International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 03 Issue 07, July, 2011

Pages: 96-99

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HOURLY OZONE CONCENTRATION PREDICTION USING NEURAL NETWORK MODEL

Author: G.Geetha

Category: General Sciences

Abstract:The aim of the present work is to provide a methodological procedure to forecast hourly Ozone concentrations using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The study area is the urban center of Chennai, and the results are presented here. The model can predict the mean surface ozone based on the parameters like concentration of Nitrogen-di-oxide, temperature, relative humidity, sun spot number, wind direction and wind speed. The model can perform well both in training and independent periods. The achieved results were satisfactory.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks surface ozone Air pollution

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

Ground-level ozone air pollution is of great concern because of its adverse effects on human health and ecosystems (Poupkou et al.2008, Cristofanelli and Bonasoni 2009). Ground-level ozone is not emitted directly into the atmosphere. It results from photochemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of sunlight (Pudasaine etal2006, Vingarzan and Taylor 2003, Clapp and Lenkin 2001, Sillman 1999). Present paper aims to develop a simple model using neural network technique based on the data which are easily available. The performance of the model is satisfactory both in training and independent period.

Area of Study and data

Ground level ozone concentration and nitrogen dioxide measurements were carried out in the urban site Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. India is a tropical country urbanized district. Its irregular shape covers about 174 Km2 (M.Pulikesi et al., 2005). It is geographically positioned between 12º9´ and 13º9´ of the Northern latitude and 80º12´ and 80º19´of the eastern longitude.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

A portable Aeroqual series S200 ozone monitor was used. An Aeroqual series S200 ozone monitor is constructed to measure low and high ozone levels. Its ultra low concentration ozone head measures the ozone concentration from 0.000 to 0.500 ppm, and a high concentration ozone head measures the ozone Concentration from 0.50 to 20.00 ppm. Accuracy of a low concentration ozone head is ± 0.001 ppm (from 0 to 0.100 ppm); ± 10% (0.100 to 0.500 ppm), while that of a high concentration ozone head is ± 10% (from 0.20 to 2.00 ppm); ± 15% (from 2.00 to 20.00 ppm), the measurement unit being either ppm or μg/m3. The operating Temperature range is from – 5 o C to 50o C, relative humidity limits are 5% and 95%. Similar kind of NO2 sensor has been used for nitrogen dioxide measurement. A gas sensitive semiconductor (GSS) type is used to measure the ozone and nitrogen dioxide values. Gas sensitive sensor head is interchangeable and replaceable. LCD type display. The temperature range is from -400C to 1240C humidity range 0 to 100%. Wind speed is calculated using a wind vane. Wind velocity is measured using AM- 4201digital Anemometer. Measurement in range 0.4 – 3 m\s has resolution 0.1 m\s of accuracy ± (2% + 0.2 m\s). The ambient temperature and humidity are measured by Thermo Hydrometer. Temperature accuracy ± 0.1oCand humidity accuracy ± 5%. Sampling was carried out for five days from 13- 11-2010 to 17-11-2010 for every 1 hour interval.

Brief review of neural network technique

Neural Networks are signal processing systems that attempt to emulate the behavior of biological nervous systems by providing a mathematical model of combination of numerous basic blocks called neurons connected in a network. It is remotely analogous to living nervous system and hence its name. As input to the model, a historical set of significant meteorological data is used, whereas the output, ozone concentration is predicted by the model. The network is trained with the past data. By the proper choice of training sets, after the learning process, the trained network is capable of predicting the ozone concentrations as an output according to the inputs and internal structure of the network established during the learning period. The transfer function used here is the sigmoidal function. The ANN‘s are product of the artificial intelligence,which miming the neurons networks, allow expert systems and learning skills..(Benvenuto et al,2000) The process of learning the training set of patterns means the determination of the optimum weights which minimize the mean square error between the outputs in the output layer and the desired values. Most commonly used ?back-propagation learning algorithm? [Rumbelhart et al., (1986)] is used for the training. Initially random weights between ±0.5 are assigned to each weight as initial guesses. The weights are learned through an iterative process. During learning the weights are updated. When the network learns the training set of patterns well enough it can be used for determining the output values for the pattern with unknown outputs (Test period or prediction period).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The data is separated for training of the network and the network was trained. The weight values were fixed. Remaining data was used for testing of the network. The results suggest that the Sunspot number is one of the best predictors for ozone prediction. Table 1 gives the correlation coefficient values of the set of values. The correlation coefficient values give the relationship among the various predictors. The result obtained is shown in the Fig. 1.Surface ozone - predicted versus actual values. As indicated by the results it provided the highest performance. This was due to enabling of the ozone by Sunspot number and the input parameters, resulting in improved training and thus improved prediction. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) training data set 0.176988 % Root means Square Error (RSME) for testing data 21.168520 % The above results validate the proposed model.

CONCLUSION

Our results suggest that neural network technique is promising tools for modeling and prediction of ozone. Results can be summarized as follows;

(i) The ANN constructed models suggests high feasibility of the application of ANN technique for the prediction of hourly ozone within reasonable error bounds.

(ii) The predictive analysis suggest a considerable link among solar/ Sunspot cycle, related variability and ozone formation.

(iii) It is concluded that the above model can be used for Predicting surface ozone concentration with nitrogen dioxide, temperature, % relative humidity, Sunspot number, wind direction and wind speed as predictors.

References:

1. Chudzynski S., Czyzewski A., Ernst K., Pietruczuk A., Skubiszak W., Stacewicz T., Stelmaszczk K., Szymanski A., Sowka I., Zwozdziak A., Zwozdziak J., Observation of ozone concentration during the solar eclipse. Atmospheric Research, 2001, Vol. 57, p. 43-49. ELSEVIER . ISSN 0169- 8095.

2. Clapp I., J., Jenkin M., E., Analysis of the relationship between ambient levels of O3 . NO2 and NOx as a function of NOx in the UK Atmospheric Environment. 2001. Vol. 35 p.0401-0405 ELSEVIER ISSN 1352- 2310.

3. Cristofanelli P., and Bonasoni P., Background ozone in the southern Europe and Mediterranean area: Influence of the transport and processes. Environmental Pollution, 2009, Vol. 157, p. 1399-1406. ELSEVIER. ISSN 0269-7491.

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5. Pudasainee D., Sapkota B., Manohar L.S., Kaga A., Kondo A., Inoue Y. Ground levels ozone concentration and its association with NOx and meteorological parameters in Katmandu valley, Nepal. Atmospheric Environment, 2006, Vol. 40, p. 8081-8087 ELSEVIER.ISSN 1352-2310.

6. Pulikesi M, P.Baskaralingam, D.Ilango, V.N.Raidu, V.Ramamoorthy, S.Sivanesan, Air quality monitoring in Chennai, India, in the summer of 2005. J.Hazard.Mater. 136(2006)589-596.

7. Rumbelhart, D.; Hinton, G.E.; Wiliams, R.J. (1986): Learning internal representation by error propagation, In parallel distributed processing Exploration in the Microstructure of Cognition, Vol I, Cambridge.

8. Sillman S., The relation between ozone, NOx and hydrocarbons in urban and polluted rural environments. Atmospheric Environment, 1999, Vol. 33, P. 1821-1845. ELSEVIER.ISSN 1352-2310.

9. Vingarzan R., Taylor B. Trend analysis of ground levels ozone in the greater Vancouver/Fraser Valley area of British Columbia. Atmospheric Environment, 2003, Vol. 37, p. 2159-2171. ELSEVIER.ISSN 1352-2310

10. Westmoreland E. J., carslaw N., Carslaw D., Gillah A., Bates E Analysis of air pollution within a street canyon using statistical and dispersion modeling techniques. Atmospheric Enviroment, 2007, Vol. 41, p. 9195-9205. ELSEVIER.ISSN 1352-2310.

11. www.aeroqual.com/gas sensitive sensor/14-10-2010

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Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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