International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 10 Issue 14, July, 2018

Pages: 09-15

Date of Publication: 18-Jul-2018


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Natural Language Processing and Unsupervised Learning: It's Significance on Biomedical Literature

Author: Kanika Gupta, Ashok Kumar

Category: Life Sciences

Abstract:There is massive information hidden in the biomedical literature in the form of scientific publications, book chapters, conference reports, etc. This information is growing exponentially with the speed exceeding Moore's Law i.e. observations double in every
two years. It is therefore not possible for researchers and practitioners to automatically extract and relate information from different written resources. Also the data present in the written recourses is unstructured i.e. free-text therefore it becomes very arduous and exorbitant to obtain annotated material for its literature. So in order to overcome these problems Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Unsupervised Learning approaches are used. Natural Language Processing approach is the part of text mining which is the discovery by computer of new, previously unknown information by automatically extracting and relating information from different written resources to reveal the otherwise 'hidden' meanings. The Unsupervised Learning approach is the part of machine learning where no annotated training is necessary and it is more about exploring the data to find insights. Both
these approaches can be used to find knowledge from written textual data in the form different interactions like protein-protein, gene-gene, gene-protein, etc. These approaches could also be used to develop classifiers, databases, tools or softwares which in future would automatically extract the knowledgeable information from literature, answering questions arising in the biomedical research and would also help in the development of new hypothesis. So here we discuss 53 softwares, tools and databases developed using Natural Language Processing (NLP) and unsupervised learning approaches, which are involved in plain texts analyzing and processing, categorizes current work in biomedical information and entities extraction.

Keywords: Text Mining, Natural Language Processing (NLP), Unsupervised Learning and Biomedical Literature

Full Text:

Introduction

Textual data is considered as the building block upon which any research thrives. The extent of details and the rush of data providing information through the advancements in technologies and internet have increased tremendously. The exponential growth in research for biomedical sciences has led to an increase in its publications. The textual data in the published literature is unstructured or free-text. The unstructured data either does not have a pre-characterized information model or is not sorted out in a pre-characterized way. The information is commonly text-heavy, but may contain critical information in the form of dates, numbers, and facts like protein-protein interactions, gene-disease associations, etc. as well. As the data both communicated and hidden up in biomedical writings are developing exponentially and the composed content is unstructured information so it isn't workable for analysts and experts to naturally extricate and relate data from various compositions (1) (2). Therefore manual effort to transform unstructured text into structured is a laborious process and automatic techniques are the solution (3). There are various automatic techniques for solving the above mentioned issue viz. supervised and unsupervised machine learning, text mining, semantic analysis, artificial intelligence etc. In the current work we will discuss the importance of two automatic techniques i.e. unsupervised machine learning and natural language processing and the softwares, tools and databases developed using these techniques, so that these techniques could be implemented on any biomedical corpus. Natural language processing (NLP) is the ability of a computer program to comprehend human language as it is spoken. The progress in Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications is provocative because computers commonly require humans to "speak" to them in a programming language that is accurate, explicit and highly organized, or through a limited number of clearly articulated voice commands. Most of the research being done on Natural Language Processing (NLP) rotates around search i.e. keyword search or searching relationship entities. This Natural Language Processing (NLP) method enables users to query data sets in the form of a question that they might pose to another person. The machine elucidates the critical components of the human language sentence, such as those that might correspond to specific features in a data set, and returns an answer. Natural Language Processing (NLP) can be utilized to interpret free text and make it analyzable (51). The unsupervised machine learning approaches are generally beneficial on the unstructured data i.e. the data where no labels are given to the learning algorithm, leaving it on its own to find structure in its input. This kind of learning can be a goal in itself by finding hidden patterns in data or a means towards an end i.e. feature learning used for the development of textual classifiers. The unsupervised learning problems can be further grouped into clustering which is problem is where you want to find the inherent groupings in the data (52). Many researchers have utilized these approaches for information extraction from biomedical literature, especially for discovery of protein–protein interactions, gene-protein interaction, gene-drug interaction, etc. In this paper we will discuss few softwares, databases or techniques which use Natural Language Processing (NLP) and unsupervised learning approaches for classification and entity recognition from biofilm literature.

Brief Description of Techniques

This section presents a brief discussion on the Natural Language Processing (NLP) and unsupervised techniques and its general method for linguistics analysis to find different interactions (4).

  1. Natural Language Processing (NLP) methods. Knowledgeable discovery from unstructured text utilizes computational linguistics and philosophy, like syntactic parsing or semantic parsing to analyze sentence structures. Methods of this category define grammars to describe sentence structures and utilize parsers to extract syntactic information and internal dependencies within individual sentences. Approaches in this category can be applied to different knowledge domains after being carefully tuned to the specific problems. But, there is still no guarantee that the performance in the field of biomedicine can achieve comparable performance after tuning. Until recently, methods based on computational linguistics still could not generate satisfactory results (5) (6).

  2. Unsupervised Machine learning. Machine learning broaches to the potentiality of a machine to grasp from experience to extract knowledge from data corpora. As opposed to the aforementioned technique which needs laborious effort to define a set of rules or grammars, machine learning techniques are able to extract protein–protein interaction patterns without human intervention. Statistical approaches are based on word occurrences in a large text corpus. Significant features or patterns are detected and used to classify the abstracts or sentences containing protein–protein interactions, gene-protein interaction and characterize the corresponding relations among genes or proteins. They also define a set of rules for possible textual relationships, called patterns, which encode similar structures in expressing relationships. When combined with statistical methods, scoring schemes depending on the occurrences of patterns to describe the confidence of the relationship are normally used. Similar to computational linguistics methods, rule-based approaches can make use of syntactic information to achieve better performance, although it can also work without prior parsing and tagging of the text (7) (8).

The Figure 1 shows the general outlook of information extraction system from any Biomedical Literature. In this the data is collected from various sources like published articles, scientific journals, books and technical reports, etc and the collected data is in unstructured format. Then using automatic techniques like text mining, text units i.e. words, sentences, paragraphs containing relevant information are generated which needs to be analyzed to get knowledgeable data. Then these text units are further processed and analyzed using unsupervised learning and natural language processing which are used for text classification or clustering on certain textual features and entity recognition like gene-protein interaction, protein-protein interaction, gene-disease interaction, gene-drug interaction, etc. This gathered information can be used for the development of databases, classifiers, softwares, tools or pipelines for future use.

Discussion

The softwares, tools, databases and pipelines which are involved in information extraction in the form of relationship entities in biofilm literature using Natural Language Processing and Unsupervised Learning approaches are shown in Table 1.

The above mentioned softwares, tools, databases and pipelines can be used for information extraction by initially identifying an item or concept in textual resource and then detecting links between the concepts obtained from the text. By linking the concepts together additional context is given to the concepts, which results in valuable knowledge that can be used for downstream analysis like genome and gene expression annotation, drug-target discovery, drug repositioning, protein-protein interactions, construction of ontologies etc (9). These techniques also help researchers in formulating hypothesis of their future studies as they could find new concepts while analyzing text.

Conclusion

The importance of natural language processing and unsupervised learning depends on the fact that it not only extract information hidden in the biomedical textual data but could also be used for the development of new servers, softwares, databases, etc. These approaches could be used on any biomedical literature. If the above mentioned tools meet all the challenges like specific ontologies describing single disease at various levels, individual pathways and genes for particular diseases, appropriate gene-disease interactions, quality of tool to distinguish between false negative results, etc. being faced in analysis of textual data they will continue to be an indispensable asset for researchers in the biomedical domain (9).

Acknowledgement

The authors acknowledge the support provided by the online servers, tools and softwares for the compilation of this review. Authors also acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

Source of Funding: None

Conflict of Interest: None

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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

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A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

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