International Journal of Current Research and Review
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IJCRR - Vol 08 Issue 13, July, 2016

Pages: 12-16

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ITEM ANALYSIS OF MCQS - MYTHS AND REALITIES WHEN APPLYING THEM AS AN ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR MEDICAL STUDENTS

Author: Priya S. Patil, Manisha R. Dhobale , Nitin R. Mudiraj

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Multiple choice questions [MCQs'] form one of the tools for evaluation of medical graduates. The widespread use of MCQs' raises the question of their validity and authenticity. The present study was focused on MCQ validation with an attempt to highlight the importance of item analysis and discuss the myths and realities of MCQs'. Aim: The aim was to perform Item analysis while probing into myths and realities of MCQ as an assessment tool for first year medical students. A total of hundred students underwent MCQ test as part of their first periodic assessment.
Methodology: A total of hundred students underwent MCQ test as part of their first periodic assessment. A pre-validated MCQ test was given to students and a post-validation was done through item analysis. The indices were calculated using Microsoft excel and various indices compared.
Results: Inspite of using a well-designed MCQ test validated by senior faculty and colleagues, after item analysis the difficulty index of 65 % items and discrimination index of 75 % items was in the acceptable range. The distractor efficacy showed that 9 out of 120 distractors needed revision.
Conclusions: Item analysis must be routinely implemented to validate MCQs'. The myths like shortfalls of MCQ framing, only four options in clinical setting or cueing effect are duly considered and the realities like strict and elaborate protocol for MCQ construction, stimulating critical and lateral thinking of students should be implemented. An integrated approach can help to achieve an ideal assessment tool for the benefit of students.

Keywords: MCQ validation, Difficulty index, Discrimination index

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION
Evaluation is an important tool that guides student learning. Multiple choice questions form one of the tools for evaluation and are currently being widely used for assessment of medical graduates.1 Multiple choice questions are particularly useful to assess a large body of material for many students. A multiple-choice question (MCQ) consists of a stem with a question line at its end or underneath it, followed by a number of options. One of the options is correct or best response known as the key, while the others are described as distractors.1 Constructing a valid and effective MCQ is difficult task and needs a different approach. The methodical development of MCQ banks can be an asset which can lead to reliable assessment of students.2 Current widespread use of MCQs’ raises the issue regarding their validity and authenticity.3 Review of literature highlights different views regarding use of MCQ or combined approach of MCQ and free response essay type questions for better assessment of medical graduates. Considering the above issues the present study was focused on MCQ validation through item analysis. The importance of item analysis and the myths and realities concerned with MCQ as an assessment tool for medical students are discussed further.

MATERIAL AND METHODS
The study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy as a part of First Periodic Examination. Hundred First-year MBBS students were voluntarily involved in the study. They were given the MCQ test comprising of forty [40] questions with single best response. The MCQs’ were constructed to assess various levels of knowledge according to Bloom’s Taxonomy.Pre-validation of the MCQs’ was done by the Head of Department and other colleagues in the department. There was no negative marking and the time allotted was forty minutes. Evaluation was done out of forty marks and students were grouped as low, moderate and high achievers. Post validation of the MCQs’ was done by item analysis.4 The scores of all the students were arranged in such a way that there was order of merit.The students were divided into three groups according to their marks. Those students who belonged to the first group were considered as high achievers H [n=30] and those in the third group as low achievers L[n=30]. Each item was analyzed for the following;

• Difficulty Index or Facility value or p value was calculated using the formula p = H + L / N ×100, Where H= number of students answering the item correctly in the high achieving group L= number of students answering the item correctly in the low achieving group1 N= Total number of students in the two groups (including non-responders) Items having p value between 30 – 70% are considered as acceptable, among which items with p value between 50-60% are ideal while items with p value less than 30% (too difficult) and more than 70% (too easy) are not acceptable and need modification.1

• Discrimination index (DI) or d value was calculated using the formula d= H-L× 2/N Where the symbols H, L and N represent the same values as mentioned above. The DI or d value is a measure of the item to discriminate between students of higher and lower abilities and ranges between 0 and 1. In general‘d’ values between 0.20 and 0.35 is considered as good. Items having DI values more than 0.35 are considered to be excellent and those with less than 0.20 are considered poor.

• Distractor Effectiveness (DE) or Functionality of the distractors was calculated by observing how many students used the distractor in an item. If less than 5% of students used the option other than the key then that distractor is said to be a non- functional distractor [NFD]. On the basis of number of NFDs in an item, DE ranges from 0 to 100%. If an item contains three or two or one or nil NFDs then DE would be 0, 33.3%, 66.6% and 100% respectively.6

RESULTS
1] Difficulty Index of items analyzed After individually analyzing the items it was observed that the difficulty index (p value) of 26 items that means 65 % were acceptable. 11 items were too easy and 3 were too difficult hence 14 itemsthat means 35 %could be used after modification. [Table 1] 2] Discrimination index of items analyzed The discrimination index of 30 items [75 %] was acceptable but 10 items [25 %] need revision due to poor index. [Table 2] 3] Distractor efficacy [DE] based on number of NFDs’ As per tables 3, 4 and Graph 1, distractor efficacy was 100% in 24(60%) itemsand was 66.66% in 12(30%) items. So these questions can be added to the MCQ bank. In 3 items distractor efficacy was 33.33% hence their distractors should be modified and in 1 item having distractor efficacy 0%, its distractors should be either changed or the question should be discarded. Hence out of 120 distractors 9 needrevision. It was observed that higher the Difficulty Index, lower was the difficulty of the question. The Difficulty Index and Discrimination Indexwere often reciprocally related. Questions having a high p value (easier questions) discriminate poorly; while those with a low p value were good discriminators.

DISCUSSION
Good teaching is more a giving of right questions than a giving of right answers - Joseph Alberts The selection of an appropriate assessment method for students’ performances remains a daunting task for the teachers. In an attempt to change and upgrade the existing assessment tools MCQs’ are introduced at various levels and are used rampantly for regular assessments as well as important career deciding entrance examinations. A large number of educational research studies have demonstrated poor validity of MCQ’s. Barrows and Tamblyn in their book on Problem Based Learning mention, multiple choice and true/false questions under the heading “reliable evaluation tools with questionable validity”. 5 Item analysis is truly the assessment of the assessment tool itself.1 Post examination analysis of the MCQs helps to assess the quality of individual test items and test as a whole. Poor items can be modified or removed from the question bank. It also helps the teachers to identify the subject content which lacks understanding and need greater emphasis and clarity, by improving or changing the method- ology of teaching. In spite of validating the MCQ items by seniors and colleagues in the current study post validation systematic item analysis showed lacunae. The difficulty index was acceptable in only 65 % items while the discrimination index was acceptable in 75 % items. The distractor effectiveness also reflected need for revision in 9 out of 120 total distractors. Similar results were seen in different studies conducted for item analysis of MCQ. 6 They reveal that though item analysis was traditionally considered as tedious and time consuming task, the use of software applications such as Microsoft Excel has made it relatively easy and effective way to calculate various indices and test the validity of the items.7 Item analysis thus gives an insight and opportunity to revise and improve the MCQ and develop a valid question bank.1 MCQ- Myths and Realities There are many opinions and views of teachers as well as students regarding MCQ assessment and assessment in the form of short essay questions.8 This has led to the following discussion on the myths and realities about MCQs’. • MCQ as guess items assess only factual knowledge: One of the myth we frequently come across regarding MCQs’ is that they are multiple guess items3,6 which are useful to assess only factual recall of knowledge and higher orders of cognitive skills cannot be assessed. However the reality is MCQs’ can be framed and well validated in order to assess higher domains of Bloom’s taxonomy. Developing a good bank of valid and reliable multiple-choicetest items targeting higher cognitive abilities while conformingto item construction guidelines presents a big challenge to theitem developer.2 Yet in reality a dilemma remains during assessment because MCQs’ give four options to the students. Hence we cannot know exactly whether a particular question was answered by rapid retrieval of overlearned content or by purposeful relating of principles.9 • The MCQs’ challenge - Another widely prevalent myth regarding use of MCQ as an assessment tool is that MCQs’ are easy to frame and less time consuming. In reality it is a challenge for the teachers to construct ideal MCQs’ such that all options present as plausible answers. The distractors should be such that they attract students who do not know the answer while who know the right answer ignore them. • Cueing effect - MCQs’ are recently used in most of the entrance examinations at various levels. This has probably led to the myth that they are the best and fast method for assessment in competitive examinations. Multiple studies show that if same group of students are assessed by MCQ and free response tests all students scored higher in objective assessment. The cueing effect of readymade options available was thought to be the major factor.3,10,11 • Integrated approach- If we consider medical professional trainingit is mandatory that more emphasis be given to academic excellence and clinical competency. The medical students should be trained to evolve as problem solvers and not wait for situations with four options. Moreover there are certain clinical scenarios where there is one and only one diagnosis or some other conditions where there are more than four differential diagnoses which cannot be dealt with in an MCQ.The above dilemmas can perhaps be solved by introducing MCQs’ as a part of student assessment in undergraduate examinations more so in pre-clinical subjects. Some of the advantages in doing so are that the MCQs’ can be assessed rapidly with the aid of computers and softwares so can be employed when large number of students are to be assessed along with fast results and less error. They can provide highly structured and clear tasks with easy, objective and reliable scoring where legibility of handwriting doesn’t matter. Such data can be compared from class to class and year to year. Such assessment with MCQs’ can also be applied to certain clinically relevant topics like Paediatrics.12Later in the medical coursewhile using MCQ as an assessment tool for students they should undergo strict protocol for their framing, validation and selection.2 They should be overweighed by free response questions13 and newer ways of assessment to enhance critical thinking of students like case based learning, early clinical exposure, clinical scenarios and problem solving can be introduced. The MCQ test in entrance examinations can be supplemented with well-designed OSCE modules to assess students’ performances.14,15 In studies conducted by various authors16,17 it was seen that most of the students had a consistent performance in both objective and theory assessment. Interestingly it was also noticed that in some cases there was no correlation between MCQ and long essay scores for either the more competent students or the students who received failing grades. Thus, students’ grades determined by an examination format that includes both testing modalities may be different than the grades obtained by using only one of the modalities.18

CONCLUSION
Item analysis enhances the quality of MCQs’ which can help create an authentic and validated MCQ bank which can also assess higher orders of cognitive skills. The myths like shortfalls of MCQ framing, only four options in clinical setting or cueing effect must be considered during the use of MCQ as an assessment tool. The realities like strict and elaborate protocol for MCQ construction, integration with well designed free response and short essay type questions, stimulating critical and lateral thinking of students should be implemented. Sucha perspectivecan help to achieve an ideal assessment tool for the benefit of students at large.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors/ editors/publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed. I sincerely thank the institute as well as all the students, colleagues, office clerk and non-teaching staff for their co-operation during this study. Sources of funding: Nil Conflict of interest: Nil

References:

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2. Sadaf S, Khan S, Ali SK. Tips for Developing a Valid and Reliable Bank of Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs). Educ Health 2012; 25:195-7.

3. Srivastava A, Dhar A, Aggarwal CS. Why MCQ? Indian J Surg 2004; 66:246-8.

4. Bloom, B., Englehart, M. Furst, E., Hill, W., and Krathwohl, D. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York, Toronto: Longmans, Green.

5. Barrows HS, Tamblyn RM. Problem based learning: An approach to medical education. Springer Publishing Company New York 1980.

6. Poulomi Mukherjee, Saibendu Kumar Lahiri. Analysis of Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs): Item and Test Statistics from an assessment in a medical college of Kolkata, West Bengal IOSRJDMS, Volume 2015; 14(12): 47–52.

7. Parag Chavda, Shobha Misra, Bithika Duttaroy. Item Analysis of MCQs’ South East AsianJourn al of Medical Education.2015; Vol. 9 (1):66-68.

8. Agu, A. U., Esom, E. A., Nto, J. N., Anyanwu, G. E., Ezugworie, J. O., Adiri, C. O. and Ozoemena, F. N. Students preference for various types of assessments in anatomy examination. International Journal of Development Research, 2014; Vol. 4 [7]:1377- 1379.

9. Elstein AS. Beyond multiple-choice questions and essays: The need for a new way to assess clinical competence. AcadMed 1993;68:244-9.

10. Baig M, Ali SK, Ali S, Huda N. Evaluation of Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences. Pak J MedSci 2014;30(1):3-6.

11. Walke YSC, Kamat AS, Bhounsule SA. A retrospective comparative study of multiple choice questions versus short answer questions as assessment tool in evaluating the performance of the students in medical pharmacology. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol. 2014; 3(6): 1020-1023.

12. Duff, Jonathan P., et al. “Development and validation of a multiple choice examination assessing cognitive and behavioural knowledge of pediatric resuscitation: A report from the EXPRESS pediatric research collaborative.”Resuscitation 84.3 (2013): 365-368.

13. Newble DI and Jaeger K (1983). The assessment and examinations on the learning medical students. Medical Education; 17:165-171.

14. Gajjar S, Sharma R, Kumar P, Rana M. Item and test analysis to identify quality Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) from an assessment of medical students of Ahmadabad, Gujarat. Indian journal of Community Medicine 2014;39:17-20.

15. Walubo A, Burch V, Parmar P, Raidoo D, Cassimjee M, Onia R, et al. A model for selecting assessment methods for evaluating medical students in African medical schools. Acad Med. 2003;78(9):899-906.

16. Singh, T. and Anshu (2012) Principles of Assessment in Medical Education, New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers.

17. Anbar M. Comparing assessments of students’ knowledge by computerized open-ended and multiple-choice tests. Acad Med. 1991;66(7):420-2.

18. Khan MZ, Aljarallah BM. MEQs and MCQ as a tool for assessing the cognitive skills of undergraduate medical students. Int J Heal Sci.2011;5(1):45-50.

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Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

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