International Journal of Current Research and Review
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IJCRR - Vol 09 Issue 17, September, 2017

Pages: 19-25

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Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Essential Oil (Volatile Oil) of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)

Author: Sunita Jhariya, Aruna Jain

Category: General Sciences

Abstract:Aim: The experiment was intended to find out the effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Essential oil (Volatile oil) of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.).
Methodology: The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with 8 treatments using chemical fertilizers (NPK), vermicompost and biofertilizers (Azotobacter and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria sp. Pseudomonas strata) in different combinations including one control treatment.
Results: The results indicated that volatile oil percentage and percentage of different compounds i.e. Linalool, Geraniol, a-pinene and B - pinene in volatile oil of Coriandrum sativum L. was recorded significantly higher in T7 treatment compared to control treatment at different growth stages.
Conclusion: From the analysis of results it can be concluded that integrated use of biofertilizers, chemical fertilizers and vermicompost is the best combination for the Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) crop.

Keywords: Biofertilizers, Chemical Fertilizers, Vermicompost, Integrated Nutrient Management, Volatile oil, Coriandrum sativum

DOI: 10.7324/IJCRR.2017.9173

Full Text:

Introduction

India is known all over the world as"The Home of Spices". The fame of Indian spices is older than the recorded history. The term spice applies to natural plant or vegetable products or mixtures in whole or ground form, which are used for imparting flavor, aroma and piquancy to the food items. Spices are made up of many parts of a plant such as roots, bark, flowers, fruits, leaves etc. with distinct flavor and taste (www.mccormickscienceinstitute.com). Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) an annual herb of the parsley family (Apiaceae), is native to the Mediterranean region and is extensively grown in Bangladesh, India, Russia, central Europe and Morocco and has been cultivated since human antiquity (Small,1997 and Bhuiyan et al., 2009). The plant is grown widely all over the world for seed, as a spice, or for essential oil production (Lawrence, 1993). All part of the plants is edible but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are the most common parts used in cooking. Coriander contains an essential oil (0.03-2.6%). The essential oil of coriander is also called volatile oil. It has strong effects on the nervous system and is therefore widely used by aroma therapists and herbologists as a sedative, spasmolytic and local anaesthetic. It is also used against many skin complaints, mostly in the form of tea tree oil. The different parts of this plant contain monoterpenes, limpnene, a-pinene, g-terpinene, p-cymene, citronellol, borneol, camphor, coriandrin, geraniol, dihydrocoriandrin, coriandrons A-E, flavonoids and essential oils (Farooq Anwar et al., 2011 and Nadeem et al, 2013). Various parts of this plant such as seed, leaves, flower and fruit, possess antioxidant activity, anti-diabetic activity, anti-mutagenic activity, anthelmintic activity, sedative - hypnotic activity, anticonvulsant activity, diuretic activity, cholesterol lowering activity, protective role against lead toxicity, antifungal activity, anti-feeding activity, anticancer activity, anxiolytic activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-protozoal activity, anti-ulcer activity, post-coital anti-fertility activity, heavy metal detoxification (Momin et al., 2012). According to Polo and De Bravo (2006) Geraniol has anti-tumor activity against human hepatocarcinoma cell line Hep G2, human pancreatic cancer cells (Jin et al., 2013) and anti-proliferative effects on human colon cancer cells (Carnesecchi et al., 2002). Chen et al., (2015) found that liver cancer cell growth was inhibited by the use of α - pinene. Silva et al., (2012) found that α and β - pinene has antimicrobial activities against bacterial and fungal cells. All parts of the plant contain essential oils that give the green plant a characteristic smell, which is similar to that of bugs. This smell is caused by different aldehydic components of the essential oil present in the green plant.

Material and Methods

The field experiment was conducted in farmer's field at village Raghogarh, Distt. Guna, Madhya Pradesh. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design (RDB) with 8 treatments and three replicas of each, using vermicompost, chemical fertilizers (NPK) and biofertilizers (Azotobacter and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria) in different combinations including one control treatment. The treatments were T1 - Biofertilizers (250g Azotobacter + 250g PSB ha-1), T2 - Vermicompost 5t ha-1, T3 -Chemical Fertilizers (60:30:30 kg NPK ha-1), T4 - Biofertilizers + Vermicompost ( 125g Azotobacter + 125g PSB + 5t Vermicompost ha-1 ), T5 - Vermicompost + Chemical Fertilizers [5t Vermicompost ha-1 + 50% NPK ha-1 (RDF)], T6 - Chemical Fertilizers + Biofertilizers [50% NPK ( RDF as 30:15:15 kg per ha-1) + 125g Azotobacter + 125g PSB ha-1], T7 - Biofertilizers + Vermicompost + Chemical Fertilizers [125g Azotobacter + 125g PSB ha-1 + 5t Vermicompost ha-1 + 50% NPK (RDF as 30:15:15 kg ha-1)], T8 -Control (No Treatment).

Estimation of Essential oil (volatile oil)

Estimation of essential oil of Coriandrum sativum was performed on vegetative parts and on harvested dried seeds. The extraction of volatile oil was done by hydrodistilation for 4 hour, using Clevenger's apparatus to know the percentage of volatile oil and analysis of volatile oil was done by using GC -MS (Gas Chromatography - Mass spectrometry) to know the composition and to know the quantity of each component in volatile oil as described by Masada, 1976.

The oil dried over anhydrous sulphate solution, and stored at 4°C up to analysis by GC-MS.

Analysis of essential oil

Analysis of essential oil was done by using Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometer as described by James and Martin (1951) to know the composition of oil and the quantity of each composition. Analysis of essential oil for chemical composition was carried out using an Agilent -Technologies 6890 N network gas Chromatographic (GC) system equipped with 5975 inert XL mass selective detector and 7683 B series auto injector Agilent -Technologies. A sample volume of 1.0 µl was injected, applying split mode (split ratio 100:1), into HP-5 MS capillary column (30m x 0.25 mm), film thickness 0.25 m.

The initial column temperature was set at 800C and raised to 2200C by the rate of 40C/ min. The initial and final column temperatures were held for 3 and 10 min, respectively. The operating temperatures for detector and injector were 2200C and 2900C, respectively. The mobile phase used was helium at a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min. An electron ionization (EI) system, with ionization energy (70 eV) was used for GC-MS detection. Mass scanning range was varied over 50 to 550 m/z. the injector and MS transfer line temperature were 2200C and 2900C, respectively. The essential oil compounds were identified on the basis of matching their retention indices in relation to n-alkenes (C9 -C24) and moreover with those of authentic compounds or published data (Minica et al., 2004, Vagionas et al., 2007). Beside the comparison of MS spectral data of the compounds with those from NIST mass spectral library was also applied to authenticate the compounds (Adams, 2001).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Results

Various nutrient schedules influenced the essential oil % and % of different compounds in essential oil (volatile oil) of coriander at different growth stages. (Table and Fig. 1, 2, 3)

The combined application of BF 250g/ha + VC @ 5t/ha + 50% NPK RDF as 30:15:15 kg/ha (T7) was found to be superior when compared to control, in registering the maximum essential oil (%) in vegetative parts of the plant at different growth stages, while in dried seeds after harvest, it was also superior over control, when compared to other treatments it was found non-significant.

The amount of different compounds (α-pinene, β-pinene, Linalool and Geraniol) within the essential oil were also recorded higher in combined application of BF @ 250g + VC @ 5t/ha + 50% NPK RDF as 30:15:15 kg/ha (T7) when compared to control (T8) at different growth intervals.

Discussion

The essential oil % and % of different compounds in essential oil (volatile oil) of Coriander was found maximum in T7 treatment with the application of BF + VC + CF. The better essential oil (%) in plants might be due to increased vegetative growth due to integrated nutrient management that results in better photosynthetic activity and it results in increased volatile oil (%) in Coriander plants at different growth intervals.

The study by Kumar T. Senthil et al. (2009) also revealed that the combined application of nitrogen and phosphorus along with biofertilizers increased the essential oil yield in

Devana (Artimisia pallens Wall). The results are in conformity with Srinivasan et al. (2005) in black pepper, Garg (2007) in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), Gharib et al. (2008) in Sweet Marjoram (Majorana hortensis).

Conclusion

The findings revealed that the application of BF 250g/ha + VC @ 5t/ha + 50% NPK RDF was effective and it significantly improved the essential (volatile) oil (%) and percent of different compounds in essential oil of Coriander. Therefore, the nutrient needs can best be met through integrated nutrient management (INM). The concept of INM aims to increase the efficiency of use of all nutrient sources, the soil resources, mineral fertilizers, organic manures and recyclable wastes or biofertilizers. It can be concluded by these findings that biofertilizers and vermicompost along with chemical fertilizers (RDF) should be applied to Coriander for better quality crop, as already reported by Darzi and Hadi (2012) in coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.).

Acknowledgement:

Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


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A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
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A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
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A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



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International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

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