International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
logo
slider
slider
slider
slider
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, Google Scholar, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services)

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Full Html

IJCRR - Vol 03 Issue 07, July, 2011

Pages: 52-56

Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

LYSOSOMAL ENZYMES

Author: Jayamathi G, Vishnu Priya V

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Lysosomal enzymes are implicated in tissue remodeling and in regulating the immune responses.Lysosomal enzymes can be incorporated into the explanation of mechanisms of development of various diseases and give scientific grounds for prevention of inflammatory disease. This review highlights synthesis, functions and regulation of lysosomal enzymes.

Keywords: Phagocytosis, endocytosis, acid hydrolases, lysosomes, alpha1 –antitrypsin

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

Lysosomes are small intracellular organelle present in all animal cells. They destroy any foreign material which enters the cell such as bacteria or virus. Lysosomes also remove the worn out and poorly working cellular organelles by digesting them to make way for their new replacements. Since they remove cell debris, they are also known as scavengers, cellular housekeepers or demolition squads. Lysosomes form a kind of garbage disposal system of cell. During breakdown of cell structure, when the cell gets damaged, lysosomes burst and the enzymes eat up their own cells. So, lysosomes are also known as suicide bags of a cell. The major function of lysosomes and lysosomal proteases is not to kill the cell but to take care of cellular homeostasis and possibly differentiation by recycling cellular components. 1 The release of lysosomal enzymes are normally intended to degrade ingested microbes, could also lead to tissue destruction and amplification of inflammatory response with continued recruitment of new leukocytes. Altered lysosomal membrane stability leads to release lysosomal hydrolases, ensuing altered metabolism of different connective tissue constituents including collagen and also involved in the destruction of non - collagenous components of the extracellular matrix. Hence the present study is designed to give precise account on lysosomal enzymes, may open up new horizons in the research field. 2

Synthesis of lysosomal enzymes

More than 50 hydrolases involved in the lysosomal degradation of protein, carbohydrate, lipids and nucleic acids have been identified. The hydrolases are enclosed by a membrane containing a set of highly glycosylated lysosomal membrane proteins. The targeting of acid hydrolases depends on the presence of mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) residues that are recognized by specific receptors mediating the intracellular transport to an endosomal or prelysosomal compartment. The lysosomal apparatus is responsible for the intracellular digestion of externally and internally generated macromolecules. Coated vesicles internalize most extracellular macromolecules by endocytosis to form early endosomes, which move from the plasma membrane towards the cell nucleus. They become acidic and give rise to 'late' endosomes. This increasing acidity leads to the dissociation of lysosomal enzymes. Late endosomes also fuse with primary lysosomes (which contain lysosomal hydrolases and bud from the Golgi) to form secondary lysosomes. Secondary lysosomes might remain in the cell and become residual bodies, or be transported to the cell surface, where they fuse with the plasma membrane and exocytose their digested materials. 3 Lysosomal enzymes are synthesized with an Nterminal sequence of 20-25 aminoacids recognized by signal recognition particle which enable the nascent polypeptide to be transferred across the membrane of endoplasmic reticulum. Signal peptidase removes signal peptide. Preformed oligosaccharides undergo Nglycosylation with asparagine residue. Furthermore sulfatase family members are formed from sulfated mono and polysaccharides, glycolipid and hydroxyl steroids, and are modified in endoplasmic reticulum. Lysosomal enzymes are synthesized and are glycosylated in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. They are then transferred to the Golgi bodies, where they acquire mannose-6- phosphate (M6P) residues on their highmannose and hybrid-type oligosaccharide chains. This recognition marker is specific to lysosomal hydrolases and allows these hydrolases to be sorted from other proteins. Upon arrival of golgi the oligo saccharide chain of lysosomal enzymes are further trimmed and modified by the addition of complex sugar residues , sulfate groups and by the formation of M6P recognition marker. 4 Enzymology of lysosomes: Some important enzymes found within lysosomes include:

  • Lipase, which digests lipids
  • Amylase, which digests amylose, starch, and maltodextrins
  • Proteases, which digest proteins
  • Nucleases, which digest nucleic acids
  • Phosphoric acid monoesters

The proteolytic capacity of lysosomes comprises a mixture of endo- and exo-peptidases, called cathepsins, which act in concert to degrade proteins to a mixture of amino acids and dipeptides. 5and 6 Some cathepsins, for example, G and E, also function outside the lysosome. All of the proteases are active at an acidic pH, although this may not be their pH-optimum. They are synthesized in the form of inactive precursors, preproenzymes, which are transported to the lysosome by the mannose-6-phosphate pathway like other lysosomal hydrolases. Proteases are classified by the catalytic residue in the active site involved in the mechanism of peptide bond cleavage. Cathepsins with a serine (cathepsins A and G), cysteine (B, C, F, H, K, L, O, S, and W) or an aspartic acid (D and E) residue in the active site have been characterized. 6

Endopeptidases

  • Cysteine proteases: cathepsins B, C, H, K, L, O, S, and W
  • Aspartyl proteases: cathepsins D and E
  • Serine proteases: cathepsin G in azurophil granules of neutrophils

Exopeptidases

  • Carboxypeptidases: lysosomal carboxypeptidase (cathepsin A or protective protein)—serine protease; cathepsin B  (dipeptidase); cathepsin X, mono- or dipeptidase; lysosomal carboxypeptidase B; prolylcaboxypeptidase; peptidyl dipeptidase B
  • Aminopeptidases: cathepsin H—true aminopeptidase; dipeptidyl peptidase I (cathepsin C); dipeptidyl peptidase II; tripeptidyl peptidase (TPP-I)

Lysosomal enzymes in various cells:

Lysosomes are subcellular organelles which perform many important cellular functions. For example, lysosomes digest foreign material and engulfed viruses and bacteria presenting in phagosomes during the process of phagocytosis. The influx of neutrophils and mononuclear phagocytes into tissues may be seen as the hallmark of inflammation and significantly contributes to both the injury and the subsequent repair seen in the normal tissues. Lysosomes are found in all eukaryotic cells, but are most numerous in disease-fighting cells, such as leukocytes 7 found that peritoneal macrophages in culture release lysosomal enzymes in response to phagocytic, but the mechanisms that regulate macrophage lysosomal enzyme secretion are not fully understood. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes also release lysosomal enzymes during phagocytosis 7 and the mechanisms that control this secretary process are well documented. Macrophage lysosomal enzyme release has many similarities to secretion from polymorphonuclear leukocytes and it is tempting to suggest that the processes might be regulated in the same way. Thus, macrophage lysosomal enzyme release is not controlled by the same regulatory mechanisms as the degranulation processes in polymorphonuclear leukocytes, platelets, and mast cells. Lysosomal enzyme release from macrophages is a much slower process than secretion from the other cell types and this may be functionally very important. Prolonged enzyme release from macrophages is consistent with the major role of this cell in chronic inflammation. In contrast, mast cells, granulocytes and platelets, which contribute primarily to acute inflammation, exhibit rapid degranulation processes. Platelets secrete lysosomal enzymes during the "platelet release reaction" early in clot formation. During the "platelet release reaction" induced by thrombin or collagen, mammalian blood platelets secrete lysosomal enzymes into the surrounding medium. 8and 9 Finally, inflammatory substances may leak from cells simply as a result of cell death due to plasma membrane injury . A number of animal, bacterial, and chemical toxins, as well as synthetic detergents may cause such lysis of the outer cell membrane.

FUNCTIONS OF LYSOSOMES 10

Cellular Digestion: Lysosomal enzymes degrade proteins into dipeptides and carbohydrates into monosaccharides. Sucrose and polysaccharides are not digested and remain in the lysosomal vacuoles.

Autophagy: By the process of autophagy, lysosomes constantly remove cellular components like mitochondria etc. Cytoplasmic organelles become surrounded by smooth endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes attach with it and discharge their contents into autophagic vacuole and the organelle is digested. Autophagy is a general property of eukaryotic cells.

Exocytosis: Contents of the primary lysosome mat be released into the medium by exocytosis and it occurs during replacement of cartilage by bone during development where osteoclasts release lysosomal enzymes . It can also occur in bone remodeling under influence of parathyroid hormone. Crinophagy refers to the process by which secretary granules produced in excess are removed by lysosomes.

Endocytosis: Lysosomes may fuse with vesicles or vacuoles formed by endocytosis and release their enzymes into it for digestion. The material for digestion may be food (protozoa) or a foreign body like parasite .The products of digestion are absorbed and assimilated leaving undigested which are released outside by exocytosis. Role in germ cells and fertilization: The acrosome in spermatozoa may be considered as a special lysosome containing protease and hyaluronidase along with acid phosphatase .The lysosome in ova help in digestion of stored food Role of lysosomes in diseases: Lysosomes are involved in many diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, silicosis, acute inflammatory responses, anorexia, myocardial infarction, different storage diseases etc.

Lysosomal enzymes release

Although a series of studies have indicated that mechanism which account for release of lysosomal enzymes can provoke acute inflammation, may progressed to chronic state also. Regurgitation during feeding: Human neutrophils release lysosomal hydrolases during phagocytosis. Microtubules were more prominent in phagocytosing than in resting cells, and were observed near primary lysosomes and forming phagosomes. ?Regurgitation during feeding? resulted from degranulation of primary lysosomes into newly formed phagosomes which were still open to the extracellular space as well as from the ingestion of additional material directly into already loaded secondary lysosomes. 11 Phagocytosis: When cells engage in phagocytosis (leukocytes which engulf immune complexes in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis) they release a portion of their lysosomal hydrolases into the surrounding medium . This effect appears due to extrusion of lysosomal materials from incompletely closed phagosomes open at their external border to tissue space while joined at their internal border with granules discharging acid hydrolases into the vacuole (phagolysosome). Under such circumstances lysosomal enzymes are selectively released to the outside of the cell without necessarily causing cytoplasmic damage. 12 Reverse Endocytosis: It and may be pertinent to the pathogenesis of tissue injury. When leukocytes encounter immune complexes which have been dispersed along a nonphagocytosable surface,there is similar, selective release of lysosomal enzymes directly to the outside of the cell. Perforation from within: Another mechanism for lysosomal enzyme release followed phagocytosis of crystals was due to "perforation from within" of the lysosomal membrane, rather than lysis by crystals of the plasma membrane. Enzyme release occurs when certain materials gain access to the vacuolar system wherein they interact with, and finally rupture, lysosomal membranes . A wave of membrane damage results with release of cytoplasmic and lysosomal enzymes followed by cell and tissue death. 

Regulation of lysosomal proteases

Selective secretion of lysosomal enzymes from neutrophils during acute inflammation. Discharge of lysosomal content is requires extracellular calcium and can be modulated by several different classes of hormones, protease inhibitors such as α2 -macroglobulin and α1- antiprotease, drugs and other agents which results in the provocation of acute inflammation and connective tissue degradation. These antiproteases are present in serum and synovial fluids. They are thought to function by binding to and covering the active sites of proteases. Protease-antiprotease imbalance is probably important in the pathogenesis of emphysema. The most prominent protease inhibitor in human serum is α1-antitrypsin. It has the highest molar concentration of all inhibitors and is responsible for approximately 90% of the total trypsininhibiting activity of normal serum α1- antitrypsin is a glycoprotein with a carbohydrate portion of 12.4% containing galactose, mannose,fucose, acetyl hexosamine, and sialic acid. Its amino acid composition is unremarkable except perhaps for the content of only two cysteine residues 13and 14.

CONCLUSION

Concluding, the present study, the lysosomal enzymes are crucial for the degradation of numerous macromolecular substrates and have been involved in many inflammatory responses. Our understanding of the importance of lysosomal cysteine proteases has advanced considerably in recent years. It is now evident that they regulate biological processes such as matrix remodeling and the immune response. Although their exact roles in the pathobiology of various diseases are uncertain, continued research should clarify their roles in various grounds. Accurate knowledge of lysosomal enzyme is essential to expand our current understanding of intracellular proteolysis that plays important role in health and disease.

 

References:

1. Turk B and Turk V. Lysosomes as Suicide Bags in cell death: Myth or reality? J Biol Chem 2009; 284: 21783-21787

2. Layik MN, Yamalik F, Caglayan K, Kilinc I, Etikan and Eratalay K. Analysis of human gingival tissue and gingival crevicular fluid beta-glucuronidase activity in specific periodontal diseases. J Periodontol. 2000; 71: 618-624.

3. Varki AP, Reitman Ml, Tabas I and S. Kornfeld,. Studies of the synthesis, structure and function of the phosphorylated oligosaccharides of lysosomal enzymes. J Bio sci. 1983; 5: 101–104.

4. Dell'Angelica EC, Mullins C, Caplan S and Bonifacino JS. Lysosomal related hydrolases. FASEB J. 2000;14: 1265-1278.

5. Barrett AJ, Rawlings ND and JF. Jr. Woessner, 1998. Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes. Academic Press, London.

6. Mason RW, 1996. Lysosomal Metabolism of Proteins. In: Subcellular Biochemistry: Biology of Lysosome, Lloyd, J.B. and R.W. Mason (Eds.). Vol. 27, Plenum Press, New York, pp: 159–190.

7. Weissmann G, Zurier RB, Spieler PJ and Goldstein IM. Mechanisms of lysosomal enzyme release from leucocytes exposed to immune complexes and other particles. J Exp Med. 1971;134: 149s-165s

8. Davey MG and Luscher EF. Release reactions of human platelets induced by thrombin and other agents. Biochiini. Biophys. Acta. 1968;165: 490-506

9. Holmsen H and Day HJ. The selectivity of the thrombin-induced platelet release reaction: Subcellular localization of released and retained constituents. J Lab Clin Med; 1970;75: 840-855.

10. Luzio JP, Pryor PR and Bright NA. Lysosomes: Fusion and function. Nat Rev Mol Cell Bio. 2007; 8: 622-632. 11. Weissmann G. Lysosomes and joint disease. Arth Rheum.1966; 9: 834-840.

12. Becker EL,. Some interrelations of neutrophil chemotaxis, lysosomal enzyme secretion and phagocytosis as revealed by synthetic peptides. Am J Pathol 1976; 85: 385-394.

13. Parrott DP and Lewis DA. Protease and antiprotease levels in blood of arthritic rats. Ann Rheumatic Dis. 1977;36: 166-169.

14. Kueppers F. α1,-Antitrypsin. Am J Hum Genet 1973; 25: 677-686

Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in


Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: To achieve a high standard of publication, we adopt Good Publishing Practices (updated in 2022) which are inspired by guidelines provided by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



ABOUT US

International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

Contact

148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

editor@ijcrr.com

editor.ijcrr@gmail.com


Copyright © 2023 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions