International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, Google Scholar, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services)

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Full Html

IJCRR - 10(1), January, 2018

Pages: 13-17

Date of Publication: 10-Jan-2018

Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

A Comparative Study of Isolation of Obligate Anaerobes and Facultative Anaerobes in Microbial Flora of Non- Vital Teeth in Diabetic (Type II) and Non-Diabetic Patients

Author: Pradeep Shetty, Monika Chawla, Sanjyot Mulay, Karan Bhargava, Tanaya Kumar, Vasudevan Vidhya

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the anaerobic microflora (obligate and facultative) of the root canals of non vital teeth with periapical lesions, in diabetic (Type II) and non-diabetic patients.
Methods: Access cavity preparation and collection of necrotic pulp tissue samples was done aseptically with the help of absorbent paper points placed in the canal for 60 seconds. Samples were processed anaerobically and were subjected to microbiological analysis using culture techniques for the evaluation of microbial flora.
Results: There was a statistically significant difference between mean and SD values of obligate and facultative anaerobes in diabetic (Type II) and non-diabetic groups when all parameters are compared (p< 0.0001) using one-way ANOVA. Comparison of groups was done by applying Student's Unpaired 't' test. Obligate anaerobes were significantly more associated with cases of Type II diabetes mellitus, suggesting a role of these microorganisms in modulating the inflammatory and immunologic responses as well as its level in root canal infections which can have an influence on the pain threshold of patient.
Conclusion: There were significant differences in the values of microorganisms found in Diabetic (Type II) and non diabetic patients

Keywords: Necrotic pulp, Diabetic type II, Anaerobes

DOI: 10.7324/IJCRR.2018.1014

Full Text:

Around 61 million people in India are diabetic. International statistics estimate that 366 million people had diabetes mellitus in 2011; and that by 2030, this number will rise to 552 million. Around 983,000 deaths in India were caused due to diabetes in the last year.1

A group of complex multisystem metabolic disorders because of deficient insulin secretion due to dysfunction of pancreatic β-cell and/or insulin resistance in muscle as well as liver is termed as Diabetes Mellitus.2 According to findings; diabetes mellitus aggravates the risk of caries, gingivitis and periodontal disease. Increased local inflammation causes intensive increase in the level and effects of diabetes with a sharp shoot up in blood glucose level, leading to uncontrolled hyperglycemia of the patient. Thus all the causative infections concerning those of the dental pulp should be mandatorily removed.3

Literature has very well documented the complex relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease. However, the association between diabetes mellitus and dental pulp and the advancement and repair of different endodontic infections has not been satisfactorily studied.3

There is an established positive, besides insignificant alliance between diabetes and presence of Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Eubacteria, Fusobacterium and Enterococcus species.5 Foregoing studies have demonstrated that in retaliation to pernicious root canal microflora particularly bacteria, the diabetic host may mature with more consequential infections.4 When the diabetic and non-diabetic population is compared, patients with diabetes mellitus and periapical lesion have shown notably diminished healing succeeding endodontic therapy.6

Hence, this study aims to isolate obligate anaerobes and facultative anaerobes from root canal of non-vital teeth in diabetic (Type II) and non-diabetic patients.

Material and Methodology:

Patient Selection

Patients presenting to the Department of Endodontics and Conservative Dentistry, Dr. D Y Patil Dental College were screened for the study. Comprehensive medical and dental histories were obtained from each patient. Inclusion criteria for the study were teeth with pulpal disease and periapical lesions which could be treated with endodontic therapy, patients with a history of controlled diabetes (Type II), patients either taking oral medication or insulin for the disease, patients in the age range of 45-65 years were selected. Written consent was obtained from all participating patients.  Patients who met the inclusion criteria were subjected to electric pulp testing and pre-operative radiograph to investigate the presence of periapical lesion.

Group 1: 30 patients with type II diabetes mellitus were subjected to HbA1C test to determine the degree of their glycemic control. [≥7mmol(≥126mg/dl)]

Group 2: 30 patients with no history of diabetes were selected. HbA1C test was carried out on patients with no history of diabetes to confirm their non-diabetic status. [<6.1mmol(<110mg/dl)]

Microbial Sampling

Strict asepsis was followed during sample collection. To isolate the operating field, rubber dam, cotton rolls and saliva ejector were used. The isolated tooth was then washed to disinfect the crown of the tooth. The pulp chamber was then accessed with a sterile round bur. The orifices were identified and a sterile no. 15 K file was introduced in the canal upto 1mm short of the apex as assessed by the electronic apex locator and the canals were instrumented and irrigated with 1 ml sterile normal saline each. The necrotic pulp tissue samples were collected using sterile absorbent paper points placed in the canals for 60 seconds. The absorbent paper points were immediately kept in sterile Eppendorf tubes containing mineral salt solution as the storage medium. The Eppendorf tubes were then immediately transferred to department of Microbiology for analysis.

Bacterial culture

Samples were processed anaerobically. The root canal samples were diluted with sterile saline solution and then thoroughly shaken. After that 1ml of sample was carried with micropipette and plated onto nutrient blood agar media for identifying facultative anaerobes and onto RCM media for identifying obligate anaerobes. Then the blood agar plates were kept in universal incubator for 24-48 hours at 370C and the RCM media plates were kept in carbon dioxide (CO2) incubator at 270C with 5% CO2 gas for 72 hours. Then the colony forming units (CFUs) were calculated and identification of bacteria was carried out. The plates were then biochemically analyzed for growth and identification of bacteria using the colony morphology and gram staining.

Description: dam1.jpg METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS:

Statistical analysis was done by descriptive statistics as mean, SD, etc. Comparison of groups was done by applying Student's Unpaired 't' test. One way ANOVA test (Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test) was applied for all the groups compared together with all parameters. All tests are applied at 5% and 1% level of significance. Statistical analysis software namely SYSTAT version 12 was applied.


Results of CFUs of isolated obligate anaerobes and facultative anaerobes are listed in Table 1. Table 2 and 3 shows the identified colonies of obligate and facultative anaerobes.


In this study diabetic (Type II) patients were selected because there is little knowledge available regarding pathogenesis, progression and healing of periradicular and pulpal diseases. Anaerobic infection is also increased by vascular problems associated with diabetes, which may be associated to shortened oxygen diffusion over the capillary wall. Because of neutrophil microbicidal suppression, synergism of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, infection becomes more severe and it also lasts longer due to anoxia.3

In teeth with pulp necrosis and aerobe bacterial culture techniques were predominantly used from the 19th century to the middle of the 20th century, to isolate the microbial species from root canal. The techniques have very minimal scope and they are confined to the culture and identification of organisms which are strictly anaerobic in nature.14 Hence pulpally necrosed teeth demonstrated more of facultative anaerobes and aerobic microorganisms.15,16,17 Some early studies were unable to report the existence of obligate anaerobes.18

The present study revealed that that the difference between mean values of colony forming units in all two groups under comparison (p<0.05) was significant. No significant difference was found in percentage values of all two study groups under comparison (p>0.05).

In teeth infected with pulp necrosis, success of endodontic treatment is ensured by complete control of the endodontic infection and removal of the etiological agents. When infectious process starts within dental pulp, the majority of the endodontic microflora comprises gram- positive organisms with majority being facultative aerobes, with cocci dominating bacilli and filamentous microorganisms.19Of late, major advances have occurred in the field of bacterial culture and identification techniques, due to which predominantly obligate anaerobes have been found in non-vital teeth and teeth with a definite periapical lesion,19,20 particularly gram-negative endodontic microflora.21The advancements in anaerobic culture techniques lead to recovery of  obligate anaerobes recovered from necrosed pulp,22 and other studies illustrated the prevalence of endodontic infection occurring due to anaerobes to be above 90%.23,24 It is worth visualizing,  that isolated microorganisms are not same in each case but differ from one individual to other, i.e., Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Peptococcus and Eubacterium  and these bacteria have been found out to be  the main causative agent of endodontic infection.25

Studies have shown that black-pigmented bacteria are highly prevalent in cases of acute periradicular abscesses. In a cultural study Van Winkelhoff et al. isolated Prevotella intermedia from 63%, Porphyromonas endodontalis from 53%, and Porphyromonas gingivalis from 12% of the examined periradicular abscesses.26 Sundqvist et al. found P. intermedia in 10 of 17 cases of endodontic abscesses. P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis were isolated from 1 and 4 cases, respectively.27Scientific evidences suggest that black-pigmented anaerobic rods may be implicated in the etiology of periradicular pathosis.28

The obligate anaerobes found in diabetic and non-diabetic group in this study were black pigmented bacteria i.e. Prevotella and porphyromonas species, Fusobacterium, Actinomyces, Campylobacter, Peptostreptococcus. The facultative anaerobes that were isolated in diabetic (type II) and non-diabetic group were Capnocytophaga Gingivalis, Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Wolinella.

Concerning obligate anaerobes, black-pigmented bacilli (Porphyromonas sp. and Prevotella sp.) are associated with various signs as well as symptoms of endodontic nature, such as: tenderness and pain on percussion, severe pain with affected teeth, pain on palpation, generalized or localized swelling, and persisting exudate.20 The results in this research study have shown the presence of different bacteria and their co-relation with preoperative and postoperative pain. Still pertaining to the cases with acute symptoms, the commonly causing microorganism was found to be Fusobacterium nucleatum.

Although a large number of anaerobes have been isolated by our study, still even with all the caution during execution of the research, there are chances that some species extremely sensitive to the presence of oxygen may have left out and could not be detected. The inoculation of the samples was done in proper and effective transport media which were thoroughly nutritive, processed under effective anaerobic conditions and the time period for which the microorganisms were inoculated was enough and according to the recommendations of the microbiologist. This ensured the growth of all possible microorganisms. Although Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated by us, these bacteria holds an important place in endodontic infections great due to their relationship with chronic periradicular diseases and persistent endodontic infections; additionally, they show high resistance to harsh and unfavorable environmental conditions ultimately rendering them difficult to eliminate from the root canals and.25

The gold standard techniques used for the isolation and identification of the endodontic microflora related to different infectious diseases is the microbiological culturing techniques.25Other traditional techniques employed in identification and quantification of microorganisms is microscopy, immunological methods. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) is the most extensively accepted technique in molecular technology. Since its invention, different varieties and types of PCR techniques have been developed. The widely used PCR-derived assays being Reverse Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), nested PCR, Multiplex PCR, PCR-based microbial typing, Real-Time PCR, broad-range PCR. Other molecular diagnostic techniques are denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, terminal-RFLP, DNA-DNA hybridization, DNA microarrays, fluorescence in situ hybridization.29

In this research study we strictly pertained to microbial culturing technique for the determination of the anaerobes (facultative and obligate) since it was the only method for identifying the viable microflora exclusively. Various other authors have also employed this technique to evaluate and identify the endodontic microflora.20,30,31,32


Thus the present study has highlighted the polymicrobial nature of root canal infections and the importance of obligate anaerobes and facultative microorganisms in non-vital teeth of diabetic (type II) and non-diabetic patients. Obligate anaerobes were significantly more associated with cases of type II diabetes mellitus, suggesting a role of these microorganisms in modulating the inflammatory and immunologic responses as well as its level in root canal infections which can have an influence on the pain threshold of patient. However, further research using a broad range molecular microbiological method for identifying more number of endodontic pathogens may be necessary to demonstrate a significant association between diabetes mellitus and endodontic infections and the differences in microflora of non-vital teeth in diabetic (Type II) and Non-Diabetic patients.

There are no conflicts of interests related to this study.

Acknowledgement: Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The Author are also grateful to authors/ editors/ publishers/ of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.


  1. 1 diabetic- patients- high- blood- sugar-level (14th  December 2011).

  2. Juan J Segura-Egea 1, Lizett Castellanos-Cosano 1, Guillermo Machuca et al. Diabetes mellitus, periapical inflammation and endodontic treatment outcome. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2012 Mar 1;17 (2):356-61.

  3. IB. Bender and A. B. Bender. Diabetes Mellitus and the Dental Pulp. J Endod2003;29(6):383–9.

  4. K V Ramana. Clinical Microbiology: Reemphasizing the Role of Anaerobic Bacteria in Hu­man Infections. J Med Microb Diagn 2012, 1:4.

  5. Ashraf F. Fouad. Diabetes Mellitus as a Modulating Factor of Endodontic Infections. J Dent Educ  2003;67(4):459-467.

  6. Ashraf F. Fouad, Jody Barry, Melissa Caimano et al. PCR-Based Identification of Bacteria Associated with Endodontic Infections.J. Clin. Microbiol  2002;40(9):3223-31.

  7. Bissada NF, Sharawy AM. Histologic study of gingival and pulpal vascular change in human diabetics. Egypt Dent J 1970;16:283-96.

  8. Bennett C.M, Guo M, Dharmage S.C. HbA1c as a screening tool for detection of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Diab Med 2007; 24: 333–343



  11. Pishipati Vinayak Kalyan Chakravarthy. Diabetes mellitus: An endodontic perspective. Eur J Dent 2013;2(3).

  12. Falk H, Hugoson A, Thorstensson H, Number of teeth, prevalence of caries and periapical lesions in insulin dependent diabetes. Scand J Den Res 1989; 97: 198-206

  13. Lamster IB, Borgnakke WS, Taylor GW. The relationship between oral health and Diabetes mellitus. JADA 2008; 139: 19s-24s

  14. Nayak Moksha, et al. Diabetes mellitus and apical periodontitis. Endodontology (2013): 103-108.

  15. Möller AJ, Fabricius L, Dahlen G. Influence on periapical tissues of indigenous oral bacteria and necrotic pulp tissue in monkeys. Scand J Dent Res. 1981;89(6):475-84.

  16. Alencar AH, Pimenta FC, Ito IY, Bruno KF, Leonardo MR. Determinação dos microrganismos no canal radicular, antes do preparobiomecânico e após a utilização da medicaçãointracanal, emdentes com necrosepulpar e reaçãoperiapicalcrônica. ArqOdontol.2005;41(2):105-92.

  17. Brown Jr. LR, Rudolph Jr. CE. Isolation and identification of microorganisms from unexposed canals of pulp-involved teeth. OralSurg. Oral Surg. 1957;10(10):1094-9

  18. Socranscky SS, Mcdonald JB, Sawyer S. The cultivation of Treponemamicrodentium as surface colonies. Arch Oral Biol. 1959;1(2):171-2

  19. Winkler KC, Van Amerongen J. Bacteriologic results from 4.000 root canal cultures. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1959;12(7):857-75

  20. Drucker, D. B. and Natsiou, I. Microbial ecology of the dental root canal. Microb Ecol Health Dis 2000 12, 160–169

  21. Fabricius L, Dahlén G, Holm SE, Möller AJR. Influence of combinations of oral bacteria on periapical tissue of monkeys. Scand J Dent. 1982;90(3):200-6.

  22. Gomes BP, Lilley JD, Drucker DB. Associations of endodontic symptoms and signs with particular combinations of specific bacteria. Int Endod J. 1996;29(2):69-75.

  23. Assed S, Ito IY, Leonardo MR, Silva LAB, Lopatin D. Anaerobic microorganisms in root canals of human teeth with chronic apical periodontitis detected by indirect immunofluorescence. Endo Dent Traumatol. 1996;12(2):66-9

  24. Morse DR. Endodontic microbiology in the 1970s. Int Endod J. 1981;14(2):69-79.

  25. Ferreira CM, Bonifácio KC, Fröner IC, Ito IY. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of three irrigating solutions in teeth with pulpal necrosis. Braz Dent J. 1999;10(1):15-21

  26. Haapasalo M. Bacteroidesspp in dental root canal infections. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1989;5(1):1-10.

  27. de Lima Guimarães, Soares NL, Otoch, Machado H, de Andrade, Cavalcante L. Microbiological evaluation of infected root canals and their correlation with pain. Rev Sul-Bras de Odontol 2012;9:31

  28. Van Winkelhoff AJ, Carlee AW, de Graaff J. Bacteroidesendodontalis and other black-pigmented Bacteroides species in odontogenic abscesses. Infect Immun 1985;49:494–8.

  29. Sundqvist G, Johansson E, Sjo¨gren U. Prevalence of black-pigmented Bacteroides species in root canal infections. J Endodon 1989;15:13–9.

  30. Sundqvist GK, Eckerbom MI, Larsson AP, Sjo¨gren UF. Capacity of anaerobic bacteria from necrotic dental pulps to induce purulent infections. Infect Immun 1979;25:685–93.

  31. Siqueira JF Jr, Rôças IN. Exploiting molecular methods to explore endodontic infections: Part 1—current molecular technologies for microbiological diagnosis. J Endod. 2005 Jun;31(6):411-23.

  32. Ferrari PHP, Cai S, Bombana AC. Effectof Effect of endodontic procedures on enterococci, enteric bacteria and yeasts in primary endodontic infections. IntEndodJ.2005;38(6):372-80 Int Endod J. 2005;38(6):372-80.

  33. Dougherty WJ, Bae KS, Watkins BJ, Baumgartner JC. Black-pigmented bacteria in coronal and apical segments of infected root canals. J Endod. 1998;24(5):356-8.

  34. Drucker DB, Gomes BPFA, Lilley JD. Role of anaerobic species in endodontic infection. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;25(2):220-1.


Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021

Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A study by Dorothy Ebere Adimora et al. entitled \"Remediation for Effects of Domestic Violence on Psychological well-being, Depression and Suicide among Women During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-cultural Study of Nigeria and Spain\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 23
A study by Muhas C. et al. entitled \"Study on Knowledge & Awareness About Pharmacovigilance Among Pharmacists in South India\" is awarded Best article for Vol 14 issue 22
A study by Saurabh Suvidha entitled \"A Case of Mucoid Degeneration of Uterine Fibroid with Hydrosalphinx and Ovarian Cyst\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 21
A study by Alice Alice entitled \"Strengthening of Human Milk Banking across South Asian Countries: A Next Step Forward\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 20
A study by Sathyanarayanan AR et al. entitled \"The on-task Attention of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder-An Eye Tracker Study Using Auticare\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 19
A study by Gupta P. et al. entitled \"A Short Review on \"A Novel Approach in Fast Dissolving Film & their Evaluation Studies\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 18.
A study by Shafaque M. et al. entitled \"A Case-Control Study Performed in Karachi on Inflammatory Markers by Ciprofloxacin and CoAmoxicillin in Patients with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 17
A study by Ali Nawaz et al. entitled \"A Comparative Study of Tubeless versus Standard Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) \? A Randomized Controlled Study\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 16.
A study by Singh R. et al. entitled \"A Prospective Study to Find the Association of Astigmatism in Patients of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in a Tertiary Health Care Centre in India (Vindhya Region MP)\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 15
A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in

Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: To achieve a high standard of publication, we adopt Good Publishing Practices (updated in 2022) which are inspired by guidelines provided by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

Copyright © 2024 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions