International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 03 Issue 07, July, 2011

Pages: 61-69

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HEALTH SEEKING BEHAVIOR OF HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS ATTENDING VOLUNTARY COUNSELING AND TESTING CENTER - A GENDER PERSPECTIVE

Author: Shaikh Mohsin, Patil Rajkumar, Pathan Sameer

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:The epidemic of Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has emerged as a serious public healthproblem in many parts of the world and a gender based difference in the health seeking behavior has significantly precipitated to it. Aims: To study the health seeking behavior of HIV positive cases and impact of gender discrimination over it. Settings and Design: It is a cross sectional study conducted in Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center (VCTC) \? Baroda. Methods: A semi-structured and pretested proforma was used to interview HIV positive patients attending VCTC located at Sayaji Hospital, Vadodara. With the help of VCTC counselors, In-depth interview of all patients were arranged to collect the detailed information on health seeking behavior. Prior verbal and written consent was taken before starting each interview. This study included 100 HIV positive cases (>13years) attending VCTC during April-December 2007. Results: The present study included 100 individuals with equal ratio of male and female, 73 % were in age group 21-40 years, 92% were literate and 60 % were married. 54 % patients consulted private clinic for their health problem while 30 % went to government hospital of which
majority were females (70 %). None of the female patients contacted VCTC initially for counseling purpose, while 13 % patients didn't consult any health care providers before reaching VCTC. 54 % patients consulted private GP initially of which 21 % didn't satisfied and visited Government hospital later. Over all 48 % patients reached SSG hospital and were referred to skin, TB, urology and general medicine before reaching VCTC.

Keywords: Study of gender based health behavior is the vital link to control the spread of HIV. The need of the hour is to strengthen the health services with the focus of gender.

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

The epidemic of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection that causes Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has emerged as a serious public health problem in many parts of the world. Estimates at the end of 2006 suggest that 39.5 million men, women and children are living with HIV/AIDS worldwide and almost 22 million have already lost their lives1 . In sub-Saharan Africa, young women (aged 15-24 years) are infected more frequently than young men. In 2001, the estimated infection rates for young women were 6-11% compared to 3- 6% for young men1 Focus of Gender in HIV/AIDS: Of the 37.2 million adults living with HIV/AIDS at the end of 2006, 17.7 million or nearly 50 percent were women2 . Rather than representing equity between the sexes, the one-to-one ratio of male to female HIV infections demonstrates the way in which gender inequalities affect HIV/AIDS incidence rates. Since the HIV/AIDS pandemic began more than 20 years ago, infection rates among women have accelerated. Traditional gender roles held by many of the world‘s societies definitely affects the health seeking behavior of women, which continued spread of HIV, particularly from men to women. In most societies, women also carry a disproportionate amount of the burden of caring for family members living with HIV/AIDS, and experience the brunt of the stigma associated with HIV infection. Correcting the gender imbalance that contributes to and is exacerbated by the HIV/AIDS pandemic will depend upon improving women‘s social and economic status, and increasing men's responsibility for HIV prevention and care, so as to provide better health care access. Unequal social roles and vulnerability to men‘s demands prevent women to have better health care access. Number of facts associated with HIV transmission like illiteracy, employment, gender discrimination poor health infrastructure etc., stimulates already prevalent stigma related to HIV/AIDS. Finally all these factors such as gender roles, economic, cultural and social factors and stigma related to HIV/AIDS are likely to influence the motivation of HIV infected people to practice safer sex3 . United Nations for HIV/AIDS has reported 5.7 million people in India with HIV/AIDS this year, which is almost 15 % of the global burden of HIV/AIDS, and 37 % of all the infected people in India are women4 . Nash Ojanuga and Gilbert (1992) systematized the obstacles which women face into four categories5 : 1.Institutional barriers: unequal treatment by health providers, 2. Economic barriers: different access to resources, 3.Cultural barriers: social status of women which situates them in socially inferior positions, 4. Education barriers: women having less access to education.

Objective: To study the health seeking behavior of HIV positive cases and impact of gender discrimination over it.

Need of the study

Women are most vulnerable and likely to get discriminated with HIV infection, having so many reasons in the background than men who plays dominant bread earner role in the society, there was a need of gender based research to go through the health seeking behavior of the HIV positive patients to understand the discrimination. It would also help in policy designing for national AIDS control Program.

METHODOLOGY

This is VCTC based cross sectional study consisting of qualitative data collection of HIV positive patients conducted between April ‘07 to December ‘07. Total number of 50 male and 50 female HIV positive patients who visited VCTC, Vadodara during the study period in age group >13 years were purposively selected for this research. The following selected criteria was adopted for inclusion of HIV positive patients attending VCTC in this research, 1) 50 adult male and 50 adult female >13 years of age. 2) HIV positive patients diagnosed minimum 2 months back. 3) Patient who voluntarily took part in the research and visited VCTC – SSGH after HIV infection. 4) Patients with HIV antibody test positive according to NACO guidelines6 . (ELISA and Rapid test). Information on Health seeking behavior and access to health care of HIV positive patient was collected through semi-structured, pre-designed and pre-tested proforma following in-depth. interview technique with the help of health seeking behavior pathway (Annexure). In-depth interview of each and every HIV positive patient was done with the help of expert VCTC counselors, through previously prepared questionnaire at VCTC in a private room with prior informed, written and verbal consent. Proper care has been taken to maintain the confidentiality. Prior permission from the Ethical committee of the university has been taken to carry out whole research. Analysis of the study was done using Epi Info 6.04 d Statistical Package and Chi square test was applied wherever needed. Following steps were involved in documentation and data management after data collection.

 

Limitations of study:

We could have been covered VCTCs of Gujarat but we didn‘t get the permission to do so and also could have consulted the other high risk groups like male and female sex workers, homosexual group, or truck drivers to understand their health seeking behavior.

RESULTS

The study included 50 male and 50 female HIV positive (diagnosed minimum 2 months back) cases who visited VCTC. Over two third of the patients (73%) were within 21-40 years of age group among both the genders. Almost 60 % of HIV positive patients were married with significantly higher percentage of males (58 %) as compared to females (42 %). Whereas total number of widow/widower found is 23 % and more than two third of them were females as compared to males. Majority of female patients (80 %) were housewives while majority of males were involved in high risk occupations like truck driving, auto driving, call center job and sales work. Of total patients, 8 % were illiterate, 43 % patients were educated upto 7th standard, 30 % untill 10th standard, 14 % untill 12th standard and only 5 % had studied untill graduation or higher; without much gender difference. Of the total economically self dependant patients (49%), more than two third were males. Out of total 66 % of patients, 42 % had TB infection in the past while 30 % had STD (with equal gender distribution) history. All HIV positive patients had undergone CD4 count testing of whom 49 % were females and 51 % were males (Table – 1). Out of 37 patients on ART, 78 % (n=29) cases experienced at least one ADR related to ART use. 86 % cases had history of ADR in the form of nausea, vomiting and in 31 % cases, in the form of skin reaction with no gender difference. Out of 100 patients, 8 directly went to VCTC without getting referred by anyone and all of them were males, while 62 % patients were referred to VCTC by Doctors ( Private and Government). 7 % patients were referred by the family members, 6 % by their friends, 5 % by NGOs and 9 % of patients by their relatives other than their family members. There was no statistically significant gender difference (Table 2). Table 2, shows the distribution of HIV positive patients by appearance of first sign/symptoms noticed by them when asked. HIV positive patients had history of single or multiple symptoms during initial health problems. Majority of patients observed weight loss (26 %) followed by fever (23 %), cough (22 %), skin problems (17 %), diarrhea (10 %), burning micturition (6 %) and genital ulcer (5 %). There is no statistically significant gender difference seen. 54 % patients initially contacted private clinic/hospital for their symptomatic problems of whom 59 % were males as compared to 41 % females. 30 % patients contacted government hospital initially and 70 % of them were females as compared to 30 % males, which is statistically significant (P3 health care providers before reaching VCTC. Out of 100 patients studied, 8 directly contacted VCTC voluntary bases immediately. 79 % patients had first health care contact within 6 months of observing first sign/symptom by themselves, while 13 % patients took >6 months to contact health care providers. There is no significant gender difference seen (Table-2). 13 % visited VCTC because of Tuberculosis infection, 10 % due to skin problems, 9 % cases visited VCTC because of their high risk behavior, 7 % gave a reason of their spouse being HIV positive, 4 % due to penile ulcer and same percentage of patients visited VCTC as a part of pre operative investigation. 2 % had pneumonia and were consulted VCTC for HIV testing while 2 % were consulted during visa procedure for HIV testing and others during ANC check-ups, for insurance purpose and some MSM behavior. 46 % patients gave a reason that they visited VCTC for other health problems like low grade fever, chronic cough, diarrhea and weight loss. According to health care seeking pathway, Initially 3 patients directly went to Quack with the hope of getting treated – but finally consulted GP/SSGH for their treatment. 8 Patients directly went to VCTC - Baroda for testing and for counseling purpose. 54 Patients directly went to Private General Practitioner out of which 9 patients changed GP for the 3rd time and 2 patients changed GP treatment for the 4th time and finally went to VCTC. 21 Patients who consulted private GP for the first time - were not satisfied and moved to SSG Hospital/Govt. CHC/PHC for further testing and treatment purpose. 38 Patients directly consulted SSGH/Govt. CHC/PHC without going to Private GP. 5 Patients went to NGO directly with their suspicion of having HIV infection and after counseling they were sent to VCTC. 16 patients consulted Govt. CHC/PHC of which 6 patients went to private GP for the first and then to Govt. CHC/PHC. 8 patients out of those 16 went to SSGH because of their unsatisfactory treatment and counseling, finally all were guided to VCTC. Over all 48 patients reached SSGH after consulting one or more GP of whom 15 patients reached OPD-1 (Skin and VD OPD) for skin lesions over body parts and private parts while 16 patients reached OPD-18 (General Medicine OPD) for their generalized health problems and 8 patients reached OPD-17 (TB and Chest diseases OPD) for their suspected koch‘s infection. 8 Patients consulted OPD-25 (Urology OPD) for suspected UTI and 2 patients visited OPD -4 (Orthopedic OPD) for their orthopedic problems.

CONCLUSION

Majority of male patients (59 %) had contacted private clinic/hospital initially for their health problems as compared to 41 % females because of fear of social stigma related to HIV/AIDS and belief of more privacy at private setup. Nearer to two third (70 %) female patients contacted government hospital initially for their problems as compared to 30 % males (P<0.05), as they could not afford to go to private hospital due to their economic dependency on others. 3 females were forced to contact quack for their health problems by their spouse. This was because of the male dominance to their decision where as female has to depend on others physically as well as economically. Almost 15 % cases contacted more than three health care providers as they were not improved and 13 % patients took more than 6 months to have first health care contact. 8 patients contacted VCTC directly and all of them were males, none of them were females.

A Study on Gender impact of HIV/AIDS in India shows that as compared to men, women have poorer access to healthcare. The financial constraint is also a big impediment for getting proper healthcare and it is more so for women7 . Women may be more affected by stigma and discrimination than men because of social norms concerning acceptable sexual behavior in women, and that‘s why women are often more economically vulnerable than men. Our study also reported higher number of economically vulnerable females. Gender differences in decision-making may also affect access to health facilities. For example, a study conducted in developing countries found that while men made independent decisions to seek voluntary counselling and testing services, women felt obliged to discuss testing with their partners before accessing the service5 . Another report by center for disease control and prevention shows that as far as possible, women would try to avoid going to the doctor, in particular, avoid getting hospitalized as the household routine is likely to be disrupted more by the sickness of women of the household. In households where both men and women are sick, more importance is given to get the man who is the breadwinner, the same may be the reason in our study as we found less number of women who accessed treatment.7

Patients visiting VCTC following different pathways for health care were evaluated through this flowchart. Whether they directly contacted VCTC without starting any treatment or contacted few health care providers before reaching VCTC (PHC MO / NGO / GO / Private Practitioner / Consultant / Government Hospital). The entire interview was focused and in depth.

Abbreviations:

 

ADR – Adverse Drug Reaction

AIDS – Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

ANC- Ante Natal Care

ARV – Anti Retroviral Drug

ART – Anti Retroviral Therapy

FGD – Focal Group Discussion

GO – Government Organization

GP – General Practitioner

GSACS – Gujarat State AIDS Control Society

HIV – Human Immunodeficiency Virus

IDI – In-depth Interview

MO – Medical Officer

MSM- Men having sex with Men

NGO – Non Government Organization

OPD – Out Patient Department

PHC – Primary Health Centre

PLHIV – People living with HIV

SSGH – Sir Sayajirao General Hospital

STD – Sexually Transmitted Disease

STI – Sexually Transmitted Infection

TB – Tuberculosis UNAIDS – United Nations

UNDP – United Nations Development Program

UTI- Urinary Track Infection

VCTC – Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centre

VDRL – Venereal Disease Research Laboratory

WHO – World Health Organization

References:

1. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 2006, AIDS Epidemic Update (English original). Available at :http://www.unaids.org/ globalreport/documents/20101123_GlobalR eport_full_en.pdf. , Accessed on 1st January 2011.

2. Joint Unied Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 2000. Men and AIDS: A Gendered Approach. Geneva: UNAIDS. Available at: www.thebody.com/ unaids/men/contents.html. Accessed on 1st August 2007.

3. Population Council (2007), ?Reducing HIV risk behaviors among key populations by Increasing community involvement and building social capital?. Available at: www.popcouncil.org, Accessed on 1st November 2007.

4. United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (2007). www.unaids.org.in . Accessed on 10th January 2007 

5. Ojanuga, D Nash, Gilbert., (1992). Women‘s access to health care in Developing countries. Social Science and Medicine Vl.35, August 1992:613.

6. National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), (2002), Specialist‘s Training and Reference Module. New Delhi.

7. Matlin, S. and Spence, N. (2001) "The Gender Aspects of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic." Presentation at the Expert Group Meeting on the HIV/AIDS Pandemic and Its Gender Implications, Windhoek, Namibia. Available at:www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/csw/hivai ds/matlinspence.html. Accessed on 10th January 2009.

Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



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International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

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