International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
logo
slider
slider
slider
slider
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, Google Scholar, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services)

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Full Html

IJCRR - Vol 10 Issue 10, May, 2018

Pages: 53-58

Date of Publication: 30-May-2018


Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

Unusual Changes in Stratospheric Ozone and Water Vapor Over Antarctica and its Relation to Mesosphere Dynamics during a Minor Sudden Stratosphere Warming

Author: G. Venkata Chalapathi, S. Eswaraiah, P. Vishnu Prasanth, Jaewook Lee, K. Niranjan Kumar, Yong Ha Kim

Category: Life Sciences

Abstract: Objective: Usually, the stratospheric ozone will show its significance in the variability of mesospheric tides in normal days over the low-latitude region. But during sudden stratosphere warmings, the water vapor and ozone over the polar region will change and shows some different effects on mesosphere tides. In the present study, we have provided the unusual changes in both water vapor and ozone over Antarctica and their role in altering the mesospheric tides.
Method: Using MLS data in the stratosphere and Rothera (68oS, 68oW) MF radar observations in the mesosphere, the variability of Antarctica ozone and H2O during sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) winter 2010, and their influence on mesosphere dynamics has presented. The unusual increment of ozone reduction is noticed and consequent enhancement in H2O and HNO3 is also observed during the warming period. Mesospheric tidal components (diurnal, semi-diurnal and terr-diurnal) have been estimated using the hourly wind data from the MF radar.
Result: The unusual changes in H2O and Ozone were observed during the warming period the similar behavior was observed in semi-diurnal tidal components during 2010 winter and their relation to ozone enhancement is discussed.
Conclusion: The observations indicate that the enhancement of H2O and HNO3 leads to produce the ozone during warming period and hence the increment in ozone reduction is achieved over the polar region. Further, the enhancement of Brewer- Dobson mean circulation was clearly noticed through ozone transport during the warming period. The tidal enhancement after the SSW could be due to the non-linear interaction between planetary waves and tides.

Keywords: Sudden Stratospheric Warming, Ozone and H2O variability, Mesospheric Tides, MF Radar

Full Text:

Introduction

            It is well known that in the winter polar stratosphere, stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) occurs as a result of the interactions between vertically propagating planetary waves and the zonal winds (15). Ozone destruction occurs over both the polar regions in local winter-spring. In the Antarctic, essentially complete removal of lower-stratospheric ozone currently results in an ozone hole every year (14). In the winter polar lower stratosphere, low temperatures induce condensation of water vapor (H2O) and nitric acid (HNO3) into polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). Further, it is understood that PSCs along with cold aerosols provide surfaces for heterogeneous conversion of chlorine from longer-lived reservoir species, such as chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), into reactive (ozone-destroying) forms, with chlorine monoxide (ClO) predominant in daylight (20). In the Antarctic, enhanced ClO is usually present for 4-5 months (through to the end of September) (19), leading to the destruction of most of the ozone in the polar vortex between 14 and 20 km altitude.

Understanding the variabilities of H2O and ozone in particular during the SSW events is important to understand the variabilities of mesospheric tides, as the forcing of the semi-diurnal tide, in particular, is mainly due to the absorption of ultraviolet radiation by ozone in the stratosphere and mesosphere. Few studies have been established on the tidal variabilities at high-latitudes in relation to the major SSW events over NH hemisphere (2,12). Such studies over SH hemisphere are sparse.

It is well established that ozone reduction takes place in the polar region especially in Antarctica region and hence ozone hole during winter. The chemistry of ozone formulation and its reduction during normal year winters and during 2010 minor SSW period is well explained by de Latt et al. (5). In their study, they identified that ozone reduction has been enhanced during the 2010 winter period. In the present study, we are going to explain how this ozone enhancement during 2010 winter will affect the tides in the MLT (Mesosphere lower thermosphere) region. Such study was not done so far, for the first time we are providing in detail study on the variability of MLT tides during the minor event occurred in 2010.

Data

In the present study, we make use of stratospheric zonal winds and temperatures obtained from ERA-Interim reanalysis datasets provided by the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) (1) for the evaluation of 2010 minor SSW event. The water vapor and ozone profiles are retrieved from Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and mesosphere tides from Rother MF (Medium Frequency) radar.

Methodology

The ERA-Interim reanalysis provides the data between the pressure levels 1000 and 1 hPa (~0-48 km) with a latitudinal and longitudinal grid of 1.5o × 1.5o. We have utilized zonal mean temperature and zonal winds at 10 hPa.

Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder, hereafter called MLS, is one of the four instruments aboard NASA’s Aura satellite, and it has a radiometer that retrieves temperature from the bands near the O2 spectral line at 118 and 239 GHz. It measures the temperature from 316 to 0.001 hPa pressure levels with a track resolution of 230 km, which includes the global coverage from 82oS to 82oN with ~ 15 orbits per day, providing ~30 samples daily for given latitude. Details of the MLS and temperature validation are given in Schwartz et al. (17). In the present study, we have used the H2O, HNO3, temperature, and ozone (O3) profiles derived at 80oS.

To study the mesosphere dynamics during the 2010 minor SSW period, we used a Rothera MF Radar (68oS, 68oW) wind measurements, which is a coherent, spaced-antenna system and has been operated since 1997. The radar has a transmitting power of 25 kW at a frequency of 1.98 MHz and provides winds in the mesosphere at 4 km altitude resolution every hour (11). The hourly wind profiles during 2010 have been used in the present analysis.

Results and Discussion

Evolution of 2010 SSW in SH

Fig. 1 depicts daily zonal mean temperature at 80oS (Fig.1a) and zonal wind at 60oS (Fig.1b) obtained from ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset for the year 2010 observed at 10 hPa. The daily mean amplitude of PW of zonal wavenumber (k) 1 and 2 at 10 hPa over 60oS is displayed in Fig.1c. The PW amplitudes of k=1 and k=2 were computed from the distribution of geopotential heights along the constant latitude.

It is clear from the figure that during 2010 three episodic minor warming events occurred in early August (day 212), mid-September (day 259) and in the end of October (day 300), marked with dotted vertical lines. Though three episodic warmings occurred in 2010, September (day 259) event was the record one and influenced the mesosphere largely (6,7). During 2010 the temperature indicates that the warming lasted for more than eight days with temperature increases of ~10-15K from the normal days and the second event (day 259) was the most noticeable. The zonal wind was weakened by ~20-25 m/s in each episodic warming.

During 2010 minor SSW, the amplitude of PW (k=2) over 60oS was comparable to that of PW (k=1) during the first episodic warming (Fig.1c) and later PW (k=1) is stronger than PW (k=2). Further, the PW (k=1) amplitude during 2010 winter was weaker than the 2002 major SSW, and hence the PW interaction with the mean flow may lead to only deceleration, not a reversal, of zonal wind over 60oS at 10 hPa (Fig. 1b).

 Reduction in ozone destruction: 2010 SSW

Figure 2 presents the daily mean variability of HNO3, H2O and O3 for the 2010 minor SSW year and also other years at different heights (~22, 32 and 68 hPa) derived from MLS measurements at 80oS. H2O is given in parts per billion (ppbv) and ozone is given in parts per million (ppmv). Further, the five-day running mean was functional in order to reduce noise if any of the data and to obtain better clarity in comparison with different years. In the figure top panel shows the HNO3, H2O variability at mid stratosphere ~22 hPa (25 km) and corresponding ozone (Figs.(2)a)-2(c)), lower two panels show the similar behavior at lower stratosphere ~32 hPa (23.5 km) and ~68 hPa (19 km)). From the figure, it is clear that the reduced photochemical ozone destruction is evident in 2010 at 25 km, during mid-August and in early September when the HNO3 and H2O are moderately increased and it could be due to an increase of stratopause temperatures during SSW. However, at lower stratosphere heights the process is continuing and following as usual winter trend and not affected by SSW and hence photochemical ozone destruction is unaffected.

Usually, during winter, a strong polar vortex forms over Antarctica and it inhibits the mixing of warm mid-latitude air and enhances radiative cooling in absence of solar radiation. The average minimum winter temperatures over Antarctica will be~193K. If the temperature drops below~195 K, polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are formed in the Antarctica ozone layer. The most common type of PSCs forms from nitric acid (HNO3) and water (H2O). The PSC formation will occur on an average of 1-2 months in Arctic and 5-6 months in Antarctic regions. Once formed, PSC particles will undergo vertical transport to lower altitudes due to gravity, they trigger the chemical reactions (denitrification and dehydration) in the stratosphere and cause the highly reactive chlorine gas (ClO) to be formed, which catalytically destroys ozone. As long as temperatures remain sufficiently low, PSC formation will continue and hence the ozone destruction. However, once the sunlight increase due to season transition vortex warms, the PSC will disappear slowly and halogen spices are deactivated and hence the ozone reproduction starts. Both H2O and HNO3 in the stratosphere will affect directly or indirectly on ClO production in PSC reaction and reduce the amount of ClO production and hence reduce the ozone destruction.

The clear mechanism for the reduction of photochemical ozone destruction at 22 hPa is shown in Fig. 3. The figure depicts five-day running mean MLS measurements of HNO3, O3, H2O and temperature as a function of time for the 2010 minor SSW year and other non-SSW years 2012,2013 at 22 hPa (~25 km), where the ozone reproduction is greater due to SSW effect compared to other lower altitudes. Once temperatures drop below the PSC formation temperature around the day 150 (~1 June), denitrification starts as evidenced by the decrease in HNO3. However, full denitrification will be reached within about 20 days. At the same time, the chlorine reservoir HCl is empty (18) due to chemical reactions of HCl on PSC’s. Usually, dehydration starts about 20 days later than denitrification as the pure ice formation temperatures are delayed by 20 days after PSC formation temperature. Due to decrease of solar isolation in August (~day225) ozone is being destroyed slowly by halogens as ClO start to increase around day 225. When ClO is abundant around day’s 250-270 (mid-September), ozone destruction is maximum. During late winter /transition period starts (~day 270), temperatures increases to above the PSC formation threshold level, PSCs starts to evaporate and the active halogens are rapidly deactivated back into reservoir species like HCl. The slow increase in HNO3 and H2O starting around DOY 270 also shows that mixing is taking place. However, after day300 (~late October – early November) ozone slowly increases again, mainly by mixing of

mid-latitude air. This behavior is very similar for all years but different in SSW years (2010). In contrast, during 2010 SSW, the warming occurred during late August (day 212) and mid-September (259) and lasted for about a week and significantly affected the mesosphere and thermosphere (6). However, in 2010 the chemical species and ozone are greatly affected by the warmings that occurred in the occurred in the stratosphere. For instance, during 2010 winter the first warming was noticed on the day 212 and the temperature was increased, even crossed the PSC threshold level and hence HNO3 and H2O suddenly raised and ClO decreases which result in an increase of HCl on the day212. The net photochemical chemical reactions result in increasing ozone around the day 250, instead of reduction; showing that catalytic ozone depletion at 22 hPa in 2010 is not unusual. In the following subsections, we will discuss, how these ozone increase around the days 250-270 affects the MLT dynamics.

Sudden Stratospheric Warming-Ozone effects on the mesospheric tides

 Fig.4 depicts the daily variability of zonal diurnal, semi-diurnal and terr-diurnal tides measured by Rothera MF radar during SH winter at 80 km. Fig. 4(a) shows the variability of tides in 2010 SSW year. Fig. 4(b) shows the variability of stratospheric ozone during 2010 SSW year and non-SSW years 2012, 2013, respectively. It is clear from the figure that the semi-diurnal tidal amplitude is increasing (~ 40 m/s) during last 15 days of the October (day 285-300). Usually, the tidal amplitudes are falling below 20 m/s in SH winter. The role of stratospheric ozone in coupling the low-latitude stratosphere and MLT region has been studied by Goncharenko, et al. (10). They suggested that the increase in the ozone density at 2 hPa (~ 43.5 km) lasts ~35 days following the SSW long after the downfall of PWs, causing enhancement in SDT amplitude. However, at the polar latitudes, the mechanism is different. The meridional circulation forced by PWs in the polar region during SSW leads to transport of ozone from pole to equator (9,16), and thus increases the peak ozone heating rate at ~ 43 km at low-latitudes, resulting in the amplification of SDT in the MLT region (10,13).

As shown in Fig.4b, the ozone density at 22 hPa (the ozone is usually generated at this altitude) is gradually increasing in the winter from the day 200 onwards and attains maximum value during warming day (259) and after that it extremely deviates from the normal seasonal trend, except a small hike around the day 300. The variation in ozone trend in 2010 winter could be due to the strong B-D circulation forced by enriched PWs at polar region. The circulation transported the ozone from SH to NH high latitudes as a consequence of pole-pole circulation (Figure 1 of Butchart, 2014) or it could be transported to low latitudes. Alternatively, the ozone could be downward transported to lower altitudes in SH itself. The small upturn in the O3 density around the day 300 could be due to the minor warming that occurred on the day 300 (6). Since MLS satellite is located in a Sun-synchronous orbit, the zonal mean values of O3 might have been aliased with the migrating tides. Figure 5 indicates that even when ozone density is lower than the usual value, the SDTs are enhanced during the days 270-310. This may suggest that ozone alone may not play a dominant role in the amplification of tides over the Antarctic MLT region.

Further, we also verified the O3 anomaly during 2010 SSW winter and 2012 non-SSW winter periods and presented in Figure 5.  It is clear from the figure (Fig.5a) that the ozone density is high at tropical region at starting of winter at 43 km (2 hPa), where the tides will generate and as soon as reaching peak warming day, the ozone is transported towards NH high-latitude region and more ozone is ascertained at 60oN, it could be due to B-D circulation at the stratosphere (Butchart, 2014, Figure 1). The B-D circulation at the stratosphere (~43 km) shown with a curved arrow in Fig.5(a) and the ozone density is comparatively low at ~ 60oS. In a normal year (Non-SSW) (Fig.5(b)) the circulation was not observed, and the usual trend was apparent at 43 km. It states that the strong mean circulation forced by enriched PWs at polar region, transported the ozone from SH to NH high latitudes as a consequence of pole-pole circulation (Butchart,2014) or it could be downward transported to lower altitudes at SH itself.

So, we may conclude that the enhancement of SDT amplitudes at high-latitudes are due to different effect than those observed at low latitudes (4,8,21). It tells that, the effect of ozone and water vapor is less significant on the Antarctic mesospheric tides. Thus, the above discussion suggests that the enhancement in SDT amplitudes could be due to the PWs-tidal interaction.

Conclusions

            In the present communication, we described the variability of Antarctica ozone and H2O during the winter period of 2010 SSW year, and their influence on mesospheric tides. The tidal components (diurnal, semi-diurnal and terr-diurnal) in the MLT region have been estimated using the hourly wind data from both Rothera (68oS, 68oW) MF radar. The main findings are summarized as follows;

  1. In 2010, we noticed record minor stratosphere warming (SSW) in mid-September (day 259) using ERA-interim data analysis.

  2. It is noticed that the stratosphere chemistry below 50hPa is not affected by SSW. The chemical species ClO, H2O, HNO3 plays a key role in destruction (ClO) and reconstruction (H2O, HNO3) of ozone in the middle and upper stratosphere. 

  3. Though the SSW occurs during the days 250-270, the Ozone will not rise due to ozone destruction element ClO element is abundant even when H2O, HNO3 slowly increasing (Fig.3). During the days 270-300 the ClO is falling rapidly and H2O and HNO3 increase shows the vertical mixing and produces more ozone.

  4. The unusual behavior was observed in semi-diurnal tidal components during SSW year 2010. The Semi-diurnal tidal enhancement is noticed during the days 270-310, irrespective of the day of peak warming occurred in 2010.

  5. The reason why tidal amplitudes are enhancing during the days 270-300, may be explained like this: Since the ozone destruction between 20-25 km is reduced to 60% during SSW years compared to other years and the recovery of ozone is fast between the days 270-300 due to downward transport of chemical species, rather than horizontal mixing, and transport of humid rich air (H2O) and hence change in vertical propagating tides. However, the effect could be low since the ozone density is less during the days 270-300.

                 The above discussion suggests that though the ozone destruction is reduced during SSW period, ozone alone cannot affect the tidal enhancement, it may be due to planetary wave (PW)-tidal interaction. To quantify this, issue the non-linear interaction between tides-and PWs should be discussed.

Acknowledgements: We deeply appreciate the ERA-Interim and MLS team for providing the data used in the present study. SE acknowledges for financial support by the Korea Polar Research Institute (PE17020), Korea and Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea. Our sincere thanks to Prof. Dennis Riggin for providing the Rothera MF radar data.

 Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

Figure 1. (a) Daily variation of zonal mean Polar Stratospheric Temperature (PST) at 10 hPa over 80oS. (b) Daily variation of zonal mean zonal wind at 10 hPa over 60oS during 2010 minor SSW. (c) Planetary wave amplitude of zonal wavenumbers 1 and 2 at 10 hPa over 60oS. The dashed horizontal line in (b) indicates zero wind line and the dashed vertical line indicates the warming periods in 2010.

Figure 2. Daily mean variability of HNO3, H2O and Ozone (O3) in the stratosphere using MLS measurements during normal years (2012, 2013) and comparison with minor warming event year (2010) at 22 hPa (a-b), at 32 hPa (d-f), and at 68 hPa (g-h). All profiles are at ~ 80oS.

Figure 3. The five-day running mean MLS measurements of H2O, HNO3, O3 and temperature at ~ 22hPa for the years 2010,2012 and 2013 during DOY 100-350. All profiles are at ~ 80oS.

Figure 4. (a)Variability of diurnal, semi-diurnal and terr-diurnal zonal components measured by Rothera MF radar (68oS,68oW) during 2010 SH winter at 80 km, (b) daily mean variability of Ozone (O3) in stratosphere using MLS measurements during Non-SSW years (2012,2013) and comparison with minor warming event years (2010) at 22 hPa. All profiles are at ~ 80oS. Vertical lines indicate the day of peak warming.

Figure 5.  Zonal mean ozone mass mixing ratio anomaly (ppmv) profiles calculated from the south pole to north pole at 2 hPa (~43 km) altitude for the SSW year 2010 (Top Panel) and the non-SSW year 2012 (bottom panel). The vertical line indicates the day of peak warming. The horizontal line indicates 60o latitude. Curved arrow in top panel shows the transport of ozone due to mean circulation.

References:

  1. Berrisford, P., Dee, D., Fielding, K., Fuentes, M., Kallberg, P., Kobayashi, S. , Uppala, S., 2009. The ERA-interim archive. European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. Shinfield Park, Reading, Berkshire RG2 9AX, United Kingdom, pp. 1–16.

  2. Bhattacharya, Y., Shepherd, G. G., & Brown, S.,2004. Variability of atmospheric winds and waves in the Arctic polar mesosphere during a stratospheric sudden warming. Geophysical Research Letters, 31(23), L23101.

  3. Butchart, N., 2014. The Brewer-Dobson circulation. Reviews of Geophysics, 52(2), 157–184. https://doi.org/10.1002/2013RG000448

  4. Chapman, S., and Lindzen, R.S.,1970. Atmospheric tides, Dordrecht, Holland, Reidel Publ. Co., 200pp.

  5. de Laat, A. T. J., and van Weele, M., 2011. The 2010 Antarctic ozone hole: Observed reduction in ozone destruction by minor sudden stratospheric warmings. Scientific Reports, 1, 1–8. http://doi.org/10.1038/srep00038.

  6. Eswaraiah, S., Kim, Y. H., Hong, J., Kim, J.-H., Ratnam, M. V., Chandran, A., and Riggin, D.,2016.  Mesospheric signatures observed during 2010 minor stratospheric warming at King Sejong Station (62°S, 59°W). Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 140, 55–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2016.02.007

  7. Eswaraiah, S., Kim, Y. H., Liu, H., Ratnam, M. V. and Lee, J.,2017. Do minor sudden stratospheric warmings in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) impact coupling between stratosphere and mesosphere–lower thermosphere (MLT) like major warmings?, Earth, Planets Sp. 69, 119. https:// DOI 10.1186/s40623-017-0704-5

  8. Forbes, J. M., Garrett, H.B, 1978. Thermal excitation of atmospheric tides due to insolation absorption by O3 and H2O. Geophys. Res. Lett. 5(12), 1013–1016. http://doi.org/10.1029/GL005i012p01013.

  9. Garcia, R. R.,1987. On the Mean Meridional Circulation of the Middle Atmosphere. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 44(24), 3599–3609.

  10. Goncharenko, L. P., Coster, A. J., Plumb, R. A., and Domeisen, D. I. V.,2012. The potential role of stratospheric ozone in the stratosphere-ionosphere coupling during stratospheric warmings. Geophysical Research Letters, 39(8), L08101.

  11. Hibbins, R. E., Espy, P. J., Jarvis, M. J., Riggin, D. M.,  Fritts, D. C.,   2007. A climatology of tides and gravity wave variance in the MLT above Rothera, Antarctica obtained by MF radar. J. Atmos. and Solar-Terr. Phy., 69, 578–588.

  12. Hoffmann, P., Singer, W., Keuer, D., Hocking, W. K., Kunze, M., and Murayama, Y.,2007. Latitudinal and longitudinal variability of mesospheric winds and temperatures during stratospheric warming events. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 69 (17), 2355–2366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2007.06.010

  13. Lin, J. T., Lin, C. H., Chang, L. C., Huang, H. H., Liu, J. Y., Chen, A. B., and Liu, C. H.,2012. Observational evidence of ionospheric migrating tide modification during the 2009 stratospheric sudden warming. Geophysical Research Letters, 39 (2), L02101. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL050248

  14. Manney et al.2011: Unprecedented Arctic ozone loss in 2011, nature

  15. Matsuno, T.,1971. A Dynamical Model of the Stratospheric Sudden Warming, J. Atmos. Sci., 28 (8), 1479–1494.

  16. Randel, W. J.,1993. Global Variations of Zonal Mean Ozone during Stratospheric Warming Events. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 50 (19), 3308–3321. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1993)050<3308: GVOZMO>2.0.CO;2

  17. Schwartz, M. J., et al. 2008. Validation of the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder temperature and geopotential height measurements. J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15S11, doi:10.1029/2007JD008783.

  18. Shindell, D. T. and de Zafra, R.L., 1997. Limits on heterogeneous processing in the Antarctic spring vortex from a comparison of measured and modeled chlorine. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 1441–1449, doi:10.1029/96JD00519.

  19. Solomon, P. M. et al., 1987. High concentrations of chlorine monoxide at low altitudes in the Antarctic spring stratosphere: secular variation. Nature 328, 411–413.

  20. Solomon, S.,1999. Stratospheric ozone depletion: a review of concepts and history. Rev. Geophys. 37, 275–316.

  21. Sridharan, S., Sathishkumar, S., and Gurubaran, S.,2012. An unusual reduction in the mesospheric semi-diurnal tidal amplitude over Tirunelveli (8.7°N, 77.8°E) prior to the 2011 minor warming and its relationship with stratospheric ozone. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 89(Supplement C), 27–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2012.07.012

Figure captions:

Figure 1. (a) Daily variation of zonal mean Polar Stratospheric Temperature (PST) at 10 hPa over 80oS. (b) Daily variation of zonal mean zonal wind at 10 hPa over 60oS during 2010 minor SSW. (c) Planetary wave amplitude of zonal wavenumbers 1 and 2 at 10 hPa over 60oS. The dashed horizontal line in (b) indicates zero wind line and the dashed vertical line indicates the warming periods in 2010.

Figure 2. Daily mean variability of HNO3, H2O and Ozone (O3) in the stratosphere using MLS measurements during normal years (2012, 2013) and comparison with minor warming event year (2010) at 22 hPa (a-b), at 32 hPa (d-f), and at 68 hPa (g-h). All profiles are at ~ 80oS.

Figure 3. The five-day running mean MLS measurements of H2O, HNO3, O3 and temperature at ~ 22hPa for the years 2010,2012 and 2013 during DOY 100-350. All profiles are at ~ 80oS.

Figure 4. (a) Variability of diurnal, semi-diurnal and terr-diurnal zonal components measured by Rothera MF radar (68oS,68oW) during 2010 SH winter at 80 km, (b) daily mean variability of Ozone (O3) in stratosphere using MLS measurements during Non-SSW years (2012,2013) and comparison with minor warming event years (2010) at 22 hPa. All profiles are at ~ 80oS. Vertical lines indicate the day of peak warming.

Figure 5.  Zonal mean ozone mass mixing ratio anomaly (ppmv) profiles calculated from the south pole to north pole at 2 hPa (~43 km) altitude for the SSW year 2010 (Top Panel) and the non-SSW year 2012 (bottom panel). The vertical line indicates the day of peak warming. The horizontal line indicates 60o latitude. Curved arrow in top panel shows the transport of ozone due to mean circulation.

Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in


Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: To achieve a high standard of publication, we adopt Good Publishing Practices (updated in 2022) which are inspired by guidelines provided by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



ABOUT US

International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

Contact

148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

editor@ijcrr.com

editor.ijcrr@gmail.com


Copyright © 2023 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions