International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 02 Issue 11, November, 2010

Pages: 03-08

Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001


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BACTERIOPHAGES: DISCOVERY AND THERAPEUTIC USES IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS

Author: Pongsak Rattanachaikunsopon, Parichat Phumkhachorn

Category: General Sciences

Abstract:Viruses are particles which can specifically infect many kinds of organisms such as bacteria, plants, animals and humans. These organisms are called host cells. Recently, bacteriophages, viruses specifically infecting bacteria, have become interesting to replace antibiotics to treat diseases in animals and humans caused by pathogenic bacteria infections. This article briefly describes about the discovery of bacteriophages, and their therapeutic uses in animals and humans.

Keywords: Bacteriophage, bacteriophage therapy, discovery

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

A bacteriophage, or phage for its shortened name, is the collective name for viruses that infect bacteria. The name is derived from two words, bacteria and phagein (a Greek word for "to eat"). Generally, bacteriophages consist of an outer protein coat enclosing genetic material. The genomes of bacteriophages can be single stranded (ss) RNA, double stranded (ds) RNA, ssDNA or dsDNA between 5 and 500 kb long with either circular or linear arrangement. The phages, which are much smaller than their hosts, are usually between 20 to 200 nm in size. They are ubiquitous and can be found in all places populated by bacterial hosts such as soil, sea, food and gastro-intestinal tracts of animals and human. Although bacteriophages are infamous for their destructive activity against useful bacteria such as bacterial starter cultures used in fermented food industries, they show potentials to be used as an alternative way to kill pathogenic bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Recently, many research groups have tried to develop a new way of treatment based on bacteriophages which is called bacteriophage therapy for fighting animals and human diseases caused by multi drug resistant strains of many bacteria.

Discovery of bacteriophages

The history of bacteriophage discovery can be divided into two eras. The first era began in 1986. Ernest Hankin, a British bacteriologist observed the presence of antibacterial activity against Vibrio cholerae in the waters of the Gange and Jumna rivers in India[1]. He reported that an unidentified substance (which passed through fine porcelain filters and was heat labile) was responsible for this phenomenon. Later on, several investigators found evidence related to the finding of Hankin[2] . However, none of them further explored their findings until Frederick Twort, a British medically trained bacteriologist, reintroduced the subject almost twenty years after Hankin's observation by reporting a similar phenomenon and advancing the hypothesis that it may have due to a virus[3, 4]. However, he did not pursue his finding because of various reasons including financial difficulties. Felix d'Herelle, French-Canadian microbiologist at the Institute of Pasteur, Paris, was the most important person in the second era of bacteriophage discovery. Besides being the first man who used the word "bacteriophage", his works have been the strong foundation for modern researches on bacteriophages[5]. The first report of d"Herelle on bacteriophage phenomenon was in 1910 while he tried to develop microbiological means of controlling epizootic of locusts in Mexico. His work on bacteriophage continued until 1916 he proposed the name "bacteriophage" to call viruses capable of parasitizing bacteria. The name was formed from "bacteria" and "phagein" (to eat or devour, in Greek). In 1915, d'Herelle discovered plaques, although they were not initially called plaques. The discovery of plaques by d'Herelle was associated with an outbreak of hemorrhagic dysentery among French troops stationed at Maisons-Laffitte (on the outskirts of Paris) in 1915. Several soldiers were hospitalized, and d'Herelle was assigned to conduct an investigation of the outbreak. During this study, he made bacterium-free filtrates of the patients' fecal samples and mixed and incubated with Shigella strains isolated from the patient. A portion of the mixtures was inoculated into experimental animals and a portion was spread on agar medium in order to observe the growth of the bacteria. It was on these agar cultures that d'Herelle observed the appearance of small, clear areas, which he initially called taches, then taches vierges, and later, plaques. His findings were presented in the meeting of the Academy of Sciences in 1917[6] .

History of bacteriophage therapy

The first attempt to use bacteriophages therapeutically was conducted by d'Herelle. He used phages to treat dysentery at the Hopital des EnfantsMalades in Paris in 1919 under supervision of Professor Victor-Henri Huntinel, the hospital's Chief of Pediatrics[5]. The phage preparation was ingested by d'Herelle, Hutinel and several hospital interns in order to confirm its safety before giving it to a 12-year-old boy with severe dysentery. The patient's symptoms ceased after a single administration of the antidysentery phage, and the boy fully recovered within a few days. The efficacy of the phage preparation was confirmed shortly afterwards. Three patients suffered from bacterial dysentery started to recover within 24 h after taking a dose of the phage preparation. However, the results of these studied were not immediately published and, therefore, the first report of bacteriophage therapy against bacterial infected diseases in human came in 1921 from Richard Bruynoghe and Joseph Maisin[7]. They used bacteriophages to treat staphylococcal skin disease. Several similarly promising studies followed and encouraged by these early results[8-10] .

Bacteriophage therapy in human

The first report of application of phages to treat infectious diseases of human came from Bruynoghe and Maisin in 1912[7]. They used phages to treat staphylococcal skin disease. The phages were injected into and around surgically opened lesions and the regression of the infections was observed within 24 to 48 h. Phages have been used since that time for therapeutic purposes in the United States, in eastern Europe and in the former Soviet Union. The international literature contains several hundred reports on phage therapy, with the majority of the publications coming from researchers in the former Soviet Union and eastern European countries[11-13]. Phages have been reported to be effective in treating skin infections caused by Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Proteus, and E. coli, staphylococcal lung and pleural infections[14, 15] . P. aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis patients[16] , neonatal sepsis[17], and surgical wound infections[18, 19]. The most detailed descriptions have come from the Institute of Immunology and Experimental Medicine of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Briefly, phage therapy was used on 550 patients, at 10 clinical and hospital departments in three different cities (Wrozlav, Lubin, and Kamienna Gora). The major infecting agents included Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Klebsiella, and Salmonella species. Phages were administered orally, applied directly to wounds, or given in eye drops. Reported success rates ranged from 75 to 100%, depending on the pathogen[20-26] . Recently, many strains of multi drug resistant bacteria have been discovered. Patients infected by these bacteria can be no longer treated with antibiotics. Bacteriophage therapy may be the answer for the diseases. The researches on bacteriophage therapy against multi drug resistant bacteria have been growing. In the future, many phage preparations will be come out to the public as new weapons for fighting the diseases that cannot be cured by antibiotics.

Bacteriophage therapy in animals

Many reports on bacteriophage therapy in animals have been published in scientific literature. One of the most detailed reports of the use of phages in veterinary medicine came from Smith and Huggin. In one of their early papers published in the Journal of General Microbiology, they reported the successful treatment of experimental E. coli infections in mice using phages and claimed the advantages of phage therapy or antibiotics[27]. They also conducted experiments using phages to reduce diarrheagenic E. coli in the alimentary tracts of calves, lambs and piglets. In addition, they showed that diarrhea could be prevented in calves by simply spraying the litter in the calf rooms with an aqueous phage suspension[28, 29]. A group of investigators in England successfully used phages to prevent and treat experimental infections with Psuedomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter in mice and guinea pigs[30]. There was also a report of using Salmonella and E. coli phages to prevent death of experimentally infected chickens[31]. Examples mentioned above are a very small fraction of works on bacteriophage therapy in animals. The researches on the issue are increasing and they will be in this direction for many years ahead.

CONCLUSION

Much of the evidence presented in this review strongly shows that phage therapy is very effective for treatment and prevention of many kinds of bacterial infectious diseases. Currently, many pathogenic bacteria have acquired multiple drug resistance, which is a serious clinical problem. Future trend of the research concerning phage therapy will be associated with the use of phages to control diseases caused by the multiple drug resistant pathogenic bacteria. However, phage therapy still has some problems remained to be solved including (1) inactivation of administrated phages by immune response of the treated organisms, (2) appearance of mutants to phages and (3) transfer of bacterial antibiotic resistant genes by phages. Finding of solutions for these problems are also the hot issues for future research about phage therapy.

References:

1. Hankin EH. L'action bactericide des eaux de la Jumna et du Gange sur le vibrion du cholera. Ann Inst Pasteur 1896; 10: 511.

2. Van Helvoort T. Bacteriological and physiological research styles in the early controversy on the nature of the bacteriophage phenomenon. Med Hist 1992; 3: 243-270.

3. Twort FW. An investigation on the nature of ultramicroscopic viruses. Lancet 1915; 2: 1241-1243.

4. Twort FW. Researches on dysentery. Br J Exp Pathol 1920; 1: 237-243.

5. Summers WC. Felix d'Herelle and the origins of molecular biology. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999.

6. D'Herelle F. Sur un microbe invisible antagoniste des bacilles dysentériques. C R Acad Sci 1917; 165: 373-375.

7. Bruynoghe R, Maisin J. Essais de thérapeutique au moyen du bacteriophage. C R Soc Biol 1921; 85: 1120-1121.

8. Rice TB. Use of bacteriophage filtrates in treatment of suppurative conditions: report of 300 cases. Am J Med Sci 1930; 179: 345-360.

9. Schless RA. Staphylococcus aureus meningitis: treatment with specific bacteriophage. Am J Dis Child 1932; 44: 813-822. 10. Stout BF. Bacteriophage therapy. Texas State J Med 1933; 29: 205- 209.

11. Abdul-Hassan HS, El-Tahan E, Massoud B, Gomaa R. Bacteriophage therapy of pseudomonas burn wound sepsis. Ann Medit Burn Club 1990; 3: 262- 264.

12. Lang G, Kehr P, Mathevon H, Clavert JM, Sejourne P, Pointu J. Bacteriophage therapy of septic complications of orthopaedic surgery. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot 1979; 1: 33- 37.

13. Vieu JF, Guillermet F, Minck R, Nicolle P. Donnees actuelles sur les applications therapeutiques des bacteriophages. Bull Acad Natl Med 1979; 163: 61.

14. Cislo M, Dabrowski M, WeberDabrowska B, Woyton A. Bacteriophage treatment of suppurative skin infections. Arch Immunol Ther Exp 1987; 2: 175- 183.

15. Stroj L, Weber-Dabrowska B, Partyka K, Mulczyk M, Wojcik M. Successful treatment with bacteriophage in purulent cerebrospinal meningitis in a newborn. Neurol Neurochir Pol 1999; 3: 693-698.

16. Shabalova IA, Karpanov NI, Krylov VN, Sharibjanova TO, Akhverdijan VZ. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage in treatment of P. aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis patients. Proc IX Int Cyst Fibrosis Congress 1995; 443.

17. Pavlenishvili I, Tsertsvadze T. Bacteriophagotherapy and enterosorbtion in treatment of sepsis of newborns caused by gramnegative bacteria. Pren Neon Infect 1993; 11 104.

18. Peremitina LD, Berillo EA, Khvoles AG. Experience in the therapeutic use of bacteriophage preparations in suppurative surgical infections. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 1981; 9: 109 -110.

19. Pokrovskaya MP, Kaganova LC, Morosenko MA, Bulgakova AG, Skatsenko EE. Treatment of wounds with bacteriophages. 2nd ed. Moscow: State Publishing House, 1942.

20. Slopek S, Durlakowa I, WeberDabrowska B, KucharewiczKrukowska A, Dabrowski M, Bisikiewicz R. Results of bacteriophage treatment of suppurative bacterial infections. I. General evaluation of the results. Arch Immunol Ther Exp 1983; 31: 267-291.

21. Slopek S, Durlakowa I, WeberDabrowska B, KucharewiczKrukowska A, Dabrowski M, Bisikiewicz R. Results of bacteriophage treatment of suppurative bacterial infections. II. Detailed evaluation of the results. Arch Immunol Ther Exp 1983; 31: 293-327.

22. Slopek S, Durlakowa I, WeberDabrowska B, Dabrowski M, Kucharewicz-Krukowska A.Results of bacteriophage treatment of suppurative bacterial infections. III. Detailed evaluation of the results obtained in a further 150 cases. Arch Immunol Ther Exp 1984; 32: 317-335.

23. Slopek S, Kucharewicz-Krukowska A, Weber-Dabrowska B, Dabrowski M. Results of bacteriophage treatment of suppurative bacterial infections. IV. Evaluation of the results obtained in 370 cases. Arch Immunol Ther Exp 1985; 33: 219 - 240.

24. Slopek S, Kucharewicz-Krukowska A, Weber-Dabrowska B, Dabrowski M. Results of bacteriophage treatment of suppurative bacterial infections. V. Evaluation of the results obtained in children. Arch Immunol Ther Exp 1985; 33: 241- 259.

25. Slopek S, Kucharewicz-Krukowska A, Weber-Dabrowska B, Dabrowski M. Results of bacteriophage treatment of suppurative bacterial infections. VI. Analysis of treatment of suppurative staphylococcal infections. Arch Immunol Ther Exp 1985; 33: 261-273.

26. Slopek S, Weber-Dabrowska B, Dabrowski M, KucharewiczKrukowska A. Results of bacteriophage treatment of suppurative bacterial infections in the years 1981-1986. Arch Immunol Ther Exp 1987; 35: 569-583.

27. Smith HW, Huggins RB. Successful treatmcnt of experimental E.coli infection in mice using phage : its general superiority over antiobiotic. J Gen Microbiol 1982; 128: 307- 318.

28. Smith HW, Huggins RB. Effectiveness of phage in treating experimental E.coli diarrhea in calves, piglets and lambs. J Gen Microbiol 1983; 129: 2659-2675.

29. Smith HW, Huggins RB. The control of experimental E.coli diarrhea in calves by means of bactriophage. J Gen Microbiol 1987; 133: 1111-1126.

30. Soothill JS. Treatment of experimental infections of mice with bacteriophage. Med Microbiol 1992; 340: 258-261.

31. Berchieri A Jr, Barrow PA, Lovell MA. The activity in the chicken alimentary tract of bacteriophages lytic for Salmonella typhimurium. Res Microbiol 1991; 142: 541-549.

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Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by situs slot and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. situs slot "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma situs slot entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by situs slot et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression situs slot
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease situs slot
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List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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