario if a number of nodes and speed of nodes are variable and other parameters are constant then delay in ad hoc network become unstable. The parameters Pause time and number of connections in between the nodes helps to reduce delay in ad hoc network. In the second experiment, we set parameters in combination and it is observed that mobility plays a significant role to maintain low delay in the network. Low mobility scenario helps to maintain moderate delay. In high mobility scenario if a number of nodes are kept minimum then delay can be maintained at a lower level. It is observed that delay dependson more than one factor hence, the researcher suggested using fuzzy logic to maintain low delayin an ad hoc network.

 

References:

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8. Mueen Uddin, Azizah Abdul Rahman, AbdulrahmanAlarifi Muhammad Talha, Asadullah Shah, MohsinIftikha and Albert Zomay,” Improving Performance Of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Efficient Tactical On Demand Distance Vector (Taodv) Routing Algorithm”, International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control ICIC International c 2012 ISSN 1349 4198Volume 8, Number 6, June 2012 pp. 4375–4389.

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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

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Best Article Award

A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Leow Jun Xian and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. entitled "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
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A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


Awardees of COVID-19 Research

Woman Researcher Award

A Study by Neha Garg et al. entitled "Optimization of the Response to nCOVID-19 Pandemic in Pregnant Women – An Urgent Appeal in Indian Scenario" published in Vol 12 issue 09

A Study by Sana Parveen and Shraddha Jain entitled "Pathophysiologic Enigma of COVID-19 Pandemic with Clinical Correlates" published in Vol 12 issue 13

A Study by Rashmi Jain et al. entitled "Current Consensus Review Article on Drugs and Biologics against nCOVID-19 – A Systematic Review" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Madhan Jeyaraman et al. entitled "Vitamin-D: An Immune Shield Against nCOVID-19" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Study by Dheeraj Kumar Chopra et al. entitled "Lipid-Based Solid Dispersions of Azilsartan Medoxomil with Improved Oral Bioavailability: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation" published in Vol 12 issue 19


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