International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 03 Issue 01, January, 2011

Pages: 39-48

Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001


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MODULATION OF CNS ACTIVITY BY TRADITIONAL MEDICINES: A REVIEW ON NEURO PHARMACOGNOSY

Author: Vivek Kumar R, Satish Kumar, Shashidhara S, Anitha S

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Modulation of CNS Secretion may offer novel approaches in the treatment of a variety of
diseases. One strategy in the modulation of CNS may be through the use of herbal medicines.
This review aimed to provide information on herbal drugs acting on CNS such as, Anesthetics,
Sedative-Hypnotics, Spasmolytics, Anti-seizure, Opioid analgesics, Anti-parkinsonism, Antidepressant,
Anti-psychotic, Anti-Alzheimer and Immuno-modulators. Phytotherapy offers a potential therapeutic modality for the treatment of many differing conditions. Given the activity demonstrated by many of the reviewed herbal medicines and the increasing awareness of the broad-spectrum effects of herbal medicines on autoimmune conditions and chronic degenerative processes.

Keywords: Anesthetics, Anti-seizure, Immunomodulators, Neuro pharmacognosy.

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

The central nervous system directs the functions of all tissues of the body. The peripheral nervous system receives thousands of sensory inputs and transmits them to the brain via the spinal cord. The brain processes this incoming information and discards 99% as unimportant. After sensory information has been evaluated, selected areas of the central nervous system initiate nerve impulses to organs or tissue to make an appropriate response. Chemicals exerting their effects in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) have been used since the most primitive times to the present. Today, in addition to many medical uses, drugs acting on the CNS are used worldwide (i.e., alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine) with various degrees of societal controls due to production of addiction and/or dysfunctional behaviors. The World Health Organization estimates that 65%-80% of the world's population use traditional medicine as their primary form of health care. The use of herbal medicine, the dominant form of medical treatment in developing countries, has been increasing in developed countries in recent years. About one third of the adult U.S. population uses medicinal herbs as some form of alternative therapy (Foster and Tyler, 2000; Miller and Murray, 1998). Sales of herbal products at the retail level increased from an estimate of 500 million dollars to approximately 5 billion dollars in 1999, more than double the amount compared to sales just two years before (Foster and Tyler 2000; Karch 1999). Herbal medicine accounted for approximately 26% of complementary and alternative medicine used by South Australians according to MacLennan et al survey.

All psychotropic medications such as Anesthetics, Sedative-Hypnotics, Spasmolytics, Anti-seizure, Opioid analgesics, Anti-parkinsonism, Antidepressant, Anti-psychotic, Anti-alzheimer and Immuno-modulators will have the potential to induce numerous and diverse unwanted effects. This article provides an informal review of the scientific literature regarding the effects of botanical medicines on CNS.

METHODOLOGY

1. Search Strategy: The databases MEDLINE, EBSCO, and BIOSIS were searched for appropriate studies. Titles were screened for all hits to the terms "herbs and CNS" and "Chinese medicine and CNS? and "Ayurveda and CNS." A language restriction of English was observed

2. Criteria for Inclusion:

The following parameters were necessary for study inclusion:

  • ? Investigations on whole herbs (e.g., seed, leaf, root, stem, flower, or entire plant) standardized extracts, or extractions of whole herbs not reduced to one constituent were accepted. Research on isolated constituents or multiple herbal formulations were generally rejected. Fungi, although technically not plants, were included as they are commonly used in phytotherapy.
  • ? Information on methods of herbal preparation, concentration of the plant preparation, and dose/exposure time were required.
  • ? Only studies demonstrating activity with regard to CNS were included.

3. Herbal drugs

3.1 Herbal drugs as Anesthetics:

A substance that causes lack of feeling or awareness. A local anesthetic causes loss of feeling in a part of the body. A general anesthetic puts the person to sleep for example procaine, amethocaine, cocaine. Local anesthetic toxicity involves the nervous system, including agitation, confusion, dizziness, blurred vision, tinnitus, a metallic taste in the mouth, and nausea that can quickly progress to seizures and cardiovascular collapse. Intravenous agents (non-opioid) barbiturates, opioid analgesic agents produce side effects such as Hyperkalemia, Muscle aches, malignant hyperthermia, Anaphylaxis. So herbal drugs were consider as a safe anesthetic with out side effects listed in Tab.b

3.2 Herbal drugs as Sedative-Hypnotics

Sedative-hypnotics are drugs which depress or slow down the body's functions. Often these drugs are referred to as tranquilizers and sleeping pills or sometimes just as sedatives Barbiturates and benzodiazepines are the two major categories. All sedatives can cause physiological and psychological dependence Dependent users may get withdrawal symptoms ranging from restlessness and insomnia to convulsions and death. The Literature survey suggest that the use of Herbal drugs are free of side effects enlisted in Tab.b

3.3 Herbal drugs as Spasmolytics

muscle relaxant is a drug which affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone. Spasmolytics, also known as "centrally-acting" muscle relaxants, are used to alleviate musculoskeletal pain and spasms and to reduce spasticity which shows side effects such as syndrome heart failure, paralysis lethargy, as well as anti cholinergic side effects. Herbal drugs such as-Tab.b

3.4 Herbal drugs as Anti-seizure: Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. About 50 million people worldwide have epilepsy, with almost 90% of these people being in developing countries. Currently there are 20 medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the use of treatment of epileptic seizures in the US. According to European survey, 88% of patients with epilepsy, reported at least one anticonvulsant related side effect Some examples include mood changes, sleepiness, or unsteadiness in gait, drug rashes, liver toxicity (hepatitis), or aplastic anemia. Natural treatment to seizures using following herbs as in Tab.c

3.5 Herbal drugs as Opioid analgesics: An Opioid is a chemical that works by binding to opioid receptors, which are found principally in the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. The side effects of opioids include sedation, respiratory depression, and constipation. Tab .c

3.6 Herbal drugs as Anti-parkinsonism: Parkinson disease is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer's motor skills, speech, and other functions. But lost of side effect

Digestive Tract: Nausea; vomiting; diarrhea; Nervous System: Uncontrolled movement (twitching) of face, eyelids, mouth, hands, or legs; Circulatory System: Palpitations (pounding in the chest); irregular heartbeat; chest pain; changes in blood pressure. Skin: Flushing; rash; increased sweating; hives; itching; hair loss; a normal skin sensation. Other: Difficult urination; urinary incontinence; difficulty swallowing; numbness; increased salivation; dry mouth or nose; grinding of the teeth; difficulty opening mouth; taste changes; bitter taste; Devoid of side effect herbal such as Mucuna prurens was used. Tab .b

3.7 Herbal Antidepressants and Anxiolytics:

An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication used to alleviate mood disorders, such as major depression and dysthymia and anxiety disorders such as social anxiety disorder. St. John's Wort is by far the most widely-used and well-studied herbal antidepressant. A number of other herbs have been used traditionally to treat depression and related ailments like anxiety, but the research on most of these treatments is sparse.Tab .d

3.8 Herbal drug as Anti-psychotic:

An antipsychotic (or neuroleptic) is a tranquilizing psychiatric medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions or hallucinations, as well as disordered thought), particularly in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.Antipsychotics are among the biggest selling and most profitable of all drugs, generating $22 billion in global sales in 2008. A number of harmful and undesired (adverse) effects have been observed, including lowered life expectancy, weight gain, enlarged breasts and milk discharge in men and women (hyperprolactinaemia), lowered white blood cell count (agranulocytosis), involuntary repetitive body movements (tardive dyskinesia), diabetes etc.Herbal drug such as Tab .d

3.9 Herbal drug as Anti-Alzheimer: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly, accounting for 50% to 75% of patients with dementia.Dementia is characterized by memory impairment and at least one of the following: aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, or a disturbance in the ability to think abstractly and to plan, initiate, sequence, monitor, and stop complex behavior. More than four million people have AD in the United States.Vitamin E, withania somnifera, Ginkgo Biloba is the herbal drug most commonly used. Tab .d

3.10 Herbal Immunomodulators:

Immunomodulators alters the activity of immune function through the dynamic regulation of informational molecules such as cytokines. However, as with the development of many nascent pharmacological strategies, the occurrence of adverse events generates barriers to successful therapeutic applications. Such obstacles have delayed progress in the use of several synthetic cytokines.In order to maintain relevance for clinical phytotherapy, this informal survey was limited to herbal medicines available in the marketplace or preparations that represent multi-component botanical medicines. Tab .e

3.11 Complete Index of Ayurvedic Formulations For CNS.(Tab a)

CONCLUSION

Although many of the plants listed in this review appear to affect CNS, it is the lead author's opinion that future research will further demonstrate the broad-spectrum activity of herbal medicine. Currently, the research on the influence of botanical medicines on CNS and other messenger molecules is limited. Informational molecules and many of their receptors may likely turn out to be modulated by plants, both herbal medicines and foods, providing potential for future therapeutics.

Further research (particularly clinical studies) is indicated to elucidate the effects of botanical medicines and to support or refute the hypotheses presented in this article.

 

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Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by situs slot and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. situs slot "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma situs slot entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by situs slot et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression situs slot
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease situs slot
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List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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