International Journal of Current Research and Review
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IJCRR - Vol 03 Issue 04, April, 2011

Pages: 69-75

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EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA AGAINST SOME BACTERIAL
STRAINS

Author: Mayee R, Thosar A

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:The chloroform seed extracts of Moringa Oleifera (CSEMO) showed significant antibacterial activity against twenty different gram positive as well as gram negative bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus 29737, Staphylococcus aureus ML 267, Sarcina luteus 9341, Bacillus pumilus 8241, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 10536, Escherichia coli VC Sonawave 3:37 C, Escherichia coli CD/99/1, Escherichia coli RP4, Escherichia coli 18/9, Escherichia coli K88, Shigella dysenteriae 1, Shigella soneii 1, Shigella soneii BCH 217, Shigella flexneri type 6, Shigella boydii 937, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 25619, Vibrio cholerae 2,
Vibrio cholerae 785, Vibrio cholerae 1037 when compared with Ciprofloxacin (200 \?g/ml) which was used as standard antibacterial by using disc diffusion method.. For gram positive bacteria the CSEMO showed highest sensitivity against Staphylococcus aureus 29737 which was 16.66\?0.33 mm and the lowest activity of 08.52\?0.61 in Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. While regarding gram negative bacteria CSEMO showed highest sensitivity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 25619 which was 15.00\?0.57 on the other hand it showed minimum activity against Shigella soneii BCH 217 measured as 8.150.10.

Keywords: Moringa Oleifera, antibacterial activity, disc diffusion method, Ciprofloxacin.

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

The use of medicinal plants as a source for relief from illness can be traced back over five millennia to written documents of the early civilization in China, India and the near east, but it is doubtless an art as old as mankind. Neanderthals living 60,000 years ago in present day iraq used plants such as hollyback, these plants are still widely used in ethnomedicine around the world [1, 2]. The potential of higher plants as source for new drugs is still largely unexplored. Among the estimated 250,000-500,000 plant species, only a small percentage has been investigated phytochemically and the fraction submitted to biological or pharmacological screening is even smaller. Thus, any phytochemical investigation of a given plant will reveal only a very narrow spectrum of its constituents. Historically pharmacological screening of compounds of natural or synthetic origin has been the source of innumerable therapeutic agents. Random screening as tool in discovering new biologically active molecules has been most productive in the area of antibiotics [3, 4]. Even now, contrary to common belief, drugs from higher plants continue to occupy an important niche in modern medicine. On a global basis, at least 130 drugs, all single chemical entities extracted from higher plants, or modified further synthetically, are currently in use, though some of them are now being made synthetically for economic reasons [5]. Medicinal plants represent a rich source of antimicrobial agents. Plants are used medicinally in different countries and are a source of many potent and powerful drugs [6]. A wide range of medicinal plant parts is used for extract as raw drugs and they possess varied Medicinal properties. The different parts used include Root, stem, flower, fruit, twigs exudates and modified plant Organs. While some of these raw drugs are collected in smaller quantities by the local communities and folk Healers for local used, many other raw drugs are collected in larger quantities and traded in the market as the raw material for many herbal industries [7]. Although hundreds of plant species have been tested for antimicrobial properties, the vast majority of have not been adequately evaluated [8]. Considering the vast potentiality of plants as sources for antimicrobial drugs with reference to antibacterial agents, a systematic investigation was undertaken to screen the local flora for antibacterial activity for Moringa Oleifera. Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae), native to the western and sub – Himalayan region, India, Pakistan, Asia Minor, Africa and Arabia [9-10] is now distributed in the Philippines, Cambodia, Central, North and South America and the Caribbean Islands [11]. M. oleifera is a tropical tree whose numerous economic applications and facility of propagation are arousing growing international interest. The Moringa tree is cultivated and use as a vegetable (leaves, green pods, flowers, roasted seeds), for spice (mainly roots), for cooking and cosmetic oil (seeds) and as a medicinal plant (all plant organs) [12]. Moringa oleifera is a highly valued plant, distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics. It has an impressive range of medicinal uses with high nutritional value. Different parts of this plant contain a profile of important minerals, and are a good source of protein, vitamins, β – carotene, amino acids and various phenolics [13]. The Moringa plant provides a rich and rare combination of zeatin, quercetin, kaempferom and many other phytochemicals. It is very important for its medicinal value. Various parts of the plant such as the leaves, roots, seed, bark, fruit, flowers and immature pods act as cardiac and circulatory stimulants, possess antitumour [14], antipyretic, antiepileptic, antinflammatory, antiulcer [15]. Other important medicinal properties of the plant include antispasmodic [16], diuretic [11], antihypertensive [17], cholesterol lowering [18], antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective [19], antibacterial and antifungal activities [20]. M. oleifera parts are being employed for the treatment of different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine, particularly in South Asia [13]. In addition, M. oleifera seeds possess water purifying powers [21-22] by flocculating Gram – positive and Gram – negative bacterial cells [23-24]. M. Oleifera seeds can also be used as a less expensive bioabsorbent for the removal of heavy metals [25]. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antimicrobial activity of chloroform extract of M. Oleifera seeds

MATERIAL AND METHOD

Plant Material: The plant of M. Oleifera was collected from the roadside locations of Aurangabad (Maharashtra) region and was authenticated by department of Botany, BAMU, Aurangabad. Plant material was preserved in pharmacognosy department of Dr. Ved Prakash Patil, College of Pharmacy, Aurangabad. The leaves were shade dried and powdered in mixer grinder and stored in tightly closed container. Preparation of Extract: The dried powdered seeds (50g) were percolated in 500ml chloroform in 1l capacity conical flasks, stoppered and kept for two weeks with intermittent shaking. The percolate was filtered with Whatman‘s No 1 filter paper. The extract was concentrated at 40o C under reduced pressure using rotary evaporator (R110). In the study of antimicrobial activity, extract was dissolved in Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). The corresponding concentration was expressed in term of μg of extract per ml of solvent (μg/ml). Microorganisms: Twenty different gram positive as well as gram negative bacterial strains namely Staphylococcus aureus 29737, Staphylococcus aureus ML 267, Sarcina luteus 9341, Bacillus pumilus 8241, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 10536, Escherichia coli VC Sonawave 3:37 C, Escherichia coli CD/99/1, Escherichia coli RP4, Escherichia coli 18/9, Escherichia coli K88, Shigella dysenteriae 1, Shigella soneii 1, Shigella soneii BCH 217, Shigella flexneri type 6, Shigella boydii 937, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 25619, Vibrio cholerae 2, Vibrio cholerae 785, Vibrio cholerae 1037 were collected from microbiology department of Dr. Ved Prakash Patil College of Pharmacy, Aurangabad.

METHOD

The bacterial strains were grown in MacConkey agar plates at 370C and maintained on nutrient agar slants. The antimicrobial activity was performed by disc diffusion assay as per NCCLS, 1993 [26]. The nutrient agar plates containing an inoculum size of 106 cfu / ml for bacteria was used [27].Previously prepared extract impregnated disc (6 mm in diameter) at the concentrations of 200 μg/ml for bacterial was placed aseptically on sensitivity plates with appropriate controls. Ciprofloxacin (200 μg/ml) was used as standard antibacterial. Plates were incubated at 370C for 24 hours for bacteria [28]. Sensitivity was recorded by measuring the clean zone of growth inhibition on agar surface around the disc. The diameters of the inhibition zones were measured in mm.

RESULT

Results obtained in the present study relieved that the tested medicinal plant extract posses potential antibacterial activity against both gram positive- Staphylococcus aureus 29737, Staphylococcus aureus ML 267, Sarcina luteus 9341, Bacillus pumilus 8241, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 as well as gram negative - Escherichia coli ATCC 10536, Escherichia coli VC Sonawave 3:37 C, Escherichia coli CD/99/1, Escherichia coli RP4, Escherichia coli 18/9, Escherichia coli K88, Shigella dysenteriae 1, Shigella soneii 1, Shigella soneii BCH 217, Shigella flexneri type 6, Shigella boydii 937, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 25619, Vibrio cholerae 2, Vibrio cholerae 785, Vibrio cholerae 1037 bacterial strains (table When tested by the disc diffusion method, the chloroform extract of seeds of Moringa Oleifera showed the highest antibacterial activity for gram positive bacteria of 16.66±0.33 in Staphylococcus aureus 29737 and least activity recorded in Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 measured as 08.52±0.61. On the other hand for gram negative bacterial strains the CSEMO showed highest antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 25619 measured as 15.00±0.57 while lowest activity seen in Shigella soneii 1 which was 09.25 0.12.

DISCUSSION 

The antimicrobial activities of various plants have been reported by many researchers [30, 31]. Phytoconstituents present in plants namely flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and triterpenoids are producing exciting opportunity for the expansion of modern chemotherapies against wide range of microorganisms [32, 33]. In present study a variety of gram positive, gram negative bacteria stains were selected for the screening of antimicrobial effect of selected plant extract to perceive the antimicrobial spectrum as well to authenticate ethnomedicinal claims. The results of this study showed that the CSEMO have varied antimicrobial activities against the tested organisms. This study has not only shown the scientific basis for some of the therapeutic uses of traditional plants, but also confirmed the ethnomedicinal claims for the selected plants

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the results of this investigation revealed that chloroform extracts of selected plant possess differentiating antimicrobial activity against selected gram positive as well as gram negative bacterial strains. The differentiating activities against variety of microorganisms of this extracts encourage developing a novel broad spectrum antimicrobial formulation in future.

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Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

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Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

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This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

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‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


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A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
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A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
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A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
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A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
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A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



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International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

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