International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 03 Issue 07, July, 2011

Pages: 84-88

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SEA WATER ABSORPTION PHENOMENON IN BANANA FIBRE REINFORCED VINYL ESTER COMPOSITES

Author: Rajesh Ghosh, A Ramakrishna, G.Reena

Category: Technology

Abstract:The ageing response of banana fibre reinforced vinyl ester composites in sea water environment is investigated. The main objective was to evaluate the effects of sea water on the mechanical properties. Fibre mats were reinforced into vinyl ester matrix and composite laminates were made. These were then subjected to sea water ageing and water absorption and mechanical properties were tested. It is observed that during the initial stages there was increased rate of water absorption following the Fickian law. On prolonged time of immersion, moisture absorption led to plasticization of the matrix and also reduced the mechanical properties of the specimen.

Keywords: Sea water, absorption, banana fibre, vinyl ester.

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

Fibre reinforced polymers are increasingly shown interest from the engineering and structural view point. A lot of work is done and investigated on glass fibre reinforced composites. But glass fibre has a detrimental effect on the environment and hence there is a growing interest on bio fibres on the possibility of replacing glass fibres. These composites are being used for marine applications such as water storage vessels, pipelines, small boats etc. Researchers found that prolonged exposure of glass fibre composites caused degradation in flexural strength and modulus [1, 2]. It is observed that the polymer matrix gets degraded by a hydrolysis reaction of the unsaturated groups within the resin [3]. Vinyl ester composites show superior chemical stability in sea water atmosphere [4, 5]. The absorption of water into the macromolecular network of a thermoset matrix causes swelling and plasticization of the matrix [6- 8]. Researchers have reported that absorption of water (distilled or sea water) causes changes in the thermophysical and mechanical properties by plasticization and hydrolysis [9, 10]. It is reported that degree of degradation depends on the degree of crosslinking of the polymers [11]. Moisture may also affect the fibers. Experimental work is done on glass fibre reinforced in epoxy or vinyl ester resin. But much work is not done on banana fiber reinforced in polymer matrix and the composite exposed to sea water environment. In the present work banana fibre reinforced vinyl ester composite specimens were immersed in sea water and the moisture gain is noted and compared with distilled water moisture gain.

EXPERIMENTAL

Banana fibers were procured from Tamil Nadu - India. The fibers were knitted in the form of mats. The mats were alkali treated. Vinyl ester is procured from ECMAS India pvt ltd. Composites were made by hand layup process in an MS die with inner cavity of dimensions 200mm x 200mm x 10mm. These laminates were later oven cured. Composite specimens were later cut to size as per ASTM standards. The cut edges of the specimens were coated with a thin layer of adhesive.

Sea water absorption tests: These specimens were first weighed and then immersed in sea water taken from the coast of Visakhapatnam – India (Bay of Bengal). Specimens were periodically taken out of the water; the surface is wiped with a tissue paper and weighed in an electronic balance. The water uptake was plotted against square root of immersion time.

The moisture absorbed M (in %) is calculated using

The moisture absorbed M (in %) is calculated using where Wt is the measured weight of the specimen at time t and Wo is the initial dry weight of the specimen.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The water absorption into the composite specimen may be considered to be following three different modes. The principal mode being the diffusion of water molecules into the microgaps of the resin, while the other processes being capillary action through the interfacial gap between the fibre and the resin and also through the fiber, and transport of water through the microcracks in the matrix. The diffusion, in most of the cases, follows the equation

where Mt is the moisture content at time t, Mmax is the maximum moisture content at saturation and k and n are constants. The diffusion coefficient is an important parameter in Fick‘law. This can be found out from the following equation

where Mt , Mmax and t are as denoted above, and h is the specimen thickness. The diffusion coefficient can be found out by considering the slope of the first portion of the curve between moisture gain and square root of time by the following equation.

where k is the initial slope of the plot. Fig.1 represents the percentage moisture gain plotted against square root of time. The analysis of diffusion mechanism and kinetics can be performed by modifying eqn.(1) as shown below

Fig.2 shows the graph plotted against log(Mt / Mmax) against log(t).

The straight line in Fig.2 shows the fitting of the experimental data to eqn. (3). The values of k and n resulting from the graph in fig.3 is found to be 0.001254 and 0.59 respectively. The value of ?n‘ suggests that the initial diffusion follows Fick‘s law. The diffusion coefficient was found to be 2.67 x 10-6 mm2 /sec.

Effect of sea water on mechanical properties:

Tensile properties: Tensile test is done according to ASTM D638. The tests were carried out in a Hounsfield tensometer model H20KW. The cross head speed is 1mm/min.

Flexural properties: The flexural test is done according to ASTM D790 in a universal testing machine by UNITED calibration corp. with a cross head speed of 0.5mm/min. Fig.4 shows the values of tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength and flexural modulus of the composite specimens before and after immersion in sea water. Sea water diffuses into the composite specimen following the Fick‘s law of diffusion initially. With elapsing time, the salts get deposited into the microcracks preventing further seepage. Hence the rate of water absorption slows down with time. With the ingress of water, the mechanical properties decrease as understood from the graphs.

CONCLUSION

The water uptake increases rapidly during the initial stages. The absorption process follows the Fickian diffusion process during the initial stages but later it follows non-fickian diffusion process due to the deposition of the salts present in the water. Absorption of sea water causes the deterioration of mechanical properties. The tensile strength is found to decrease by 6.46 % and the flexural strength is found to decrease by 12.19 %. There is a decrease in the tensile modulus and flexural modulus of the specimen by 12.32% and 10.09%.

References:

1. Kootsokoos A, Mouritz AP, ?Sea water durability of glass and carbon polymer composites. Compos. Sci. Technol. 64, 1503-1511 (2004)

2. Gellert EP, Turley DM, ?Seawater immersion ageing of glass fibre reinforced polymer laminates for marine applications.? Composites 30A, 1259 (1999)

3. Srinivas MV, Dvorak GJ and Prochazka P, ?Design and fabrication of submerged cylindrical laminates – II, Effects of fibre pre-stress. International journal of solids and structures. 36, 3945 – 3976 (1999).

4. Apicella A, Migliaresi C, Nicholais L and Roccotelli S, ?The water ageing of unsaturated polyester based composites: Influence of resin chemical structure, Composites. 14, 4, 387 – 392 (1983).

5. Dvorak GJ, Prochazka P, and Srinivas MV, ?Design and fabrication of submerged cylindrical laminates – I, International journal of solids and structures. 36, 3917 – 3943 (1999).

6. Bradley WL, (1995). J. Mater. Sci 30:5537. doi:10.1007/BF00351570.

7. Pomies F, Carlsson LA, Gillespie JW Jr (1995) ASTM STP 1230. philadelphia.

8. Springer GS (ed) (1981) Environmental effects on composite materials, Technomic, CA.

9. Ellyin F, Rohrbacher C, ?Effect of aqueous environment and temperature on glass fibre epoxy resin composites?. J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 19(17), (2000)

10. Wood C, Bradley WL, ?Determination of the effect of sea water on the interfacial strength of an interlayer eglass/graphite/epoxy composite by in situ observation of transverse cracking in an environmental SEM. Compos. Sci. Technol. 57, 1033 – 1043, (1997)

11. Rutowska M, Krasowska K, Heimwoska A, Steinka E, Janik H, ?Degradation of polyurethanes in sea water?. Polym. Degrad. Stab. 76, 233 – 239 (2002)

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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

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This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

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‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


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A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
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A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
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A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
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A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
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A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
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A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
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A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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