International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
logo
slider
slider
slider
slider
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, Google Scholar, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services)

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Full Html

IJCRR - Vol 03 Issue 05, May, 2011

Pages: 36-47

Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

PATIENT COUNSELLING: A WAY TO ENHANCE PATIENT COMPLIANCE

Author: Stuti Gupta, Ravindra Pal Singh, Rajendra k. Songara, Sonia Bisla, Heema Naik, Dolly Jain

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Effective patient counseling makes the patient understand his/her illness, necessary lifestyle
modifications and pharmacotherapy in a better way and thus enhance patient compliance. The
pharmacist has immense responsibility in counseling the patients. The counseling pharmacist
should possess adequate knowledge and should be an effective communicator, making use of the
verbal and non-verbal communication skills.

Keywords: patient counseling, pharmacist

Full Text:

1. INTRODUCTION

The availability of and rational use of medicines are critical for a successful therapeutic outcome. Though rapid developments in science and technology have led to easy understanding of etiology and pathophysiological basis of various diseases and development of new molecules, many times clinicians fail to achieve the desired therapeutic goals. One of the major reasons for this can be the patient noncompliance or partial compliance towards the prescribed treatment (World Health Organization, 2003). Patient compliance is defined as the adherence of a patient towards the prescriber‘s instructions. It implies an understanding of how the medicine is to be used, as well as a positive behavior in which the patient is motivated sufficiently to use the prescribed treatment in the manner intended because of a perceived self-benefit and a positive outcome (e.g. enhanced quality of life and well being). Non- compliance can lead to various consequences including underuse, overuse, misuse, abuse etc (Hussar DA, 2000). The most common factors associated with noncompliance are the nature of the disease, multiple drug therapy, frequency of drug administration, duration of drug therapy, adverse events, cost of medications, administration technique, taste of medication etc (Ramesh, 1999). In the present days, the term ?concordance? is used more often in place of ?compliance?.

2. PATIENT COUNSELING [17] Patient counseling may be defined as providing medication information orally or in written form to the patients or their representative or providing proper directions PATIENT COUNSELLING: A WAY TO ENHANCE PATIENT COMPLIANCE Stuti Gupta1 , Ravindra Pal Singh2 , Rajendra k. Songara1 , Sonia Bisla1 , Heema Naik1 , Dolly Jain1 1 School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jaipur National University, Jaipur, rajasthan 2Gyan Vihar School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur E-mail of corresponding author: stutipharmabird@gmail.com 37 International Journal of Current Research and Review www.ijcrr.com Vol. 03 issue 05 May 2011 of use, advice on side effects, storage, diet and life style modifications. It involves a one-to-one interaction between a pharmacist and a patient and/or a care giver. It is interactive in nature. The effective counseling should encompass all the parameters to make the patient/party understand his/her disease, medications and life style modification required (Beardsley , 1997); ASHP, 1997). In general, patient counseling has 3 main objectives: [18] (1) Assessing the patient‘s understanding of the therapy including proper use and adverse effects of the medication. (2) Improving patient adherence. (3) Motivating the patient to take an active role in health management. [19] Studies have shown that patient counseling can improve patient care in various ways [19]:

Reducing medication errors.

• Increasing patients understanding and management of their medical condition.

• Minimizing incidence of adverse drug reactions and drug-drug interactions.

• Improving patient outcomes and satisfaction with care. Although every pharmacist implements individualized techniques to counsel patients, various skills are vital to successful pharmacist-patient interaction during patient counseling sessions.

2.1 FEATURES OF EFFECTIVE PATIENT COUNSELING: [18] (1.) Establish Trust- Pharmacists are among the most accessible and trusted health care professionals. When initiating a patient counseling session, pharmacists should introduce themselves with a brief, friendly greeting to make patients feel comfortable enough to ask questions about their medication therapies and health conditions. Pharmacists who demonstrate a genuine interest in patient care are more likely to encourage dialogue. [20]

(2.) Communicate verbally- Pharmacists can encourage dialogue by asking questions. They should assess what the patient already knows about his or her chosen therapy and tailor the counseling to meet the needs of each individual patient. Ask patients what their physician has told them about the selected therapy and the condition for which they are being treated.

(3.)Communicate Nonverbally- In addition to verbal communication, it is essential for pharmacists to be aware of nonverbal communication, such as maintaining eye contact with the patient, to demonstrate interest in the information the patient is relaying. [21]Pharmacists also should be cognizant of other nonverbal clues, such as facial expressions and tone of voice, when interacting with patients.

 

(4.) Listen- When counseling patients about medication therapy, listening to the concerns, questions, and needs of the patient is essential. Listening skills can be categorized into 4 classes: passive listening, acknowledgment responses, encouragement, and active listening. [22] Passive listening occurs when the pharmacist enables the patient to communicate without interruption. An acknowledgment response such as nodding occurs during passive listening and alerts the patient that the pharmacist is indeed listening. Pharmacists also can use encouragement strategies through the use of words such as "yes" or "go on." Active listening involves 2- way interactions between the patient and the pharmacist and always should be implemented after passive listening. [22]

(5.) Ask Questions- When posing questions to the patient, pharmacists also should state the reason for asking certain questions, so as not to offend the patient. [23,24]Asking open-ended questions enables pharmacists to gather more information that may lead to other questions and/or provide valuable information to the pharmacist to further assess the patient.

(6.) Remain Clinically Objective- It is important for pharmacists not to allow personal belief‘s either ethical or religious‘ to affect their ability to counsel a patient effectively. Pharmacists should make every possible effort to be nonjudgmental and impartial, to focus on patient care, and to maintain a professional demeanor.

(7.) Show Empathy and EncouragementWhen a pharmacist displays empathy and encouragement, a patient may feel more comfortable discussing his or her medical condition and medication use, thus enabling the pharmacist to obtain pertinent information on the patient‘s needs and concerns. Emphasizing to patients the importance of adherence to medication regimens can promote positive therapeutic outcomes and motivate patients to take an active role in the management of their health. During counseling, pharmacists also should remind patients to call the pharmacy or their physician with any concerns about their medications.

(8.) Provide Privacy and ConfidentialityEnsuring complete privacy and confidentiality helps enable patients to feel comfortable discussing personal medical issues. Today many pharmacies are equipped with special counseling areas to address privacy issues. When counseling, pharmacists can reassure patients of privacy by monitoring voice levels and counseling patients away from the dispensing area when possible.

(9.) Tailor Counseling to Meet Patient Needs- The ability to tailor patient counseling to meet individual needs is critical. Pharmacists should be aware of patients with disabilities and be prepared to treat them with respect and understanding. Techniques should be tailored to accommodate the needs of each patient via verbal counseling or the use of visual aids and demonstrations when warranted. When the medication therapy involves certain administration techniques, such as the use of an inhaler, an injection, or a monitoring device, pharmacists should demonstrate the proper technique to ensure that patients are adequately trained.

 

(10.) Motivate Patients- Effective counseling not only provides patients with the pertinent information they need to use their medication correctly, it also motivates them to adhere to their medication regimens. Pharmacists can motivate patients by discussing the benefits of medication adherence, offering support, and explaining the pros and cons of treatment. For example, when counseling a patient with diabetes, in addition to teaching the patient about medications, the pharmacist can stress the importance of maintaining tight glycemic control to decrease or prevent the complications associated with diabetes. Pharmacists also can make suggestions, such as the use of medication reminder containers, to facilitate patient adherence. Information always should be relayed positively, and pharmacists should look continually for ways to inspire patients to learn more about their treatment plan.

 

2.2 WHY PHARMACISTS SHOULD COUNSEL PATIENTS? [25] Communicating with patients about their medications provides significant benefits to both the patient and the pharmacist. The 39 International Journal of Current Research and Review www.ijcrr.com Vol. 03 issue 05 May 2011 patient will have a better understanding of the purpose for the prescribed therapy and the appropriate use of the medication. This leads to several potential benefits:

 

  • Improved therapeutic outcomes and decreased adverse effects

• Improved patient adherence to the treatment plan

• Decreased medication errors and misuse

• Enhanced patient self-management by involving the patient in designing the therapeutic plan.

• Potential for decreased health care costs due to appropriate use of medications and prevention of adverse events.

2.3 NECESSITY OF PATIENT COUNSELING [26] Mock asserts that "the concept of effective clinician-patient communication is a necessity, not an option. Because commu¬nication is both a science and an art that can be learned and mastered, there are many resulting benefits for those who work diligently to improve their technique, not the least of which is increased clinician satisfaction." A recent incident was reported in New Brunswick where an incorrect medication was dispensed on transfer. The patient was not counseled and the error was identified by the caregiver when the patient was taking the medication later that night. Had the patient been shown the medication in the counseling process, the incident could have been immediately corrected. Much less harm is done by identifying medications errors before they leave the pharmacy. Therefore, health care profes¬sions education, and specifically pharmacy education, should include specific training in patient communication skills and an understanding of the psychological reactions to illness and treatment.

 

2.4 TECHNIQUES OF COUNSELING [17] Several techniques can be adopted for effective counseling. Some of them include providing written information to the patient and the use of audiovisual materials. The use of various compliance aids include labeling, medication calendars, drug reminder chart and providing special medication containers and caps can also be adopted. The United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) medication counseling behavior guidelines divide medication counseling into the following four stages (USP, 1997).

Stage I: Medication information transfer, during which there is a monologue by the pharmacist providing basic, brief information about the safe and proper use of medicine. Stage

Stage II: information exchange, during which the pharmacist answers questions and provides detailed information adapted to the patients‘ situation. Stage

Stage III: education, during which the pharmacist provides comprehensive information regarding the proper use of medicines in a collaborative, interactive learning experience. Stage

Stage IV:counseling, during which the pharmacist and patient have a detailed discussion intending to give the patient guidance that enhances problemsolving skills and assists with proper management

3. COUNSELING OF PATIENT AFTER FILLING PRESCRIPTION [28] After filling the prescription give some advice to the patient about how to use drugs. Some common advices are -

(i) Removing of Drug from the PackageTo the unaware patient, the pharmacist must demonstrate how the drug is to be removed from the package. This seemingly simple task may be quite confusing to some patients. Handling of Dropainer eye preparations, removal of dust cap from suppositories, opening of safety containers are some of the difficulties faced by the untrained patient.

(ii) Administering the Drug- The pharmacist should clearly mention to the patient, how and by which route the medicine has to be administered. The importance of this lies in the fact that inadequate information may lead to faulty administration and consequently to diminution or exaggeration of the desired effect. Consider the example of a tablet. There are at least 9 different ways a tablet can be administered depending upon the type of tablet and the drug it contains. These are (a) place on tongue and swallow with water, (b) chew and swallow (c) not to be chewed (d) let it dissolve in mouth and suck (e) sublingual, do not swallow (f) buccal, let it dissolve (g) dissolve in water and swallow (h) dissolve in water and use extremely (i) moisten with water and insert vaginally or rectally. Inadequate instructions in such cases will lead to wrong administration.

(iii) Ophthalmic preparations- For instillation of an eye drop, the pa¬tient is advised to tilt the head backward or if possible lie down looking up at the ceiling. He should hold the dropper above affected eye and allow a drop of the medicine to fall in the space between the eyeball and the inside the lower eye lid while looking up. The patient should be warned not to touch the tip of the dropper to any surface or the eye lid. The lower lid is released and the eye kept open without blinking for at least 30 sec. Thereafter, the patient is advised to apply gentle pressure with his fingers at the bridge of the nose for about I min to prevent drainage of solution from the eye. Eye preparations should be discarded after 1 month from the date of opening of the container. Eye ointments are administered in a similar manner; about l/4 to l/2 inch of the ointment from a squeezable tube is placed inside the lower eyelid.

(iv) Inhalations- The pharmacist must demonstrate the use of inhalers particularly to the new users, children and elderly. The inhaler requires shaking before use. It should be held between the index finger and the thumb so that the container is upside down. The patient is advised to hold the breath for as long as possible to derive the maximum benefit. The inhaler is removed from the mouth and exhalation is done slowly through pressed lips. Likewise, relevant instructions about the use of other dosage forms like suppositories, creams, lotions solutions etc. should be given to the patient.

(v) Timing of the dose- The pharmacist must use his knowledge of drugs when interpreting the directions of the physician and give in¬structions to the patient to ensure that the drug is maximally effective. If the drug has the propensity to cause GI upset, it is best taken with food or milk. If its bioavailability is affected by the presence of food, the drug should be taken 1 hr before or 2 hr after meals. If steady state blood levels are essential for the desired effect, the dosing schedule can be appropriately adjusted.

(vi) Duration of use- The duration of use of medication is dependent on the nature of the illness and the drug used. For chronic ailments, the length of drug intake is more. The greater the duration of drug intake, the greater is the problem of compliance. The patient is advised to take the medication regularly and visit the physician frequently to get the effectiveness of the therapeutic regimen assessed.

(vii) Storage- Proper storage conditions are necessary for safety and maintenance of the efficacy of drugs. All medication should be kept in a cabinet away from the reach of children. External and internal use preparation should be kept segregated. Exposure• of drug to extremes of temperature and humidity should be avoided. The medication should not be used after its date of expiration.

(viii) Side Effects- No drug is without side effects and it is necessary that the pharma¬cist makes some of the commonly occurring side effects known to the patient. However, the manner in which the pharmacist tells this to the patient is important. The pharmacist should not drive away the patient from using the medication or create a scare in him; rather the informa¬tion should be presented in a manner so as to encourage compliance. The pharmacist must also mention how to cope with these side effects if it is possible, e.g. headache with the use of metronidazole may be relieved by taking aspirin or paracetamol. For drugs which cause drowsiness, the patient should be advised against driving during the period of drug intake. With some drugs like metronidazole, the use of alcohol has to be avoided. The patient should be specifically cautioned against it. With some drugs the incidence of side effects decrease on continued use.

(ix) Drug Interaction- The patient should be clearly mentioned of the possible interaction of his prescribed drug with factors like food, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and with other. Nonprescription drugs, that he may be taking. Unfortunately, there is a common notion, that all OTC drugs are safe. The pharmacist should dispel this notion and advise the patient accordingly

 

(x) Allergies- Careful documentation of the past medication history and ascer¬taining any known allergy to any drug will undoubtedly• reduce the incidence of druginduced allergies. However, since many drugs are foreign to the body, they do have the capability to cause allergy. This fact should be carefully detailed to the patient. The patient should be advised that if he experiences rashes, itching or burning of skin, he should discontinue the drug and consult the physician.

4. COUNSELING OF SOME COMMON DISEASE [29] (i) CORONARY HEART DISEASE [30] As with other chronic diseases, the aim of treatment is to reduce the mortality, morbidity and associated impairment in the quality of life. A pharmacist can play an active role in the management of this chronic illness in several ways.

Non-pharmacological measures: It includes education regarding diet, smoking, and exercise and encouraging the patients to maintain a diary on anginal attacks, pain symptoms etc.

Pharmacological measures: Educating the patients on the use of nitrates in case of an acute anginal attack is one of the important roles of pharmacists. Some of the important pharmacological measures are listed in (Table 1).

(ii) ASTHMA [31] Asthma is a chronic condition requiring lifelong drug therapy. Pharmacist can play an active role in counseling the patient regarding self monitoring of drug therapy, other life style modifications and usage of specialized dosage forms such as metered dose inhalers, dry powder inhalers, spacers etc.

Non-pharmacological measures: Safety measures while traveling, prophylactic use of drugs before exercise, avoidance of allergens, stopping cigarette smoking etc.

Pharmacological measures: Patient involvement in management of asthma is very important. Specific counseling on drug therapy should concentrate on three areas; drugs to relieve symptoms, drugs used to prevent asthma attack and those drugs which are given only as reserve treatment for severe attacks (Gibbs and Small, 2003). Training regarding use of the metered dose inhaler is one of the important roles of the counseling pharmacist. Some of the pharmacological measures to be included while counseling these patients are summarized in (Table 2).

 

(iii) DIABETES [32] Diabetes is a chronic disease with altered carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism (Kapur et al., 1998). The chronic complications of diabetes are known to affect the quality of life of diabetic patients. Various factors like understanding of the patients about their disease, dietary regulation, self-monitoring of blood glucose are known to play a vital role in diabetes management. Patient counseling and education are known to improve the quality of life of these patients (Rasheed et al., 2002). Some of the non-pharmacological and pharmacological measures are listed below.

Non-pharmacological approaches: The pharmacist can give an overview of diabetes, stress and psycho-social adjustment, family involvement and social support, nutrition, exercise and activity, monitoring and use of results, relationship between nutrition, exercise, medication, and blood glucose level.

 

Pharmacological measures: Studies suggest that the complications of diabetes can be reduced by tight glycemic control (The diabetes control and complications trial research group, 1993; UKPDS Group, 1998.The drugs used in diabetes are also known to possess certain peculiar features such as ?Taken half an hour before food? in case of Sulfonylureas; ?awareness of hypoglycemia? during insulin therapy etc. (Table 3) lists some of the important pharmacological measures a pharmacist should stress while counseling diabetic patients.

(iv) HYPERTENSION [32] Though hypertension is not a disease, it is known to be an important risk factor for several complications resulting in end organ damage (Thomas, 2003). If uncontrolled it can lead to a huge adverse impact on quality of life. The management of hypertension requires non-pharmacological as well as pharmacological methods (Chobanian et al., 2003).

Non-pharmacological measures: In many occasions nonpharmacological treatment alone may suffice in the management of hypertension. A pharmacist can counsel the patients regarding weight loss and regular exercise, sodium and calorie restriction, restriction of saturated fats and increased intake of dietary fibers, restriction of alcohol intake, smoking cessation, caution while using cold remedies containing sympathomimetics, self-monitoring of blood pressure etc.

Pharmacological measures: In a majority of patients, drug therapy is required. The patients often underestimate hypertension as by itself it usually does not exhibit any major symptoms. Thus non-compliance becomes very common. Added to this is the fact that many of the antihypertensive drugs causes side effects that are very serious such as Angiotension Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors induced cough, beta blockers induced bradycardia etc. In some cases the dose modulation of the drugs is also very essential. Some of the pharmacological measures that can be taken by the pharmacist during counseling are listed in (Table 4).

 

5. STATUS OF PATIENT COUNSELING IN INDIA [32] Basic act of patient counseling will take miles ahead of the present pharmacy professional situation in India. Patient counseling in USA is very well comparing to India. USP medication counseling guidelines suggests four stages in counseling such as counseling introduction, content, process and counseling conclusion.USP has listed about 175 various counseling items that can be used during counseling. But in India condition to begin with, about 15 items may be sufficient. As per the need and time, few or all these items can be used. Following are the counseling items which are distributed into four stages such as counseling introduction, counseling content, counseling process, and counseling conclusion.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

1. Roter DL, Hall JA, Merisca R, et al. Effectiveness of interventions to improve patient compliance: a meta-analysis. Med Care. 1998; 36:1138-61.

2. National Association of Boards of Pharmacy. 1999-2000 Survey of Pharmacy Law. Park Ridge, Ill.; 1999.

3. (3.)Svarstad BL. Development of behavioral science curricula and faculty in pharmacy: some issues requiring attention. American J Pharm Educ. 1994; 58:177-83

. 4. Beardsley RS. Communication skills development in colleges of pharmacy. American J Pharm Educ. 2001; 65:307- 14.

5. Morris LA, Tabak ER, Gondek K. Counseling patients about prescribed medication: 12-year trends. Med Care. 1997; 35:996-1007.

6. Perri M, Kotzan J, Pritchard L, et al. OBRA '90: the impact on pharmacists and patients. Am Pharm. 1995; NS35:24- 28, 65. 46 International Journal of Current Research and Review www.ijcrr.com Vol. 03 issue 05 May 2011

7. Erickson SR, Kirking DM, Sandusky M. Michigan medicaid recipients' perceptions of medication counseling as required by OBRA '90. J Am Pharm Assoc. 1998; 38:333-8.

 8. Schommer JC, Wiederholt JB. A field investigation of participant and environmental effects on pharmacistpatient communication in community pharmacies. Med Care. 1995; 35:567- 84.

9. Sleath B. Pharmacist-patient relationships: authoritarian, participatory, or default? Patient Educ Couns. 1996; 28:253-63.

10. Scott DM, Wessels MJ. Impact of OBRA '90 on pharmacists' patient counseling practices. J Am Pharm Assoc. 1997; 37:401-6.

11. Cook K, Shortell SM, Conrad DA, et al. A theory of organizational response to regulation: the case of hospitals. Acad Manage Rev. 1983; 8:193-205.

12. Nichol MB, Michael LW. Critical analysis of the content and enforcement of mandatory consultation and patient profile laws. Ann Pharmacother. 1992; 26:1149-55.

13. Kirking D. Evaluation of an explanatory model of pharmacists' patient counseling activities. J Soc Admin Pharm. 1984; 2:50-6.

14. Mason HL, Svarstad BL. Medication counseling behaviors and attitudes of rural community pharmacists. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 1984; 18:409-14.

15. Svarstad BL, Mason H, Schuna A. Factor‘s affecting pharmacists' communication behavior: an observational study. Paper presented at: Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy; July 1979; Denver, Col.

16. Svarstad BL, Bultman DC, Mount JK. Evaluation of written prescription information provided in community pharmacies: a study in 8 states. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2003; 43:383-93.

17. Palaian S, Prabhu M and Shankar PR ,A Review on Patient counseling by pharmacist -a focus on chronic illness. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., 2006, Vol.19 (1), 62-65.

18. Terrie YC, Review on 10 Behaviors of Effective Counselors Published Online: May 1, (EDT).

19. Rantucci, M. Pharmacists Talking With Their Patients: A Guide to Patient Counseling. 2nd Edition. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2006:3-4.

20. Rantucci, M. Pharmacists Talking With Their Patients: A Guide to Patient Counseling. 2nd Edition. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2006:158-159.

21. Rantucci, M. Pharmacists Talking With Their Patients: A Guide to Patient Counseling. 2nd Edition. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2006:167-168.

22. Rantucci, M. Pharmacists Talking With Their Patients: A Guide to Patient Counseling. 2nd Edition. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2006:170

. 23. Isetts, B, Brown, L. Patient Assessment and Consultation. In: Berardi R, Kroon L, Newton G, et al, eds. Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs. 15th Edition. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association; 2006:15-34.

24. Rantucci, M. Pharmacists Talking With Their Patients: A Guide to Patient Counseling. 2nd Edition. Baltimore, 47 International Journal of Current Research and Review www.ijcrr.com Vol. 03 issue 05 May 2011 MD: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2006:70.

 25. Herfindal T. Eric, Gourley R. Dick; ?Text book of therapeutics: Drug and disease management?, 6th Edition, Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins 1996.

26. Roger walker, Clive Edwards; ?Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics?, 3rd Edition, Churchill Livingstone Publisher, 2003.

27. The Pharmacist-Patient Consultation Program PPCP-Unit 2, How to Counsel Patients in Challenging Situations: New York: Pfizer, 1993.

28. Antucci MJ. Pharmacists Talking with Patients: ?A Guide to Patient Counseling. Philadelphia? Williams and Wilkins, 1997.

29. Beardsley RS (1997). Review of literature: oral patient counseling by pharmacists. Proceedings of the national symposium on oral counseling by pharmacists about prescription medicines. September 19-21; Lansdowne, Virginia.

30. Lewis RK, Lasack NL, Lambert BL and Connor SE (1997). Patient counseling – a focus on maintenance therapy. Am. J. Health-Syst. Pharm., 54(18): 2084-2098.

31. Gibbs KP and Small M Asthma (2003). In: Walker R, Edwards C. Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. Churchill Livingstone publishers, Philadelphia, 3 rd Ed.., pp.375-395.

32. Diabetes Control and complications trial research group (1993). The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long term complications in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. N. Engl. J. Med., 329: 977-986.

Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in


Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: To achieve a high standard of publication, we adopt Good Publishing Practices (updated in 2022) which are inspired by guidelines provided by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



ABOUT US

International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

Contact

148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

editor@ijcrr.com

editor.ijcrr@gmail.com


Copyright © 2022 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions


Fatal error: Uncaught Error: Function name must be a string in /home/u845032518/domains/ijcrr.com/public_html/footer-bottom.php:487 Stack trace: #0 /home/u845032518/domains/ijcrr.com/public_html/article_html.php(51): include() #1 {main} thrown in /home/u845032518/domains/ijcrr.com/public_html/footer-bottom.php on line 487