International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, Google Scholar, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services)

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Full Html

IJCRR - 9(18), September, 2017

Pages: 36-39

Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

Pharmacobiological Treatments in Autism Spectrum Disorders

Author: Anusha Jayaraman, Nandini Mundkur

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) refer to a group of neuro-developmental disorders affecting young children and adults. Currently, the treatment options for ASD are mostly restricted to treating its symptoms. Among the various approaches for treating ASD, pharmacobiology-based treatments are numerous. Our objective is to review the up-to-date information on different types of medications and briefly discuss the evidence-based potential of these treatments in ASD therapy. PubMed searches for reports and reviews on clinical data from the last 15 years, between 2002-2017, using search terms of each category of treatment along with the terms “autism”, “mechanism”, and/or “side effects” were conducted. Several pharmacobiological interventions have been prescribed for ASD, including antipsychotics, stimulants, antidepressants, supplements, and special diets. However, none of these methods is an effective ASD treatment, and only few show much promise. We provide a brief overview of the current pharmacobiological treatments for ASD, their mechanisms of action, and clinical research-based evidence on their effectiveness. Based on our review, we recommend that caution should be exercised when choosing a pharmacobiological treatment method for ASD as majority of existing evidence is not from large-scale long-term high quality studies.Future research should focus on rigorous investigative design, long-term implementation, and meaningful uniform outcome measurements.

Keywords: Antidepressants, Antipsychotics, Special diet, Vitamins

Full Text:


Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in young children and adults are characterized by impaired socialization, communication, emotion processing, and stereotyped/repetitive behaviors, along with sensory processing dysfunction, speech and language impediments, seizures, gastrointestinal issues, irritability, aggression, hyperactivity, and sleep disorders [1, 2]. According to recent statistics by Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1 in every 68 children in the US is affected by ASD [3]. This could be due to true increase in prevalence or increased awareness and diagnosis. ASD also shows higher prevalence in boys[3], familial patterns and sibling learning issues [4, 5], and high monozygotic twin concordance [6]. Numerous underlying causes for ASD have been indicated such as genetic mutations, neurotoxicity and inflammation, impaired immune response, dysbiosis, nutrient imbalance, and oxidative stress [2].

Several treatment strategies have been undertaken in patients with ASD including behavioral and physiological interventions. Here, we review some of the physiology- and pharmacology-based interventions for ASD along with recent-advances in ASD treatment and their effectiveness in treating ASD. These include selective serotonin receptor-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs, stimulants, dietary supplements, and special diets[7, 8]. Very limited data are currently available regarding the long-term effectiveness and side-effects of these treatments for ASD. So far, no medication has shown a consistent positive effect on patients with ASD.

Apart from the above mentioned treatments, therapeutic approaches such as stem cell therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and early intervention therapies involving speech and language therapy, music therapy, and sensory therapy are also undertaken for patients with ASD[9, 10].Among all the different approaches for ASD treatment, the early intervention method has been shown to be most effective till date [11, 12]. However, a review of these targeted approaches are beyond the objective of this review.

Selective serotonin-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and Tricyclic antidepressants

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is a neurotransmitter derived from tryptophan, and mainly sourced from the raphe nuclei in the brain. The serotonergic system plays an important role in attention, arousal, and feeding [13]. Studies have shown that children with autism have elevated levels of blood serotonin [14].

SSRIs used in the treatment of ASD in various randomized controlled trials (RCTs) include fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, fenfluramine, and citalopram. SSRIs block the re-uptake of serotonin at the synapse, thus increasing the availability of serotonin and the activation of serotonin receptors [15]. In children and adults, SSRIs have shown limited positive outcome, although all the studies have been with small sample sizes, with potential risk of bias [16, 17]. In addition, SSRIs such as olanzapine, and fluvoxamine, have been shown to have undesirable side effects including irritability and weight gain [16, 18]. A large multi-center, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial has been recently started known as Fluoxetine for Autistic Behaviors (FAB trial) to determine the efficacy of low-dose fluoxetine for treating ASD symptoms in children and adolescents [19].

On the other hand, prenatal exposure to SSRIs have been linked to ASD risk in epidemiological studies [20, 21]. However, two very recent studies have concluded that there is no significant relationship between prenatal exposure to SSRIs and ASD risk and suggest that the previously observed association may be due to other factors [22, 23].

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) have the same effect as SSRIs in increasing the serotonin levels [24]. A short-term treatment of tianeptine showed a modest effect on irritability in 12 children with ASD [25]. Low-dose amitriptyline has also shown promise in youth with ASD for hyperactivity and impulsivity [26]. However, no large randomized clinical trials have been conducted till date with TCAs for treatment of ASD.


Old antipsychotics or neuroleptics are D2 dopamine receptor antagonists, although they are also effective against acetylcholine receptors, serotonin receptors, and adrenergic receptors. The old antipsychotics are less preferable due to their tight, long-lasting binding with the receptors. On the other hand, the second generation or atypical antipsychotics such as risperidone and aripiprazole, dissociate more rapidly from the receptors due to hit-and-run binding properties. Risperidone and aripiprazole have shown positive effects in several different clinical trials especially for ASD-related irritability[27, 28]. However, the major drawback of atypical antipsychotics are side effects such as weight gain, metabolic changes, sleep disturbances, higher risk of sedation and tremor, drooling, increased appetite, fatigue, dizziness, and withdrawal dyskinesias [29, 30]. Another atypical antipsychotic drug, clozapine, has been shown to be effective against hyperactivity and aggression in children with ASD [31].Therefore, based on limited evidence with small sample sizes and short follow-ups, atypical antipsychotics may be more effective as short-term interventions for certain behavioral symptoms in patients with ASD.

Stimulants and Non-stimulants

Stimulants such as methylphenidate are shown to improve the hyperactivity-impulsive symptoms in children with ASD that are regulated by multiple monoaminergic gene variants and has been shown to be well-tolerated and efficacious in several studies [32, 33]. However, some studies have shown severe adverse effects with methylphenidate including social withdrawal, irritability, insomnia, and anorexia in children with ASD [34].

Among non-stimulants, atomoxetine has been commonly used for treating the hyperactivity-attention deficit symptoms of ASD. In a recent double-blind placebo-controlled trial in children with ASD, the atomoxetine group showed an improvement in hyperactivity symptoms, with side effects of only fatigue and reduced appetite [35].


Based on the Pauling theory that suggests that deficiencies of vitamins and minerals may lead to mental disorders, many doctors have recommended the use of supplements in children with ASD, including omega-3-fatty acids, various vitamins, magnesium, iron, zinc and copper. An insufficiency in omega-3-fatty acids has been linked to abnormal development of the nervous system and to various psychiatric disorders [36]. In ASD studies, although omega-3-fatty acid supplementation had no significant beneficial effects in adult patients [37], another study on children have shown significant improvements in social and communication responses[38]. Among vitamins, vitamin B6 and magnesium [39], and vitamin D [40], have shown beneficial effects in few studies, while others such as vitamin A, and vitamin B12 and folic acid have been proposed as potential treatment options for ASD. Minerals such as magnesium [39], iron[41], and zinc [42], have also been recommended for nutritional therapies in ASD. However, large-scale high-quality randomized-controlled studies are required to conclusively determine if nutritional supplements are an effective therapeutic approach for ASD.

Special diets

Although special diets such as gluten-free casein-free (GFCF) diet have been reported to have beneficial outcomes in children with ASD, most of these reports are anecdotal and do not have sufficient clinical evidence. The hypothesis behind the proposal of GFCF diet for ASD treatment is that the overload of high peptides such as gluten and casein may produce an opioid-like effect that could manifest as common behavioral symptoms of ASD. In addition, inflammation of the gastro-intestinal tract as well as unbalanced gut microbial, both of which are implicated in ASD, could get aggravated with casein and gluten, causing discomfort and pain in children with ASD leading to behavioral issues. However, intervention studies with GFCF diet show mixed results. Two of the most recent reviews on this topic suggest that there is very little evidence to suggest any beneficial outcome with GFCF diet on ASD symptoms [43, 44]. GFCF diet may be beneficial for ASD individuals with specific gut-related issues, or as a short-term relief.

The ketogenic diet, which is usually used for treating children with refractive epilepsy, is a high-fat, low-protein, low-carbohydrate diet. One study that investigated the effect of ketogenic diet on 30 children with ASD showed significant improvements in social and communication functions [45].

A low-oxalate diet has been recommended for children with ASD (40-50 mg per day) based on one study in patients with ASD showing higher plasma oxalate and urine oxalate levels [46].


Apart from the various treatments reviewed here, other approaches such as acupuncture, music therapy, various early behavior interventions, and social skill groups have been implemented for treatment of ASD with varying results. The review of recent literature from the last 15 years shows no large-scale, high-quality studies for any ASD treatments that have investigated their long-term effectiveness and/or side effects. Moreover, the evidence is contradictory between studies for several treatments. For treatments that show promise, for example, atypical antipsychotic drugs, the side effects are significant. Hence, well-designed long-term RCTs with sufficient sample size are required to conclusively link the potential efficacy and/or the side effects of these treatments with ASD. Based on the existing quality of evidence, we recommend caution before choosing these modes of treatment for ASD. Currently, early intervention-based approaches that integrates both developmental and behavioral models seem to be the most effective treatment paradigm for ASD.


Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

Funding Source


Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to declare


  1. Ivanov HY, Stoyanova VK, Popov NT, Vachev TI. Autism Spectrum Disorder - A Complex Genetic Disorder.Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2015;57:19-28.
  2. Bhat S, Acharya UR, Adeli H, Bairy GM, Adeli A. Autism: cause factors, early diagnosis and therapies.Rev Neurosci. 2014;25:841-50.
  3. Christensen DL, Baio J, Van Naarden Braun K, et al. Prevalence and Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years--Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2012.MMWR Surveill Summ. 2016;65:1-23.
  4. Sandin S, Lichtenstein P, Kuja-Halkola R, Larsson H, Hultman CM, Reichenberg A. The familial risk of autism. JAMA. 2014;311:1770-7.
  5. Risch N, Hoffmann TJ, Anderson M, Croen LA, Grether JK, Windham GC. Familial recurrence of autism spectrum disorder: evaluating genetic and environmental contributions.Am J Psychiatry. 2014;171:1206-13.
  6. Rosenberg RE, Law JK, Yenokyan G, McGready J, Kaufmann WE, Law PA. Characteristics and concordance of autism spectrum disorders among 277 twin pairs.Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2009;163:907-14.
  7. Accordino RE, Kidd C, Politte LC, Henry CA, McDougle CJ. Psychopharmacological interventions in autism spectrum disorder. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2016; 17: 937-52.
  8. Sathe N, Andrews JC, McPheeters ML, Warren ZE. Nutritional and dietary interventions for autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review. Pediatrics. 2017; 139: pii. E20170346.
  9. Whitehouse AJ. Complementary and alternative medicine for autism spectrum disorders: rationale, safety and efficacy. J Paediatr Child Health. 2013; 49: E438-42.
  10. Poustka L, Kamp-Becker I. Current practice and future avenues in autism therapy. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2017; 30: 357-78.
  11. Zwaigenbaum L, Bauman ML, Choueiri R, et al. Early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder under 3 years of age: Recommendations for practice and research. Pediatrics. 2015; 136 Suppl 1: S60-81.
  12. Sacrey LA, Bennett JA, Zwaigenbaum L. Early infant development and intervention for autism spectrum disorder. J Child Neurol. 2015;30:1921-9.
  13. Fidalgo S, Ivanov DK, Wood SH. Serotonin: from top to bottom. Biogerontology. 2013;14:21-45.
  14. Gabriele S, Sacco R, Persico AM. Blood serotonin levels in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014;24:919-29.
  15. Williams K, Brignell A, Randall M, Silove N, Hazell P. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for autism spectrum disorders (ASD).Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(8):CD004677.
  16. Hollander E, Wasserman S, Swanson EN, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study of olanzapine in childhood/adolescent pervasive developmental disorder.J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2006;16:541-8.
  17. Hollander E, Soorya L, Chaplin W, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine for repetitive behaviors and global severity in adult autism spectrum disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2012;169:292-9.
  18. Maina G, Albert U, Salvi V, Bogetto F. Weight gain during long-term treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a prospective comparison between serotonin reuptake inhibitors.J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65:1365-71.
  19. Mouti A, Reddihough D, Marraffa C, et al. Fluoxetine for Autistic Behaviors (FAB trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial in children and adolescents with autism.Trials. 2014;15:230.
  20. Man KK, Tong HH, Wong LY, Chan EW, Simonoff E, Wong IC. Exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorder in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015;49:82-9.
  21. Boukhris T, Sheehy O, Mottron L, Bérard A. Antidepressant use during pregnancy and the risk of autism spectrum disorder in children. JAMA Pediatr. 2016;170:117-24.
  22. Sujan AC, Rickert ME, Öberg AS, et al. Associations of Maternal Antidepressant Use During the First Trimester of Pregnancy With Preterm Birth, Small for Gestational Age, Autism Spectrum Disorder, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Offspring. JAMA. 2017;317:1553-62.
  23. Brown HK, Ray JG, Wilton AS, Lunsky Y, Gomes T, Vigod SN. Association between serotonergic antidepressant use during pregnancy and autism spectrum disorder in children. JAMA. 2017;317:1544-52.
  24. Nijenhuis CM, Horst PG, Berg LT, Wilffert B. Disturbed development of the enteric nervous system after in utero exposure of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants. Part 1: Literature review. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2012;73:16-26.
  25. Niederhofer H, Staffen W, Mair A. Tianeptine: a novel strategy of psychopharmacological treatment of children with autistic disorder. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2003;18:389-93.
  26. Bhatti I, Thome A, Smith PO, et al. A retrospective study of amitriptyline in youth with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013;43:1017-27.
  27. Dinnissen M, Dietrich A, van den Hoofdakker BJ, Hoekstra PJ. Clinical and pharmacokinetic evaluation of risperidone for the management of autism spectrum disorder. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2015;11:111-24.
  28. Ghanizadeh A, Tordjman S, Jaafari N. Aripiprazole for treating irritability in children and adolescents with autism: A systematic review. Indian J Med Res. 2015;142:269-75.
  29. McCracken JT, McGough J, Shah B, et al. Risperidone in children with autism and serious behavioral problems. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:314-21.
  30. Findling RL, Mankoski R, Timko K, et al. A randomized controlled trial investigating the safety and efficacy of aripiprazole in the long-term maintenance treatment of pediatric patients with irritability associated with autistic disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2014;75:22-30.
  31. Frogley C, Taylor D, Dickens G, Picchioni M. A systematic review of the evidence of clozapine's anti-aggressive effects. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012;15:1351-71.
  32. McCracken JT, Badashova KK, Posey DJ, et al. Positive effects of methylphenidate on hyperactivity are moderated by monoaminergic gene variants in children with autism spectrum disorders. Pharmacogenomics J. 2014;14:295-302.
  33. Pearson DA, Santos CW, Aman MG, et al. Effects of extended release methylphenidate treatment on ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and associated behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders and ADHD symptoms. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2013;23:337-51.
  34. Simonoff E, Taylor E, Baird G, et al. Randomized controlled double-blind trial of optimal dose methylphenidate in children and adolescents with severe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and intellectual disability. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2013;54:527-35.
  35. Tumuluru RV, Corbett-Dick P, Aman MG, et al. Adverse Events of Atomoxetine in a Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study in Children with Autism. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2017; doi: 10.1089/cap.2016.0187.
  36. Bozzatello P, Brignolo E, De Grandi E, Bellino S. Supplementation with Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Psychiatric Disorders: A Review of Literature Data. J Clin Med. 2016;5. pii: E67.
  37. Politi P, Cena H, Comelli M, et al. Behavioral effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in young adults with severe autism: an open label study. Arch Med Res. 2008;39:682-5.
  38. Amminger GP, Berger GE, Schäfer MR, Klier C, Friedrich MH, Feucht M. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in children with autism: a double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61:551-3.
  39. Murza KA, Pavelko SL, Malani MD, Nye C. Vitamin B6-magnesium treatment for autism: the current status of the research. Magnes Res. 2010;23:115-7.
  40. Mazahery H, Camargo CA Jr, Conlon C, Beck KL, Kruger MC, von Hurst PR. Vitamin D and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Literature Review. Nutrients. 2016;8:236.
  41. Dosman CF, Drmic IE, Brian JA, et al. Ferritin as an indicator of suspected iron deficiency in children with autism spectrum disorder: prevalence of low serum ferritin concentration. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2006;48:1008-9.
  42. Babaknejad N, Sayehmiri F, Sayehmiri K, Mohamadkhani A, Bahrami S. The Relationship between Zinc Levels and Autism: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Iran J Child Neurol. 2016;10:1-9.
  43. Piwowarczyk A, Horvath A, ?ukasik J, Pisula E, Szajewska H. Gluten- and casein-free diet and autism spectrum disorders in children: a systematic review. Eur J Nutr. 2017; doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1483-2.
  44. Elder JH, Kreider CM, Schaefer NM, de Laosa MB. A review of gluten- and casein-free diets for treatment of autism: 2005-2015. Nutr Diet Suppl. 2015;7:87-101.
  45. Evangeliou A, Vlachonikolis I, Mihailidou H, Spilioti M, Skarpalezou A, Makaronas N, et al. Application of a ketogenic diet in children with autistic behavior: pilot study. J Child Neurol. 2003;18:113-8.
  46. Konstantynowicz J, Porowski T, Zoch-Zwierz W, Wasilewska J, Kadziela-Olech H, Kulak W, et al. A potential pathogenic role of oxalate in autism. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2012;16:485-91.


Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021

Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A study by Dorothy Ebere Adimora et al. entitled \"Remediation for Effects of Domestic Violence on Psychological well-being, Depression and Suicide among Women During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-cultural Study of Nigeria and Spain\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 23
A study by Muhas C. et al. entitled \"Study on Knowledge & Awareness About Pharmacovigilance Among Pharmacists in South India\" is awarded Best article for Vol 14 issue 22
A study by Saurabh Suvidha entitled \"A Case of Mucoid Degeneration of Uterine Fibroid with Hydrosalphinx and Ovarian Cyst\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 21
A study by Alice Alice entitled \"Strengthening of Human Milk Banking across South Asian Countries: A Next Step Forward\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 20
A study by Sathyanarayanan AR et al. entitled \"The on-task Attention of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder-An Eye Tracker Study Using Auticare\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 19
A study by Gupta P. et al. entitled \"A Short Review on \"A Novel Approach in Fast Dissolving Film & their Evaluation Studies\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 18.
A study by Shafaque M. et al. entitled \"A Case-Control Study Performed in Karachi on Inflammatory Markers by Ciprofloxacin and CoAmoxicillin in Patients with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 17
A study by Ali Nawaz et al. entitled \"A Comparative Study of Tubeless versus Standard Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) \? A Randomized Controlled Study\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 16.
A study by Singh R. et al. entitled \"A Prospective Study to Find the Association of Astigmatism in Patients of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in a Tertiary Health Care Centre in India (Vindhya Region MP)\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 15
A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in

Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: To achieve a high standard of publication, we adopt Good Publishing Practices (updated in 2022) which are inspired by guidelines provided by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

Copyright © 2024 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions