International Journal of Current Research and Review
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IJCRR - Vol 11 Issue 15, August, 2019

Pages: 01-06

Date of Publication: 03-Aug-2019


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Awareness of Radiation Protection Among Trainee Dentists of Aurangabad, Maharashtra: A Questionnaire Based Study

Author: Ashish Bhaskar Zope, Lata Madhukar Kale, Sonia Kaur Sodhi, Vishwas Dattatratya Kadam, Aishwarya Madhukar Kale

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Objectives: The aim of this study was to test the interns for their understanding of the importance of radiology and its judicious use.
Methods: The study was carried out with 16 pretested questions which were closed ended. The study was conducted among the trainee dentists who were pursuing internship. The duration of the study was 2 weeks. A total of 115 trainee dentists participated, 90 females and 25 males. The data obtained was fed into Microsoft Excel (Redmond WA). The statistical analysis was performed with SPSS Version 17 to check for statistical significance.
Results: The results of the study are comprehensively presented in observation table and also in graph.
Conclusions: Based on our study, it can be concluded that, the intern dentists have a satisfactory knowledge of radiation protection methods. However, in order to improve further, continuing education programmes, at regular intervals are necessary to keep them updated about radiation protection protocols.

Keywords: Key Words: Radiology, Safety, Exposure

Full Text:

Introduction:

Dental Imaging is an integral part of clinical dentistry. As a result, radiographs are often referred to as the clinician's main diagnostic aid. However it carries a potential harm and the exposure to dental radiation should be minimized where practicable.[1] X-rays are a form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation. They can penetrate the human tissues. When X-rays strike matter such as a patient's tissues, the photons can completely be scattered with no loss of energy or can be absorbed with total loss of energy or scattered with some absorption and loss of energy or can be transmitted unchanged.

The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended that all patient exposure must be justified and kept as low as possible. So it is a mandatory to follow ALARA principle “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” during dentist routine work.[2,3] This principle was adopted to minimize radiation dose. In general, ALARA principle takes into consideration the justification for the radiological study and taking the imaging examination with the least amount of radiation that can produce radiographs of reasonable diagnostic quality. As a result radiographs should only be taken at the minimum dosage with reasonable information yield in as much as a safer method is not available.[4] Consequently operators of radiographic equipment should be thoroughly familiar with radiation safety practices and radiation regulations to protect themselves, their colleagues and the patients.

The effects of x-rays are harmful to living tissues and it is sufficiently intense and detrimental to cause cancer, leukemia and genetic damage.[5,6] These biological effects can be divided into Deterministic and stochastic effects.[3] Deterministic effects are those effects in which the severity of the response is proportional to the dose. These effects occur in all people when the dose is large enough.[7] Stochastic effects are those for which the probability of occurrence of the change, rather than its severity, is dose dependent.[3] The stochastic effects thus lay the patient’s and the operating personals in a high risk zone as it does not have dose thresholds.[3] Thus, dental radiographs should be only prescribed for patients when the benefit of disease detection outweighs the risk of damage from X-rays.[8] Thus reducing the radiation dose should be an important consideration for dental professionals.[9] In order to reduce patient’s exposure to radiation, appropriate use of a lead apron, thyroid collar, right collimation and suitable technique are included in the practice of radiologic examination. Every radiographic exposure to the patient should be clinically justified and each exposure should be expected to give the benefit of a confirmed diagnosis.[10]

                  This study focuses on the awareness level about radiation protection among trainee dentists. The aim of this study was to test the trainee dentists about their understanding of the importance of radiology and its judicious use. The study was carried out with 16 pretested questions which were closed ended.[12]

Materials and Methods:

A self formulated printed questionnaire consisting of 16 multiple choice questions was circulated among the trainee dentists and their responses were received. Only those dental students who were pursuing internship were included in this study. The duration of the study was 2 weeks. A total of 115 trainee dentists participated in the study of which 90 were females and 25 males.

Statistical Methods:

The data obtained was fed into Microsoft Excel (Redmond WA). The statistical analysis was performed with SPSS Version 17 to check for statistical significance.

Results:

The study was conducted among the trainee dentists who were pursuing internship. The duration of the study was 2 weeks. A total of 115 trainee dentists participated of which 90 were females and 25 males.  The results are comprehensively presented in observation table and also in graph.

Discussion:

Our study shows that 33.9% of the respondents, get exposed to radiation several times in a month, during clinical posting. 35.7% percent respondents feel that the importance of imaging in dentistry is high. When questioned about various methods to protect the patient from radiation exposure, majority (62.6%) responded as lead aprons, shields and time of exposure, which correlates with the study done in Chennai.[12] Our study reveals thyroid is the organ to be protected during radiologic exposure as responded by 53.9% of the participants, which correlates with the study done in Chennai.[12] 36.5% responded that, 6.0 REM/year, is maximum permissible dose for occupationally exposed persons, while, 33% responded 2.0rems/year as the maximum permissible dose for non-occupationally exposed persons. 40.9% respondents opined that the greatest risk of radiation induced thyroid cancers is above 30 years of age.

33% participants responded that, rectangular PID is best and another 33% participants responded that, round PID is best. 39.1%participants responded that E films cause 60% reduction in radiation as compared to D films. 40% participants responded that, 6 months is the minimum duration of exposure, for the usage of personnel monitoring device. For the question regarding the holding of film during exposure, 54.8% responded in the negative, which reduces unnecessary radiation exposure, which correlates with the study done in Vikarabad, Telangana, India.[11] When asked about the holding of radiographic tube during exposure, majority (62.6%) of the respondents of our study replied in the negative. 39.1% participants replied that radiographs can be taken for pregnant patients only after weighing risk benefit ratio. According to 46.1% participants, radiographs can be taken for a pregnant patients in 2nd trimester. It can be seen from the above histogram that, majority of the respondents (67.8%) of the study follow the position and distance rule and hence reduce their risk of radiation exposure significantly. 44.3% replied that X ray room can be made safe by lead walls and walls constructed of gypsum wallboard. 

Analysis of subjective questions of our study (Question numbers 1, 2, 3, 11, 12 and 15) indicates fairly good understanding of radiation protection protocols. However, analyzing the response to objective questions (Question numbers 4, 5, 6, 7,8, 9, 10, 13, 14 and 16 of our study), only 293 correct responses were received against 1150 maximum possible, which indicates that level of awareness of radiation protection is fairly low among intern dentists. To help them in minimizing the exposure to the dental fraternity or patients with focus on welfare of the patients we emphasize continual education programs at regular intervals at institutional level and national level for strict observance of various radiographic protection guidelines.[11]

Conclusion:

Based on our study, it can be concluded that, the intern dentists have a satisfactory knowledge of radiation protection methods. However, in order to improve further, continuing education programmes, at regular intervals are necessary to keep them updated about radiation protection protocols.

Acknowledgement:

Authors are thankful for the skillful and generous support of Dr.AmrutaMadhukarBansode (M.D.S., O.M.R.) and Dr. Kapil Dhananjayrao Pawar (M.D.S., O.M.R.), (Sr. Lecturers, Department of Oral Medicine & Radiology; C.S.M.S.S. Dental College & Hospital; Kanchanwadi; Paithan Road; Aurangabad; Maharashtra).

Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

Sources of financial / equipment support: None.

Conflicts of interest                                 : Nil.

Abbreviations:

REM: Roentgen Equivalent Man. It is a measurement that correlates the dose of any radiation to the biological effect of that radiation.

PID: Position Indicating Device.  It is a device to guide the direction of X ray beam during the exposure of dental radiographs.

Annexure:

Questionnaire:

1. How many times do you get exposed to radiation?

A. several times in a day

B. several times in a week

C. several times in a month

D. none of the above

2. In your opinion how important is imaging in dentistry?

A. Low

B. Moderate

C. High

D. Very high

3. Mark the various options to reduce radiation exposure to patient that you are aware of?

A. lead aprons

B. shields

C. time of exposure

D. all of the above

4. What is the most important organ that has to be protected during dental radiography?

A. gonads

B. thyroid

C. skin

D. bone marrow

5. What is the maximum permissible dose for occupationally exposed persons?

A. 5.0 rems/year

B. 6.0 rems/year

C. 4.0rems/year

D. 3.0 rems/year

6. What is the maximum permissible dose for non-occupationally exposed persons?

A. 0.1 rem/year

B. 1.0 rem/year

C. 2.0 rems/year

D. 0.2 rem/year

7. Greater risk of radiation induced thyroid cancers is seen in the age group of-

A. Below 30 years

B. Above 30 years

C. Below 20 years

D. Between 20 years and 30 years

 

 

 

8. Which is the best PID?

A. Rectangular

B. Round

C. Either of the above

D. Cannot say

9. I/O films of speed E reduce how much radiation as compared to D films?

A. 50%

B. 40%

C. 60%

D. 30%

10. What is the minimum duration of exposure for using personnel monitoring devices?

A. 3 months

B. 6 months

C. 1 year

D. 2 years

11. Do you hold the radiographic film during exposure?

A. Yes

B. No

C. Sometimes

D. Never

12. Do you hold the radiographic tube during exposure?

A. yes

B. no

C. Sometimes

D. Never

13. Can periapical radiographs be taken for a pregnant woman?

A. Yes

B. No

C. Only after weighing risk benefit ratio

D. Cannot say

14. Preferably in which trimester?

A. First.

B. Second.

C. Third.

D. Cannot say.

15. Do you follow the position and distance rule?

A. Yes

B. No

C. Sometimes

D. Never

16. What are the measures that have to be taken to make the X-ray room safe from exposure?

A. Lead walls

B. walls constructed of gypsum wallboard

C. both

D. none of the above

Answer Key:

4-D; 5-A; 6-A; 7-A; 8-A; 9-A; 10-A; 13-C; 14-C; 16-C

References:

1. National Council for Radiation protection and Measurements (NCRP). Radiation protection in dentistry. Bethesda Md: National council for radiation protection and measurements; 2003.

2. ICRP. Recommendations of the ICRP. ICRP Publication 26. Ann ICRP, 1977; 1: 1-53.

3. White SC, Pharoah MJ. Chapter 2: Radiation biology in Oral Radiology Principles and Interpretation, Fifth edition. Mosby, St. Louis 2004, p. 25 – 46.

4. Freeman JP, Brand JW. Radiation doses of commonly used dental radiographic surveys. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol., 1994; 77: 285-9.

5. Royal College of Radiologists and National Radiological Protection Board. Patient dose reduction in diagnostic radiology. Document of the National Radiological Protection Board, 1990; 1(2).

6. Barr JH, Stephens RG. Radiological health, In Dental radiology, Pertinent basic Concepts and their Applications in Clinical Practice. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1980; p. 66 – 80.

7. Frommer HH. Biological effects of Radiation, In Radiology for Dental Auxillaries, 6th edition St. Louis, Mosby – year book, 1996; p. 49 – 67.

8. Haring JI, Lind LJ. Chapter 5: Radiation protection in Textbook of Dental Radiography Principles and Techniques. W.B. Saunders Company, 1996, p. 64 – 79.

9. Shahab S, Kavosi A, Nazarinia H, Mehralizadeh S, et al. Compliance of Iranian dentists with safety standards of oral radiology. Dentomaxillofac Radiol., 2012; 41:159-64.

10. Prabhat MP, Sudhakar S, Praveen B, Ramaraju K. Knowledge, attitude and perception(KAP) of dental undergraduates and interns on radiographic protection — A questionnaire based cross-sectional study. J Adv Oral Res., 2011; 2: 45-50.

11. Swapna et al.; BJMMR, 19(7): 1-7, 2017; Article no.BJMMR.30761

12. Tamizh Paavai .THA, Jayanth Kumar V. To Study Awareness About Radiation Protection Among Dental Students Of Chennai-A Questionnaire Based Study. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2017 Jan ; 8(1): B 542-551

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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

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This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

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Best Article Award

A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Leow Jun Xian and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. entitled "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
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A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
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List of Awardees

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


Awardees of COVID-19 Research

Woman Researcher Award

A Study by Neha Garg et al. entitled "Optimization of the Response to nCOVID-19 Pandemic in Pregnant Women – An Urgent Appeal in Indian Scenario" published in Vol 12 issue 09

A Study by Sana Parveen and Shraddha Jain entitled "Pathophysiologic Enigma of COVID-19 Pandemic with Clinical Correlates" published in Vol 12 issue 13

A Study by Rashmi Jain et al. entitled "Current Consensus Review Article on Drugs and Biologics against nCOVID-19 – A Systematic Review" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Madhan Jeyaraman et al. entitled "Vitamin-D: An Immune Shield Against nCOVID-19" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Study by Dheeraj Kumar Chopra et al. entitled "Lipid-Based Solid Dispersions of Azilsartan Medoxomil with Improved Oral Bioavailability: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation" published in Vol 12 issue 19


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