International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 03 Issue 05, May, 2011

Pages: 48-55

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EVALUATION OF AUDITORY ACUITY IN CROSSSECTIONAL POPULATION OF BANGALORE CITY

Author: Irshad Ahamed, Shaikh Mohsin

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Background and Objectives: Noise pollution in urban city like Bangalore is a serious problem and steadily increasing over the years. The relationship between noise exposure and hearing loss
in normal subjects residing in urban city like Bangalore is yet to be investigated. The aim of this
study was to evaluate the auditory acuity in cross-sectional population of Bangalore city.
Methods:
219 normal subjects residing in noisy roads in four geographical areas belonged to test group and 52 normal subjects residing in silent area belonged to control group were subjected to a
pure tone audiometric assessment. The resulting data was statistically analyzed with SPSS
software. Results:
The auditory thresholds in most of subjects residing in noisy areas were higher at the frequencies 1000, 1500, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz in both ears when compared
with subjects residing in residential area. This was suggestive of increase prevalence of
sensorineural hearing loss among subjects of noisy area. Conclusion:
Subjects residing in noisy
areas have an increased risk of noise induced hearing loss. The duration of exposure to noise had
a direct effect on degree of hearing impairment in subjects of noisy area.

Keywords: audiometry, hearing loss, noise

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

Development in technology, commerce, communication and education has enhanced the urban growth both in developed and developing countries1 . There have occurred many environmental problems in the city like Bangalore with increased urbanization and noise has emerged as one of major environmental problems. Noise can be defined as any unwanted, disturbing or harmful sound that impairs or interferes with hearing, causing stress and hampers concentration2 . Noise pollution emanates from both outdoor and indoor environment and major contribution to outdoor noise often comes from road transportation which is the main source of pollution. Noise survey in various cities throughout the world has revealed that traffic noise is typically the largest contributor to recorded sound levels and the most important source of annoyance2 . Of the more than 28 million Americans with some degree of hearing impairment, as many as 10 million have hearing loss caused in part by excessive noise exposure3 . The noise levels in Mumbai vary between 75-90 decibels that peaks to 100 dB during festive seasons and in Kolkata the noise levels reaches above 100 dB at busy streets4 . A recent study by Mysore based All India institute of speech and hearing (AIISH) has found that noise levels in all major roads in Bangalore city are over 80 dB while permissible levels are only 65 dB5 . It has been well established that exposure to traffic noise causes annoyance, hearing loss, mental disorders and adverse physiological and psychological impacts. The situation of Bangalore due to rapid urbanization needs to be investigated, which may be one of the precipitating factors of increased stress related disorders. Diagnostic audiometry comprises of tests which detect conductive and sensorineural hearing loss. Pure tone audiometry involves the estimation of threshold of hearing for certain standardized stimuli via the air and bone conduction routes6 . An audiometer, being a fundamental tool in the diagnosis of auditory capacities has been employed to evaluate auditory acuity in cross sectional population in different areas of Bangalore city.

MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted in a sample of 271 normal subjects after informed, written and verbal consent in Bangalore between April to September 2006. They were divided into two groups. Group 1comprises of 219 normal subjects working in noisy roads in four geographical areas (West, North, South and East). The West, North, South and East area was recognized as Noisy area No. 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively which include 56, 56, 54 and 53 subjects respectively. The selection of subjects was based on fact that they were staying in different noisy areas (exposed to traffic noise for 8 hours/day or more for duration of 10 years or more). This group includes street-vendors, shopkeeper of the roadside, traffic policemen, drivers and conductors of Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC). Group 2 comprises of 52 normal subjects which was relatively silent when compared with above four areas. This area was recognized as Residential area. The selection of subjects was based on fact that they were staying in specific residential areas for 8 hours/day or more for duration of 10 years or more. This group includes house wives, shop keepers of this area. The selection of subjects is based on inclusion-exclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria includes age group between 20 to 50 yrs and subjects who are staying in selected noisy and silent areas for at least ten years while the patients suffering from hypertensive, Diabetes or patients using ototoxic drugs since last 3 months or having history of ear surgeries or recent ear, nose, throat infection were excluded. The Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA) was conducted on all subjects with the help of audiometer and results were noted. The selected subject was required to answer a detailed questionnaire exploring their hearing status7 . He was also subjected to an otological examination to rule out any external and middle ear pathologies. A detailed general physical and systemic examination is done on the subject and he is taken to the sound proof room for an audiometric testing. The method is based on American Society for Speech and Hearing Association [ASHA] 1978 guidelines for PTA. Masking (Masking PTA) is done to mask the ear not under test and when the air bone gap of the poorer ear under test is more than 10 dB8 . Interpretation of an audiogram suggests three types of deafness 7 . Conductive deafness is indicated by raised air conduction thresholds (>25 dB) and a 50 International Journal of Current Research and Review www.ijcrr.com Vol. 03 issue 05 May 2011 normal bone conduction threshold with a wide air- bone gap of 15 dB or more. Sensorineural deafness is indicated by raised air and bone conduction thresholds (both >25 dB) and the air bone gap does not exceed 10 dB, while Mixed deafness is indicated by air and bone conduction thresholds was raised (both >25 dB) with an air bone gap of greater than 15 dB. Degree of hearing loss was noted as per WHO classification8 . Data were analysed using SPSS software

 

RESULTS

In the present study, there are two groups of subjects, one group consisting of 219 normal subjects residing in noisy roads in four geographical areas (west, north, south, east) and other group consisting of 52 normal subjects staying in relatively silent (residential area). Table no. 2 to 7 shows the results of the subjects working in noisy i.e. the test group and the subjects residing in residential area i.e. the control group. It was prepared and rearranged as per requirement of the parameters discussed. It is important to first appreciate that the noise levels in urban city of Bangalore are above 80 dB in all major roads which is above permissible levels5 . The actual effect of noise on auditory acuity of normal subjects residing in noisy roads is unknown. In this study, the test group (subjects belonging to noisy area 1, 2, 3, 4) and control group (subjects belonging to residential area) have been selected and matched with respect to age ( table1), to remove the effect of presbycusis9 . It is of prime importance to appreciate that noise induced hearing loss develops gradually and noise can cause permanent hearing loss at chronic exposure of 85 dB or higher for an eight hour period3 . It is said that 10 years or more of exposure is generally required for significant hearing loss to occur. Hence in present study only those subjects from both control (residential area) and test group (noisy area) were selected who were staying in the respective area for a minimum of 10 years and exposed to noise for a period of 8 hrs/day. It is evident from tables 2 to 5 that the auditory thresholds of subjects residing in the noisy roads are above 25 dB at frequency 1000 to 8000 Hz and increase in threshold progresses through frequencies 1000 to 6000 Hz reaching maximum level at 4000 Hz and relatively lower at 8000 Hz, when we compare the hearing thresholds of the subjects in each noisy area (1 to 4) versus residential area (5) (P<0.05). Table 6 and graph1(right ear); Table7 and graph 2(left ear) indicates the number of subjects having auditory thresholds more than 25 db in right and left ear residing in noisy area (1 to 4) and residential area(1). It shows 60% of subjects having abnormal audiograms in noisy area whereas in residential area group, it is 10% (Table 6 and 7). These results of present study are in accordance with studies carried by Patwardhan et al10, Lee LT11 . The noise induced hearing loss begins with selective loss of hearing at around 4000 Hz, with thresholds better at both higher and lower frequencies. This is recognized on an audiogram as a notch centered around 4000 Hz. If exposure is continued, the notch gradually deepens and widens, eventually retention of good hearing in the higher frequencies is lost and the resulting hearing loss appears only as a relatively steep high frequency loss at 3000 Hz and becoming more severe at each higher frequency over a period of many years. Persistent noise exposure progressively encroaches on middle frequencies and in most severe cases, even the lower frequencies may become involved10 .

CONCLUSION

In this study, the auditory acuity of normal subjects residing in noisy area and residential area were studied and it showed that exposure to noise raises the auditory threshold in frequencies between 1000 to 8000 Hz in the age group of the people selected for this research. The auditory thresholds were mostly affected in higher frequency range with highest threshold at 4000 Hz and relatively lower at 1000 and 8000 Hz. The auditory thresholds were almost similar in both the ears signifying sensorineural hearing loss. The results which show the effect of noise on auditory acuity may be explained by mechanical trauma on hair cells and metabolic exhaustion.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We are grateful to Mr.K.P.Suresh, Scientist (Statistics), National Institute of Animal Nutrition & Physiology, Bangalore, Karnataka, for providing all necessary support for this research.


 

 

 

References:

1. Joshi SK, Devkota S, Chamling S, Shrestha S. Environmental noise induced hearing loss in Nepal. Kathmandu University Medical Journal (2003) Vol. 1, No. 3, 177-183.

2. Ingle S T, Pachpande B G. Monitoring and assessment of daily exposure of residentialpopulation to highway traffic noise in Jalagaon urban center. [access date 2006 April 22]. Available from: URL: http://www.iasi.cnr.it/ewgt/16 conference/ID85.pdf

3. Rabinowitz P M. Noise induced hearing loss. American academy of family physicians. 2000 May 1; 61:2749-56, 2759-60.

4. Case draft dossier: Health and environment>> A. Environment and diseases 4. Noise pollution: Deafening decibels. [Access date 2006 June 23]. Available from: URL: http://www.cseindia.org/programme/heal th/pdf/conf2006/a4noise.pdf

5. Noise City. Noise pollution can lead to several health risks. Deccan Herald. 2006 June 16. [access date 2006 August 20]. Available from: URL: http://www.deccanherald.com/deccanher ald/jun162006/editpage.asp

6. Kerr A G, Stephans D. Scott-Brown‘s Otolaryngology: Adult Audiology; volume 2; 6th edition, pp 2/1/6-9, Butterworth Heinemann, 1997.

7. Sanders J W, Katz J. Silverman‘s text book of audiometry. pp 10-65, Williams and Wilkins 1982.

8. American speech and hearing Association, committee on audiometric evaluation (1978a). Guidelines for manual pure tone threshold audiometry. Asha, 20: 297-301.

9. Jorgensen M B. Histological studies on changes of aging in the inner ear. Arch Otolaryngol 1961; vol 74(Aug): 56-62.

10. Patwardhan M S, Kolate M M, More T A. To assess effect of noise on hearing ability of bus drivers by audiometry. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1991 Jan;35(1):35-8.

11. Lee L T. A study of the noise hazard to employees in local discotheques. Singapore Med J. 1999 Sep; 40(9):571- 4.

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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

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A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
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A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
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A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
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A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
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A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
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A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
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A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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