International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, Google Scholar, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services)

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Full Html

IJCRR - 11(2), January, 2019

Pages: 07-10

Date of Publication: 22-Jan-2019

Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

An Innovative Quinone (Pyrroloquinoline Quinone) and its Antiproliferative Effects

Author: Flores-Encarnacion, M., Cabrera-Aguilar I., Aguilar-Gutierrez G.R., Cabrera-Maldonado, C.

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:The pyrroloquinoline quinine is a cofactor discovered in bacteria. It is associated with various bacterial soluble and membrane enzymes that directly oxidize sugars, alcohols, aldehydes. In higher organisms, it has been reported that pyrroloquinoline quinine acts as a potent free radical scavenger and it seems to intervene in different processes causing remarkable benefits. One of the most important effects is that pyrroloquinoline quinine induced apoptosis in different cancer cell lines. It is interesting to observe the role of pyrroloquinoline quinine as pro-apoptotic agent. This review shows the most relevant aspects of this cofactor and its antiproliferative effects.

Keywords: Pyrroloquinoline quinone, PQQ, Cofactor, Effect, Antiproliferative

Full Text:


PQQ is a substance of quinoid nature discovered as a cofactor in different bacterial genera (Amador-Bravo, 2016; Ameyama et al., 1991; Choi et al., 2008; Misra et al., 2012). As a cofactor, it catalyzes the oxidation of organic compounds such as monosaccharides, alcohols and short chain aldehydes. It has been reported that PQQ is linked covalently and non-covalently to enzymes (Attwood et al., 1991; Flores-Encarnación et al., 2004; Goodwin and Anthony, 1998; Matsushita et al., 2002; Naveed et al., 2016). Due to its quinoid nature, PQQ has very active carbonyl groups, being a powerful antioxidant agent. It has been observed that the presence of PQQ in certain bacterial genera facilitates the activation of alternative metabolic pathways for the utilization of sugars; it also favors the production of high quantities of acidic substances in the external environment of bacteria by direct oxidation of sugars or alcohols (Choi et al., 2008). PQQ is a novel quinone of bacterial origin that has changed the vision regarding diseases such as cancer because PQQ has been proposed as a possible alternative for the treatment of this disease, according to results obtained in different cell lines.

In recent years, the benefits of PQQ have been demonstrated when this substance is administered in plants or diet of different experimental animals(Amador-Bravo et al., 2016; Bauerly et al., 2011; Choi et al., 2008; Flores-Encarnación et al., 2014; Harris et al., 2013; Misra et al., 2012; Oteino et al., 2015). For example, it has a been attributed to PQQ the promotion of growth factors in tomato plantations, increasing amount of macronutrients and number of fruits. In rats, the use of a diet supplemented with PQQ showed a significant change in the learning (Amador-Bravo et al., 2016; Fukui et al., 2001; Harris et al., 2013; Ohwada et al., 2008). It has been reported that PQQ acts as a potent free radical scavenger; it suppresses the production of superoxide radicals(Hamagishi et al., 1988; Matsumoto et al., 1988; Zhang et al., 2013). PQQ has been described as a new vitamin and it seems to intervene in different processes in higher organisms causing remarkable benefits(McIntire, 1998). In recent years, the effect of PQQ on different cancer cell lines has been studied and it has been observed that PQQ induces apoptosis (Min et al., 2014). This review shows the most relevant aspects of PQQ and its antiproliferative effects.


PQQ is a soluble anionic compound of low molecular weight, which has been classified as a new vitamin and as an essential nutrient, since it has been proven that it plays important roles: in cell proliferation, it is an antioxidant of lipid peroxidation and its beneficial effects have also been observed in cellular lesions (Shui et al., 2015; Azizi et al., 2014). PQQ is a nutrient that is well distributed in nature and serves as a non-covalent cofactor of redox reactions in certain bacterial dehydrogenase (named quinoproteins) (Flores-Encarnación et al., 2004; Matsushita et al., 2002; Tao et al., 2007). PQQ is not synthesized in mammals, however it has been found in several levels of concentration in plants, in certain foods, such as kiwi, egg, wine, even in human breast milk (Noji et al., 2007). It has been found that PQQ develops many important functions in humans and animals, including roles in nutrition, protection of the heart by ischemia, preventing damage to the liver by alcohol, sequestering free radicals from the body, increasing the level of nerve growth factor (in astrocytes) and inhibiting melanin production in melanoma cells (Fukui et al., 2001; Wang et al., 2014).

PQQ as a vitamin

PQQ has been proposed as a new vitamin because it had beneficial effects on healthy cells at low concentrations (nanomolar to micromolar order) (Chowanadisai et al., 2010; Steinberg et al., 2003). It is known that glutamate is the free amino acid more abundant in the central nervous system but excess glutamate can affect progenitor cells and induces apoptosis in neural trunkand other cells(Pavlovic et al., 2006). However, in vitro studies have shown that when the cells were cultured at different PQQ concentrations (3 nM to 30 mM), it was observed that PQQ favored cell proliferation and significantly attenuated cell damage induced by glutamate (Shui et al., 2015). On the other hand, it is known that vitamins perform their function in team and in certain specific places of the body. Some authors have studied the effect of PQQ and vitamin E in peripheral nerves such as sciatica. They discovered that PQQ together with vitamin E favored the fastest recovery from nerve damage (increasing the regeneration of axons). Therefore, those two agents were been proposed for an effective regeneration in peripheral nerve lesions (Azizi et al., 2014; Naveedet al., 2016).Tao et al., (2007) proposed to PQQ as a cardioprotective agent after observing a remarkable reduction of peroxides treating adult rat myocardium cells with H2O2 and PQQ.

PQQ as growth promoter

This novel quinone was proposed as a potent growth factor in mice and as a promoter of DNA synthesis in human fibroblasts(Amador-Bravo et al., 2016;Chowanadisai et al., 2010;Harris et al., 2013; Misra et al., 2012). Kumazawa et al., (2007) observed in NIH3T3mouse fibroblasts that PQQ increased cell proliferation through of signals related to Rats and it was observed that effect of PQQ derived from regulation of nitric oxide (NO) levels. Those studies contributed to expand understanding of cellular mechanisms, cell signaling and gene expression relevant to PQQ in mammals (Kumazawa et al., 2007).

On the other hand, it has been reported that coenzymes such as PQQ showed a stimulating effect on the synthesis of nerve growth factor in mouse fibroblasts and BALBc/3T3 cell line, concluding that PQQ plays a important role in neuronal survival (Azizi et al., 2014; Misra et al., 2012; Murase et al., 1993). The effect of PQQ has also been studied in fibroblasts, myocytes and mouse brainmicrovascular endothelial cells, where it was observed that PQQ in nanomolar concentrations protected these cells from high glucose-induced damage, thus reducing apoptosis and increasing the number of mitochondria in the cells. Apparently the protective effect was due to intracellular expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha subunit (HIF-1α) (Wang et al., 2014). It is known that liver fibrosis develops when there is chronic inflammation and destruction of liver cells, however it has been observed that PQQ has a suppressive, anti-oxidant and anti-fibrogenic effect. It has been reported that PQQ exerted a potent anti-fibrotic activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity in Balb/C mouse models of liver fibrosis (Jia et al., 2015). In the majority of the studies that have been carried out, the effect of PQQ in nanomolar concentration has been tested, however in the last years other studies have been developed in different cell lines of malignant cells, showing that in micromolar quantities PQQ has apoptotic effects (Min et al., 2014).

The antiproliferative effects of PQQ

It has been reported that the murine melanoma cell line B16F1is characterized because melanocytes produce a large amount of tyrosinase enzyme. Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in melanin synthesis and that in high amounts produces hyperpigmentation of the skin and even cancer (melanoma) (Sato et al., 2008).Sato and Toriyama (2009) reported that PQQ between 12.5 to 25 μM inhibited the synthesis of mRNA that codes for tyrosinase involved in the production of melanin. These authors observed a decrease in cell proliferation and melanin production. Although the mechanism of action is still unknown, it has been proposed PQQ as a possible treatment against melanogenesis and hyperpigmentation disorders. In cell lines A-549 (adenocarcinoma of human lung), Neuro-2A (mouse neuroblastoma) and HCC-LM3 (human hepatocellular carcinoma), it has been observed that PQQ at concentrations 30 to 75 μM suppressed cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis. In addition, it was observed that PQQ increased the activity of caspase-3, produced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and produced the intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the decline of ATP levels (Min et al., 2014). In the cell line A431 (human squamous cell carcinoma), it has been observed that PQQ at concentrations in the nanomolar order, promoted cell proliferation increasing growth up to 180%, however at concentrations in the micromolar order PQQ induced apoptosis (Kimura et al., 2012). In the cell line U937 (human promonocitic leukemia), it was reported that PQQ at concentrations of 50-100 μM induced a depletion of glutathione and, consequently, an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). The decrease in glutathione led to the cells suffering necrosis, indicating that PQQ increased cytotoxicity due to the change in the cellular redox state. Thus, glutathione depletion can change the mode of cell death to necrosis in the presence of PQQ. The modulation of intracellular glutathione could be a strategy to enhance the cytotoxicity of PQQ (Nunone et al., 2008; Shankar et al., 2013). As a scavenger of reactive oxygen species, PQQ appears to be a potent neuroprotector (Scanlon et al., 1997). Zhang et al. (2009 ) reported that the addition of 1 to 20 μM of PQQ in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, together with the beta-amyloid protein (Aβ), prevents the damage caused by the latter, thus avoiding apotosis. Beta-amyloid proteins have been proposed as one of the causes of Alzheimer's disease that produces neurotoxicity (increasing the production of reactive oxygen species) and induces apoptosis of neurons (Zhang et al. (2013). The alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is a small soluble protein expressed primarily at presynaptic terminals in the central nervous system and it is related to several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (Amador-Bravo et al., 2016). The recent data suggest that α-syn has a role in regulating membrane stability and neuronal plasticity (Overk et al., 2014). When the α-syn is mutated the function is lostcausing the formation of bodies of Lewis, cytotoxicity, apoptosis in neurons of the substantia nigra and therefore Parkinson’s disease (Kim et al., 2010; Kobayashi et al., 2010;Overk et al., 2014; Recchia et al., 2004). On the other hand, the rotenone is a substance that has been used as a natural pesticide. Its use has increased in recent years. However, rotenone can cross the brain barrier by penetrating the cell membrane and acting as a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I leading to cell death. It has been tested in several cellular models that PQQ added to different concentrations in the presence of rotenone, protects the cells from damage and delays their harmful effects (Qin et al., 2015).


PQQ is a novel cofactor that can act as a vitamin in nanomolar concentrations; at higher concentrations PQQ could be used for the treatment of certain diseases. PQQ can induce apoptosis in cancer cells, it is also protective of neurons, of myocardium and stimulates the cognitive system, among other things. However, PQQ can also have pro-oxidant characteristics and by binding to certain compounds can exacerbate cell toxicity.


Thank to PRODEP and Facultad de Medicina-BUAP for the facilities provided for the development of this work.


Authors have no conflict of interest.


  1. Amador-Bravo D, Flores-Encarnación M, Aguilar-Gutiérrez GR, Sánchez-Cuevas M. Pyrroloquinoline quinone: a brief overview of its biological potential.  Basic Res J Med Clin Sci. 2016; 5: 1-5.

  2. Ameyama M, Matsushita K, Shinawaga E, Adachi O. Biochemical and physiological functions of pyrroloquinoline quinone. Vit and Horm. 1991; 46: 229-278.

  3. Attwood MM, Johannes P, Van Dijken P, Pronk JT. Glucose metabolism and gluconic acid production by Acetobacter diazotrophicus. J Ferment Bioengin. 1991; 72: 101-105.

  4. Azizi A, Azizi S, Heshmatian B, Amini K. Improvement of functional recovery of transected peripheral nerve by means of chitosan grafts filles with vitamin E, pyrroloquinoline quinone and their combination. Intern J Surg. 2014; 12: 76-82. 

  5. Bauerly K, Harris C, Chowanadisai W, Graham J, Havel PJ, Tchaparian E, Satre M, Karliner  JS, Rucker RB. Altering pyrroloquinoline quinone nutritional status modulates mitochondrial, lipid, and energy metabolism in rats. Plos ONE. 2011; 6: E21779. 

  6. Choi O, Kim J, Kim JG, Jeong Y, Moon JS, Park CS.  Pyrroloquinoline quinone is a plant growth promotion factor produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens B16. Plant Physiol. 2008; 146: 657-668.

  7. Chowanadisai W, Bauerly KA, Tchaparian E, Wong A, Cortopassi GA, Rucker RB.  Pyrroloquinoline quinone stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis through cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and increased PGC-1α expression.  The J Biol Chem. 2010; 285: 142-152.

  8. Flores-Encarnación M, González-Gutiérrez JY, Amador-Bravo D, Bravo-Juárez L, Cabrera-Maldonado C. A bacterial novel quinone participating in multiple functions in higher organisms. Glob Adv Res J Med Med Sci. 2014; 3: 132-138.

  9. Flores-Encarnación M, Sánchez-Cuevas M, Ortiz-Gutiérrez F.  Las PQQ deshidrogenasas. Un novedoso ejemplo de quinoproteínas bacterianas. Rev Latinoam Microbiol. 2004; 46: 47-59.

  10. Fukui K, Hayasaka T, Shinkai T, Suzuki S, Abe K, Urano S. Impairment of learning and memory in rats caused by oxidative stress and aging, and changes in antioxidative defense systems. Annal NY Acad Sci. 2001; 928: 168-175.

  11. Goodwin PM, Anthony C. The biochemistry, physiology and genetics of PQQ and PQQ-containing enzymes. Adv Microb Physiol. 1998; 40:1-80.

  12. Hamagishi Y, Murata S, Kamei K, Oki T, Ameyama M. Novel pharmacological activity of a novel cofactor PQQ. Radical scavenger-like activity. Abstr Annu Meet JpnPharmacol Soc. 1988. 109 th., pp. 42.

  13. Harris CB, Chowanadisai W, Mishchuk DO, Satre MA, Slupsky CM, Rucker RB. Dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) alters indicators of inflammation and mitochondrial-related metabolism in human subjects. J Nutr Biochem. 2013; 24:2076-2084.

  14. Jia D, Duan F, Peng P, Sun L, Ruan Y, Gu J. Pyrroloquinoline quinone supresses liver fibrogenesis in mice. PLoS ONE. 2015;10: e0121939. 

  15. Kim J, Harada R, Kobayashi M, Kobayashi N, Sode K. The inhibitory effect of pyrroloquinoline quinone on the amyloid formation and cytotoxicity of truncated alpha-synuclein. Mol Neurodegen. 2010; 5:20-31. 

  16. Kimura K, Takada M, Ishii T, Tsuji-Naito K, Akagawa M. Pyrroloquinoline quinone stimulates epithelial cell proliferation by activating epidermal growth factor receptor through redox cycling. Free Radical Biol. Med. 2012; 53:1239-1251.

  17. Kong L, Yang C, Yu L, Smith W, Zhu S, Zhu J, Zhu Q. Pyrroloquinoline quinone inhibits RANKL-mediated expression of NFATc1 in part via suppression of c-Fos in mouse bone marrow cells and inhibits wear particle-induced ostelysis in mice. PLoS ONE. 2013; 8:e61013. 

  18. Kobayashi M, Kim J, Fukuda M, Ogasawara D, Kobayashi N, Han S, Nakamura C, InadaM, Miyaura C, Ikebukuro K, Sode K. Pyrroloquinoline quinone inhibits the fibrillation of amyloid proteins. Prion. 2010; 4:26-31.

  19. Kumazawa T, Hiwasa T, Takiguchi M, Suzuki O, Sato K. Activation of Ras signaling pathways by pyrroloquinoline quinone in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Intern J Mol Med. 2007; 19: 765-770.

  20. Matsushita K, Toyama H, Adachi O. Quinoproteins: structure, function, and biotechnological applications. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2002; 58:13-22.

  21. Matsumoto T, Susuki O, Hayakawa H, Omiso S, Hayakawa N, Nimura Y. Effects of exogenous PQQ on mortality rate and some biochemical parameters during endotoxin shock in rats. In PQQ and quinoproteins. JA Jongejan and JA Duine (eds). 1988. Kluwer. The Hague. pp. 162-164.

  22. McIntire WS. Newly discovered redox cofactors: possible nutritional medical and pharmacological relevance to higher animals. Ann Rev Nutr. 1988; 18:145-177. 

  23. Min Z, Wang L, Jin J, Wang X, Zhu B, Chen H, Cheng Y. Pyrroloquinoline quinone induces cancer cell apoptosis via mitochondrial-dependent pathway and down-regulating cellular Bcl-2 protein expression. J Cancer. 2014; 5:609-624.

  24. Misra HS, Rajpurohit YS, Khairnar NP. Pyrroloquinoline quinone and its versatile roles in biological processes. J Biosci. 2012; 37:313-325.

  25. Murase K, Hattori A, Kohno M, Hayashi K. Stimulation of nerve growth factor synthesis/secretion in mouse astroglial cells by coenzymes. Biochem Mol Biol Intern. 1993; 30:615-621.

  26. Naveed M, Tariq K, Ahmad H, Mumtaz AS. The life history of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ): a versatile molecule with novel impacts on living systems. Intern J Mol Biol. 2016; 1:1-20.

  27. Noji N, Nakamura T, Kitahata N, Taguchi K, Kudo T, Yoshida S, Tsujimoto M, Sugiyama T, Asami T.  Simple and sensitive method for pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) analysis in various foods using liquid chromatography/electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem. 2007; 55:7258-7263.

  28. Nunome K, Miyazaki S, Nakano M, Iguchi-Ariga S, Ariga H. Pyrroloquinoline quinone prevents oxidative stress-induced neuronal death probably through changes in oxidative status of DJ-1. Biol Pharm Bulletin. 2008; 31:1321-1326.

  29. Ohwada K, Takeda H, Yamazaki M, Isogai H, Nakano M, Shimomura M. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) prevents cognitive deficit caused by oxidative stress in rats. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2008; 42:29-34. 

  30. Oteino N, Lally RD, Kiwanuka S, Lloyd A, Ryan D, Germainde KJ, Dowling DN. Plant growth promotion induced by phosphate solubilizing endophytic Pseudomonas isolates. Front Microbiol. 2015; 6:1-9.

  31. Overk CR, Cartier A, Shaked G, Rockenstein E, Ubhi K, Spencer B, Masliah E. Hippocampal neuronal cells that accumulate αsynuclein fragments are move vulnerable to Aβ oligomer toxicity via mGluR5-implications for dementia with Lewy bodies. Mol Neurodegener. 2014; 9:1-18.

  32. Pavlovic V, Cekic S, Sokolovic D, Djindjic B.  Modulatory effect of monosodium glutamate on rat thymocyte proliferation and apoptosis. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2006; 107:185-191.

  33. Qin J, Wu Q, Yu S, Gao X, Zhang J, Dong X, Ji J, Zhang Y, Zhou L, Zhang Q, Ding F. Pyrroloquinoline quinone conferred neuroprotection in rotenone models of Parkinson´s disease. Toxicol Letters. 2015; 238:70-82.

  34. Kumazawa T, Hiwasa T, Takiguchi M, Susuki O, Sato K. Activation of Ras signaling pathways by pyrroloquinoline quinone in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Intern J Mol Med. 2007; 19:765-770.

  35. Recchia A, Debetto P, Negro A, Guidolin D, Skaper SD, Giusti P. Alfa-synuclein and Parkinson’s disease. FASEB J. 2004; 18:617-626.  

  36. Sato K, Takahashi H, Iraha R, Toriyama M. Down-regulation of tyrosinase expression by acetylsalicylic acid in murine B16 melanoma. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008; 31:33-37.

  37. Sato K, Toriyama M. Effect of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) on melanogenic protein expression in murine B16 melanoma. J Dermatol Sci. 2009; 53:140-145.

  38. Scanlon J, Aizenman E, Reynolds I. Effects of pyrroloquinoline quinone on glutamate-induced production of reactive oxygen species in neurons. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997; 326:67-74. 

  39. Shankar BS, Pandey R, Amin P, Misra HS, Sainis KB. Role of glutathione in augmenting the anticancer activity of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ). Redox Report. 2013; 15:146-154.

  40. Shui G, Jianqiang X, Yifu G, Dan G, Tianqing L, Xuehu M, Zhanfeng C. Pyrroloquinoline quinone against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neural stem and progenitor cells. Intern J Develop Neurosci. 2015; 42:37-45. 

  41. Steinberg F, Stites TE, Anderson P, Storms D, Chan I,  Eghbali SRucker R.  (2003). Pyrroloquinoline quinone improves growth and reproductive performance in mice fed chemically defined diets. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2003; 228:160-166.

  42. Tao R, Karliner J, Simonis U, Zheng J, Zhang J, Honbo N, Alano C. (2007). Pyrroloquinoline quinone preserves mitochondrial function and prevents oxidative injury in adult rat cardiac myocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Comm. 2007; 363:257-262. 

  43. Wang Z, Chen G, Yu G, Liu C. Pyrroloquinoline quinone protects mouse brain endothelial cells from high glucose-induced damage in vitro. Acta Pharmacol Sinica. 2014; 35:1402-1410. 

  44. Zhang Q, Ding M, Cao Z, Zhang J, Ding F, Ke K. Pyrroloquinoline quinone protects rat brain cortex against. Neurochem Res. 2013; 38:1661-1671. 

  45. Zhang J, Zhang R, Meng X. Protective effect of pyrroloquinoline quinone against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Neuroscie Lett. 2009; 464:165-169. 


Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021

Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A study by Dorothy Ebere Adimora et al. entitled \"Remediation for Effects of Domestic Violence on Psychological well-being, Depression and Suicide among Women During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-cultural Study of Nigeria and Spain\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 23
A study by Muhas C. et al. entitled \"Study on Knowledge & Awareness About Pharmacovigilance Among Pharmacists in South India\" is awarded Best article for Vol 14 issue 22
A study by Saurabh Suvidha entitled \"A Case of Mucoid Degeneration of Uterine Fibroid with Hydrosalphinx and Ovarian Cyst\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 21
A study by Alice Alice entitled \"Strengthening of Human Milk Banking across South Asian Countries: A Next Step Forward\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 20
A study by Sathyanarayanan AR et al. entitled \"The on-task Attention of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder-An Eye Tracker Study Using Auticare\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 19
A study by Gupta P. et al. entitled \"A Short Review on \"A Novel Approach in Fast Dissolving Film & their Evaluation Studies\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 18.
A study by Shafaque M. et al. entitled \"A Case-Control Study Performed in Karachi on Inflammatory Markers by Ciprofloxacin and CoAmoxicillin in Patients with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 17
A study by Ali Nawaz et al. entitled \"A Comparative Study of Tubeless versus Standard Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) \? A Randomized Controlled Study\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 16.
A study by Singh R. et al. entitled \"A Prospective Study to Find the Association of Astigmatism in Patients of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in a Tertiary Health Care Centre in India (Vindhya Region MP)\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 15
A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in

Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: To achieve a high standard of publication, we adopt Good Publishing Practices (updated in 2022) which are inspired by guidelines provided by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

Copyright © 2023 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions