International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, CiteFactor, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), Indian Journals Index (IJINDEX), Internet Archive, IP Indexing, Google Scholar, Scientific Indexing Services, Index Copernicus, ResearchBib, Science Central, Revistas Medicas Portuguesas, EBSCO, BOAI, SOROS, NEWJOUR, ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, DocStoc, PdfCast, getCITED, SkyDrive, Citebase, e-Print, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services), Electronic Journals Library by University Library of Regensburg, SciPeople.

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Readers around the world

Full Html

IJCRR - Vol 10 Issue 08, April, 2018

Pages: 01-09

Date of Publication: 28-Apr-2018


Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

Study on Environmental Factors Causing Head and Neck Cancer in Karachi, Pakistan

Author: Arifa Aziz, Yasmin Abdul Rashid, Zeenat Shaheen, Safia Awan

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Objective: Head and neck cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in South East Asia and its incidence is increasing with time. The objective of this study is to identify the environmental factors and their role in causing head and neck cancers for better future strategy in controlling and prevention.
Materials and Methods: Questionnaire form was developed, which includes questions about environmental factors causing head and neck cancer. Forms were filled by patients after taking their written consent. This study was conducted at Day Care Oncology and in Radiation department of Aga Khan University Hospital, after approval from institutional ethical review committee. It is a prospective study conducted from December 2016 to June 2017. Patients with head and neck cancer aged 18 years and above, of both genders were included. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SPSS version 19 was used to perform statistical analysis.
Results: A total of 132 patients were included. Head and neck cancers were observed to be more common in males 101 (76.5%) as compared to females 29 (22%) and average age was found to be 50.4 \? 12.9 years in both genders. The commonest environmental factors causing head and neck cancer included various forms of smokeless tobacco including pan, mainpuri, supari and gutka. 132 patients 77 (58.3%) were using smokeless tobacco, 41(31.1%) were cigarette smokers and 6 (4.5%) were using alcohol. Among all the head and neck cancers, the most common was squamous cell cancer of buccal mucosa 63 patients (47.72%) and less common is the cancer of orbit 4 patients (3%).
Conclusion: Incidence of head and neck cancer, specifically squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa is increasing with time. The commonest cause was found to be different forms of smokeless tobacco easily accessible to the public. Increasing public awareness through various means is the way forward in controlling this menace.

Keywords: Smokeless tobacco, Buccal mucosa cancer, Public awareness Programs

DOI: 10.7324/IJCRR.2018.10801

Full Text:

Introduction:

Head and neck cancers are the most common cancers in developing countries (1)‚ especially in Southeast Asia. In the western population cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are the main reasons for squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck whereas the use of smokeless tobacco and betel nut is the most common cause of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in Southeast Asia. (2,3). Betel nut chewing is common in Pakistan and other Southeast Asian countries and is high risk factor in development of squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa which is the most common type of oral cancers in Pakistan and India (4,5)‚ and oropharyngeal and tongue cancers are common in the Western world (6). These differences in site of disease may be related to the widespread habits in the respective regions. (7)

The different names in which smokeless tobacco is used in Pakistan and India include khaini, mava, paan (betel quid), zarda, snuff, mashiri, etc. (8) Smokeless tobacco both chewing tobacco and snuff is associated with an increased risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx (9, 10) The incidence of laryngeal cancer and pharyngeal cancer, is approximately 50 percent higher in African American men (11). The outcome for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of patients has not significantly improved in the past four decades even with great improvement in the skills, knowledge, surgical procedures and multi-disciplinary tumor boards establishments.(12) Regular awareness activities by health professionals and volunteers have not led to the improvements and it is observed that with many awareness programs which were conducted in various health centers for staff and public but analysis results showed that these programs are not very successful especially in control of factors causing this disease in Southeast Asia and the numbers of head and neck cancers are increasing every day both in rural and urban areas. There is a great need of government to help in control and stop the supply and use of various forms of smokeless tobacco which are the main causes of head and neck cancer and are easily available in the market.

There is a shortage of data on behavior and outcomes of these tumors from this region. The primary objective of this study is to share the demographics and identify various types of smokeless tobacco causing head and neck cancer and their control by increasing awareness programs.

Material and method:

This study was conducted at day care oncology and radiation department at Aga Khan University Hospital. The study protocol was approved by the ethical review committee of Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, with ERC # 4392-Onc-ERC-16. Questionnaire form was developed by a multidisciplinary team of Medical Oncologist, staff medical officer and head nurse of day care oncology and radiation department, demographic data and questions about environmental factors causing head and neck cancer were included in the form as shown in table 3. These forms were filled by patients after explaining the study to them and taking their written consent.

Study Design:

It is a prospective, cross sectional study conducted from December 2016- June 2017.

Patients with head and neck cancer receiving treatment at our institute aged 18 years and above, of both genders were included in this study. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19 was used to analyze the collected data.

Results:

A total of 132 patients were included. There were 101 (76.5%) males as compared to females which were 29 (22%). Average age was 50.4 ± 12.9 years in both genders. Out of 132 patients 77(58.3%) were using various forms of smokeless tobacco, 41 patients (31.1%) were cigarette smokers and 6 patients (4.5%) were using alcohol. The most common site involved was squamous cell cancer of buccal mucosa observed in 63 patients (47.72%) and there were 4 patients (3%) of squamous cell cancer of orbit.

Discussion:

The incidences of head and neck cancers are increasing and are placed in the top ten malignancies globally (13). Squamous cell cancer of head and neck are placed sixth most frequently diagnosed cancer (14) and its proportion is much higher in males as compared to females with ratio of 2:1(15). This accounts for approximately one-fifth of all cancers in males and about one-tenth in females (16). Study on incidence and epidemiological characteristics of squamous cell cancer of head and neck was conducted in 1995-2002 in Karachi, results showed that approximately one-fifth (21%) of the head and neck cancers were seen in males and about one-tenth (11%) in females, buccal mucosa and larynx were the commonly affected sites, followed by pharynx. The mean age of the patients was 53.0 years (a rising incidence was observed in both genders, more apparent in males). About 30% of oral cancer cases, 28.6% of the nasopharyngeal, 6.3% of the oropharyngeal, and 2.6% of laryngeal cancers occurred in patients age 40 years and younger. The peak incidence was at 64-69 years for all three cancer sites, in both genders (17-19). If we compare results of study done in 1995-2002 with our study conducted in 2017, the results are almost the same with no improvement. There is no significant difference in results indicating that a lot of efforts which were done to decrease incidence of head and neck cancer were failed. Pakistan falls into a high risk zone for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. (20). Poor nutrition, oral hygiene and dental problems may increase the risk of getting head and neck cancer. (21) In our study 44 patients (33.3%) had dental problems as shown in table-2. The exact reason of relationship between poor nutrition and head and neck cancer is not known. Heavy alcohol drinkers often have vitamin deficiencies, which may help explain the role of alcohol in increasing risk of these cancers. A good balanced diet can be associated with decreased risk of this disease. Diet has strong evidence with cancer development and data confirmed an apparent underlying relationship for a decreased head and neck squamous cell carcinoma risk with non-starchy vegetables, fruits, and food containing carotenoids. A recent study established that higher dietary pattern scores, with high intake of fruit and vegetable and low intake of red meat, were associated with decrease risk of squamous cell carcinoma. (22)

Finally, the importance of primary prevention needs to be highlighted. Check on the supply and the use of various forms of smokeless tobacco, areca nut, betel leaf, etc. as far as tobacco use few studies showed that it is difficult to change people's attitude and convince them to stop smoking. (23). In our study a total of 132 patients were included, patient's information was collected from patients in chemotherapy unit and radiation department at Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. Analysis report showed that Head and neck cancers are observed to be more common in male 101 (76.5%) as compare to females 29 (22%) and average age is 50.4 ± 12.9 years in both genders as shown in figure-2. The commonest environmental factor causing head and neck cancer includes smokeless tobacco and tobacco chewing and out of 132 patients 77 (58.3%) were using them as shown in figure -3.Among all the head and neck cancers the most common is squamous cell cancer of buccal mucosa 63 patients (47.72%) and less common is the squamous cell cancer of orbit 4 patients (3%) as shown in figure-1. If both, results of 2002 and 2017 study, when compared are almost the same with very less difference in outcome showing that there is no improvement in control of head and neck cancer and there is a great need to think and apply some powerful strategy that can work in control of head and neck cancer. Squamous cell cancer of head and neck in Pakistan's is the next great health challenge. There is an urgent need to improve awareness about the disease and to introduce population based cancer registration and early detection programs. In addition, health services organization and human resources need to work together in developing plans to help prevent and fight with this disease. Finally, the importance of primary prevention needs to be highlighted. Limiting the use and removal of various forms of smokeless tobacco, areca nut, betel leaf, cigarette smoking and alcohol is perhaps the most suitable way to begin with. However it is very difficult to change current social attitudes, practices and perceptions in control of tobacco (23). Ninety percent of the oral cancer patients in rural areas belong to the lower or lower-middle socio-economic class, and 3.6% are below the poverty line based on Pareek's classification (24). Around 75% to 80% of patients with cancers present with late stage incurable disease and hence increased mortality (25), reason of delay could be both by patient in visiting  doctor and in few cases physician related delay both of which contributes towards the late diagnosis. (26) another reason for delay in diagnosis in rural areas is the lack of easy access to healthcare, with one study demonstrating a delay of 67.5 days and 53.7 days in obtaining a first appointment for rural and urban patients, respectively. Other reasons of delay included poor socio-economic status of the patient, cost of care, and high rate of illiteracy (27). Great work was done during last many years and improvement in surgical procedures and establishment of multi-disciplinary tumor boards were done, but the results are the same with no improvement in the outcome for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and it was seen that there is no significant improvement in the past four decades (28). As serious consequences of this rapidly developing epidemic are now becoming clear and it is very important to develop effective mechanisms that can be used to control this disease. This will require a deeper analysis of the risk factors, of the population at risk and of the treatment resources that are available, unfortunately this is the common problem with most of the developing world. The study of Kumar et al.11 showed that smoking cessation reduces but does not eliminate the risk of this cancer development, However, Marron et al.12 confirmed that cessation of tobacco smoking protect against the head and neck Squamous cell carcinoma development. The major risk factor for oral cancers among non-drinkers is tobacco use and among non-smokers is alcohol use (29, 30).

Conclusion:

In this field, there is urgent need of more research to find new ways in prevention and understanding in development of head and neck carcinomas and to improve therapeutic approaches and interventions. Now adays, the most effective measures to improve the prognosis of the head and neck cancers are prevention and early diagnosis.

Way forward

Awareness programs should be conducted for public and for general practitioner in rural and urban areas, this will help in both ways prevention plus early diagnosis.

Strict actions should be taken by government to stop manufacturing and supply, in market, of factors like various forms of smokeless tobacco which is the main cause of head and neck cancer in Karachi, Pakistan.

Acknowledgement

We are grateful to Afsheen Feroz head nurse day care and radiation oncology for her suggestions in preparing questionnaire form and all authors of references we have cited in our manuscript.We would also like to thank patients for their participation.

References:

  1. WHO 2008. The global burden of disease: 2004 update. Available at: www.who.int/evidence/bod (accessed January 27, 2014)
  2. Graham S. Dentition, diet, tobacco and alcohol in the epidemiology of oral cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1977; 59:1611–18. [PubMed]
  3. Dayal PK, Mani NJ, Bhargava K. Prevalence of oral cancer and precancerous lesions in ‘pan’/'supari' chewers. Indian J Public Health. 1978; 22:234-45. [PubMed]
  4. Guha N, Warnakulasuriya S, Vlaanderen J, Straif K. Betel quid chewing and the risk of oral and oropharyngeal cancers: a meta-analysis with implications for cancer control. Int J Cancer 2014; 135:1433.
  5. Znaor A, Brennan P, Gajalakshmi V, et al. Independent and combined effects of tobacco smoking, chewing and alcohol drinking on the risk of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal cancers in Indian men. Int J Cancer 2003; 105:681.
  6. Bhurgri Y, Bhurgri A, Usman A, et al. Epidemiological review of head and neck cancers in Karachi. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2006; 7:195–200. [PubMed]
  7. Sankaranarayanan R, Masuyer E, Swaminathan R, Ferlay J, Whelan S. Head and neck cancer: a global perspective on epidemiology and prognosis. Anticancer Res. 1998; 18:4779–86. [PubMed]
  8. Mehta FS, Hamner JE. Tobacco Habits in India In: Tobacco-Related Oral Mucosal Lesions and Conditions in India. New Delhi, India:Jaypee Brothers; 1993. pp. 89–99.
  9. Proia NK, Paszkiewicz GM, Nasca MA, et al. Smoking and smokeless tobacco-associated human buccal cell mutations and their association with oral cancer--a review. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006;15:1061.
  10. Sapkota A, Gajalakshmi V, Jetly DH, et al. Smokeless tobacco and increased risk of hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers: a multicentric case-control study from India. Int J Cancer 2007; 121:1793.
  11. Rosenquist K, Wennerberg J, Schildt EB, et al. Use of Swedish moist snuff, smoking and alcohol consumption in the etiology of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. A population-based case-control study in southern Sweden. Acta Otolaryngol 2005; 125:991.
  12. DeSantis C, Naishadham D, Jemal A. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2013. CA Cancer J Clin 2013; 63:151.
  13. Carvalho AL, Singh B, Spiro RH, Kowalski LP, Shah JP. Cancer of the oral cavity: a comparison between institutions in a developing and a developed nation. Head Neck 2004; 26: 31-8.
  14. Asian pac j cancer prev. 2006 apr-jun;7(2):195-200
  15. Akram, s., et al., emerging patterns in clinicopathological journal of medical sciences, 2013. 29 (3): p. 783
  16. Deepti Garg, Charu Kapoor, Swati Gautam. MODERATELY DIFFERENTIATED SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA: A CASE SERIES. Dental Journal of Advance Studies. 2014: 46-50
  17. Bhurgri Y. Cancer Oral Cavity Trends in Karachi South, Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 22005; 6:22-6.
  18. Bhurgri Y, Bhurgri A, Usman A, Pervez S, Kayani N, Bashir I, et al. Epidemiological review of head and neck cancers in Karachi. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2006; 7:195-200.
  19. Bhurgri Y, Bhurgri A, Parvez S, Bhurgri M, Kayani N, Ahmed R, et al. Cancer profile of Hyderabad, Pakistan1998–2002. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2005;6:474–80
  20. Zheng TZ, Boyle P, Hu HF, Duan J, Jian PJ, Ma DQ, Shui LP, Niu SR, Scully C, MacMahon B: Dentition, oral hygiene, and risk of oral cancer:A case-control study in Beijing. Cancer Causes Control 1: 235–241, 1990
  21. Carvalho AL, Singh B, Spiro RH, Kowalski LP, Shah JP. Cancer of the oral cavity: a comparison between institutions in a developing and a developed nation. Head Neck 2004; 26: 31-8.
  22. Carvalho AL1, Singh B, Spiro RH, Kowalski LP, Shah JP. Cancer of the oral cavity: a comparison between institutions in a developing and a developed nation. Head Neck. 2004 Jan; 26 (1) :31-8.
  23. Carvalho AL1, Pintos J, Schlecht NF, Oliveira BV, Fava AS, Curado MP, Kowalski LP, Franco EL. Predictive factors for diagnosis of advanced-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002 Mar; 128 (3) :313-8.
  24. Maher R, Devji S. Prevalence of Smoking among Karachi Population J Pak Med Assoc 2002; 52: 250-2
  25. Pareek U, Trivedi G. Manual of Socio-Economic Status Scale (Rural) New Delhi: Manasayan Publishers; 1995.
  26. Pai SA. Gutkha banned in Indian states. Lancet Oncol. 2002; 3:521. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(02)00862-8 [PubMed]
  27. Carvalho AL1, Singh B, Spiro RH, Kowalski LP, Shah JP. Cancer of the oral cavity: a comparison between institutions in a developing and a developed nation. Head Neck. 2004 Jan;26 (1): 31-8
  28. Chintamani Tuteja A, Khandelwal R, et al. Patient and provider delays in breast cancer patients attending a tertiary care centre: a prospective study. JRSM Short Rep. 2011; 2:76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1258/shorts.2011.011006. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  29. Carvalho AL, Singh B, Spiro RH, Kowalski LP, Shah JP. Cancer of the oral cavity: a comparison between institutions in a developing and a developed nation. Head Neck 2004; 26: 31-8.
  30. Chuang SC, Jenab M, Heck JE, Bosetti C, Talamini R, Matsuo K, et al. Diet and the risk of head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium. Cancer Causes Control. 2012; 23(1):69-88.         [ Links 
  31. Kumar B, Cordell KG, Lee JS, Worden FP, Prince ME, Tran HH, et al. EGFR, p16, HPV Titer, Bcl-xL and p53, sex, and smoking as indicators of response to therapy and survival in oropharyngeal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26 (19):3128-37.         [ Links ]
  32. Marron M, Boffetta P, Zhang ZF, Zaridze D, Wünsch-Filho V, Winn DM, et al. Cessation of alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking and the reversal of head and neck cancer risk. Int J Epidemiol. 2010; 39(1):182-96.         [ Links ]
  33. Znaor A, Brennan P, Gajalakshmi V, Mathew A, Shanta V, Varghese C, et al. Independent and combined effects of tobacco smoking, chewing and alcohol drinking on the risk of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal cancers in Indian men. Int J Cancer. 2003; 105(5): 681-6.         [ Links ]
  34. Gillison ML. Current topics in the epidemiology of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers. Head Neck. 2007; 29(8):779-92.         [ Links ]

 

Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

SCOPUS (2014, 2019, 2020, 2021 (Till June) currently under re-evaluation)

COPE guidelines for Reviewers


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Leow Jun Xian and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. entitled "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease
88 Percent Of Delhi Population Has Vitamin D Deficiency: ASSOCHAM Report

List of Awardees

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


Awardees of COVID-19 Research

Woman Researcher Award

A Study by Neha Garg et al. entitled "Optimization of the Response to nCOVID-19 Pandemic in Pregnant Women – An Urgent Appeal in Indian Scenario" published in Vol 12 issue 09

A Study by Sana Parveen and Shraddha Jain entitled "Pathophysiologic Enigma of COVID-19 Pandemic with Clinical Correlates" published in Vol 12 issue 13

A Study by Rashmi Jain et al. entitled "Current Consensus Review Article on Drugs and Biologics against nCOVID-19 – A Systematic Review" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Madhan Jeyaraman et al. entitled "Vitamin-D: An Immune Shield Against nCOVID-19" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Study by Dheeraj Kumar Chopra et al. entitled "Lipid-Based Solid Dispersions of Azilsartan Medoxomil with Improved Oral Bioavailability: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation" published in Vol 12 issue 19


RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in


Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: We at IJCRR voluntarily adopt policies on Code of Conduct, and Code of Ethics given by OASPA and COPE. To know about IJCRRs Code of Conduct, Code of Ethics, Artical Retraction policy, Digital Preservation Policy, and Journals Licence policy click here

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



Company name

International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

Contact

148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

editor@ijcrr.com

editor.ijcrr@gmail.com


Copyright © 2021 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions