International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - 4(18), September, 2012

Pages: 160-170

Date of Publication: 29-Sep-2012

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Author: Muhammad Siddique, Allah Nawaz , Najeebullah

Category: General Sciences

Abstract:Computer-based banking (e and iBanking) is mushrooming around the globe. Both advanced and developing countries are making all out efforts to adopt digital technologies and thereby receive the benefits for their masses in general and banking sector in particular. However, experiences of different countries in taking digital opportunity initiatives (DOI) for this purpose reveal that uptake of information and communication technologies (ICT) is neither automatic nor absolutely technical rather a „social-process? where several factors play significant role in determining user-acceptance of technologies. This paper develops a customized theoretical model of the issue from the existing research that will be tested empirically.

Keywords: eBanking, iBanking, ICT, DOI.

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The application of electronic communication in business dates back than the 1970s. About 1918, the payments between banks were done electronically through telegraph. This use has gradually inflated with the passage of time and currently almost all the payments between banks and other organizations are done electronically (Singh et al., 2002; Siam, 2006). Today, a click of digital button offers the customers with eBanking services by empowering them with extraordinary freedom in choosing vendors for their financial services. The states of the world have no other option than to adopt eBanking because of globalization and high competition (Wahab et al., 2009; Nawaz, 2010; Banan, 2010). Several studies show that competitive pressure is the principal driving force behind taking digital opportunity initiatives (DOI) for iBanking, ranking ahead of revenue enhancement and cost reduction. By using the internet technology, banks offer iBanking services which serve the needs of the current customers and magnetize the new ones (Comptroller, 1999:3). Financial institutions have removed the borders between themselves, and introduced innovative products and services and made available the current ones into several packages (Siam, 2006). However successful adoption and use of IS, is vital for the growth and development of financial institutions (Kuppusamy et al., 2009; Wahab et al., 2009). In contemporary digital banking the customer fidelity can change instantaneously by clicking the computer-button only, therefore, all the banks have to recognize the importance of different factors responsible for the success and failure of modern banking. They must study the role of these factors in the current business environment, so as to manage them successfully to remain in competition in the rapidly changing world (Singh et al., 2002). In addition to these, the banks should attract and stimulate people through extensive advertisement efforts and incentives of cost cutbacks and other ones. According to TAM, Perceived usefulness of customer about the new technology is essential. Each society that wants to reach its goals in implementing eBanking should pay attention to these issues vigilantly and have a complete program and sufficient investment in this way (Salehi and Alipour, 2010).

Literature defines eBanking as web-based-banking and it has stayed a high-risk area from the very start of its innovation, for example; in 2001 about $17 billion was spent on the security of information-related products and services in America (Hertzum et al., 2004). Online banking is based on the Internet gateway, which provides different types of online banking services like payment of utility bills, buying the mobile recharge and investing online. It is thus, necessary for the banks to establish their official websites providing the option for online business (Pikkarainen et al., 2004; Salehi and Alipour, 2010). In the eBanking powers is delegated to the customers for self-service by satisfying certain banking needs and thereby ease themselves in a number of ways: like they can examine their account histories, pay bills and transfer funds, activate or restore credit card (Amor, 1999). eBanking offers the facility to the customers to access their accounts and carry out transactions in a trouble-free way by visiting the websites of the bank. All the individuals and companies are cutting-back a lot of their time and cost because online banking is proving less costly as compared to the traditional banking transactions (Karjaluoto et al., 2002, p.261). Internet offers a podium for using online banking services from inside and outside the organizations thus, ICT-adoption is steadily transforming businesses from local to global (Polatoglu and Ekin, 2001). According to Giglio (2002) for delivering banking products and services the cheapest delivery channel can be online banking. With the help of online banking services, the branch networks of banks have condensed and the banking staff as well as the customers are pleased with online banking services as it saves time and effort to carry out transactions (Karjaluoto et al. (2002).

The development and growth of ICTs is quiet slow in Pakistan as compared to other developing countries. Here, the ePolicies focus to develop the domestic ICT sector for the development of eCommerce in the country. For this purpose, the government of Pakistan has established seven IT universities and one virtual university under the National Information Technology Policy to produce qualified professionals to meet the existing needs of digital society (Khan and Bawden, 2005). Similarly, the National Education Policy (1998-2010) seeks to upgrade the education level in Pakistan by offering IT courses at different levels of education to ensure digital literacy among the youths. Some renowned IT companies of the world like Microsoft, Cisco, and Oracle are also making huge investments in Pakistan for the promotion of ICTs (Shahzada, 2006; Pasquet et al., 2008). eBanking is becoming attractive to both the banks and the customers because this new technology is increasingly acceptable to them. Similarly, banks are also facing huge competition in the market and they can increase their market shares by offering high quality services to the customers. The ATMs and credit card services were introduced in Pakistan by City Bank in mid 1990s, which was then followed by the domestic banks in the late 1990s (Khan and Bawden, 2005). eBanking is the use of ICTs and other electronic means by a bank to carry out transactions and to maintain interaction with all the stakeholders (Abid and Noreen, 2006; Hasan et al., 2010). The Government of Pakistan started digital initiatives in early 2000. The banks have got the lead in eCommerce but most of the progress has been made in eGovernment. Some business to business gateways are available which are designed more for information rather than transactions. The de-regulation policy of the country has encouraged many private and foreign banks to establish strong end user by adopting eCommerce (Ahmed, 2006; Hamzaee and Hughs, 2006). The Ministry of Science and Technology has taken several steps to promote eCommerce and eBanking in the country. In Pakistan, high technological flow has forced essential changes in the financial industry; new business plans have emerged and opened ways for doing business. eBusiness has launched the use of IT for improved internal controls and more complex risk management systems, and this in turn has resulted in improved, high quality, and convenient customer services (Akhtar, 2006).

Models (Theories) of Customer Acceptance

It is widely established that customer acceptance is the prime factor in determining the rate of change in the financial sectors (Sathye, 1999; Floh and Treiblmaier, 2006; Abukhzam and Lee, 2010). A number of models have been suggested to examine, recognize and apply strategies for creating user acceptance of new technologies. The most commonly used research models include: TAM (Davis, 1986), TRA (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975), TRI (Parasuraman, 2000), DI (Rogers, 1962), and TPB (Ajzen, 1985, 1991). These models have been used by several researchers to discover the dynamics of „user acceptance? of eBanking (see for example, Kuppusamy, et al., 2009; Andoh-Baidoo, and Osatuyi, 2009; Amin and Ramayah, 2010). a. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) TAM was devised to identify a small number of basic factors suggested by earlier research and dealing with the cognitive and affective determinants of computer acceptance (Sathye, 1999). TAM defines the two constructs, that is, perceived usefulness (PU) and perceived ease of use (PEOU) that are of principal importance for computer acceptance. Perceived usefulness (PU) is defined as the level that using a specific system will increase the job performance while Perceived ease of use (PEOU) refers to the extent to which the user considers that the target system is to be free from effort (Davis et al., 1989). TAM was emerged from the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and proved to be the generally accepted model (Jahangir and Begum, 2008). b. Technology Readiness Index (TRI) TRI (Parasuraman, 2000) refers to people?s inclination to hold and use new technologies for the achievement of their goals. The TRI includes four factors: optimism, innovativeness, discomfort, insecurity. Optimism means to what extent the people have positive view of technology for improving their life standards. Innovativeness refers to the level of people for becoming pioneers in technology adoption and hence, the thought leaders. Discomfort means the extent to which people perceive a lack of control over technology and feel overwhelmed by it; and insecurity: is the degree to which people have doubts about technology and are uncertain of its capacity to work properly (Gerrard et al., 2006). c. The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) This theory was developed by Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) and improved afterwards by experimental facts to hold up its strength and consistency. It was assumed that an individual?s behavioral intention is the instant determinant of behavior, his/her attitude and subjective norms are mediated through behavioral intention and their behavioral and normative beliefs are mediated through attitude and subjective norm (Ajzen andFishbein 1980). Subjective norm is beliefs about what others will consider about the behavior; in other words, the perceived influences of social pressure on an individual to perform or not to perform the behavior (Sadeghi and Farokhian, 2011). d. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) After recognizing some problems with the Theory of Reasoned Action, it was designed specifically a modified model: Theory of Planned Behavior (TBP) to predict and explain behavior based assumption “person?s volitional control” to influence the adoption of new technology (Ajzen and Madden 1986:457). TRA was expanded by adding another construct called Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC), which refers to an individual?s perception of the presence or absence of required resources and opportunities to carry out the specific behavior (Ajzen, 1991). The TPB presume that “the behavior is determined by the intention to perform the behavior (Benham and Raymond, 1996)” and this intention is determined by three factors: attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. Each factor consists of a number of beliefs and related evaluations (Mashadi et al., 2007). Plenty of experiential proof proposes the TPB capacity to effectively explain one?s intentions and behavior in accepting new information technologies. TAM based on Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), and afterwards was developed to be the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (Kasemsan and Hunngam, 2011). e. The Diffusion of Innovations (DI) The theory of DI (Rogers, 1995) explains diffusion of innovations as: “… the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of social systems. It is a special type of communication, in that the messages are concerned with new ideas”. A decision to adopt an improvement purely depends on the perceived characteristics of innovations, i.e., compatibility, relative advantage, trialability, and observability are to be considered (Al-Hajri, 2008). The increased use of integration of services around digital networks (ISDN) and electronic data interchange (EDI) protocols are fundamental in the new distribution channels such as smart cards, telephone transfer systems (TTS), and electronic fund transfer at point of sale terminals (EFTPOS). Card technology such as VISA and Master Card International Networks is evolving to offer customers with border-free services (Kuppusamy et al., 2009). The modern distribution channels permit banks to offer more services and consequently have great effects in the banks? cost structures (Kasemsan and Hunngam, 2011).

Factors of Customer Acceptance
Issue-Related Variables
a. Government ePolicies (GEP)
The IT policy (ePolicy) plays dominant role in determining the prospects of eBanking in any country including Pakistan (Zarmeene, 2006). Consistent policies with due support of the government helps in the promotion of IT culture in the country and stimulates eBusiness. Pakistan is confronted with numerous challenges in IT adoption (Kundi and Shah, 2009). Similarly, legal support has a huge impact on users? iBanking acceptance as responsibility must be fixed when financial losses happen in Internet transactions (Kasemsan and Hunngam, 2011).

b. Quality of Internet (QOI)
 eBanking uses the web browser for the user interface and the Internet for data transfer and software download, and so has an advantage of cost-reduction and speedy transmission of information (Hertzum et al., 2004). From a technological and cost-driven perspective it may appear quite logical for the banks to switch over to online however, at the same time the problem of how to foster customer loyalty arises when the connection between the bank and the user becomes virtual (Floh and Treiblmaier, 2006). Thus, the overall quality of eBanking has captured greater attention of bank managers and researchers due to its sturdy impact on customer loyalty, customer satisfaction, costs, profitability, and business performance (Sadeghi and Farokhian, 2011).

c. eBanking Awareness (EBA)
The researchers tell that there is a significant statistical relationship between awareness, access to Internet facility, length of banking relationship, people working in the iBanking, education level and the income level with the usage of iBanking (Padachi et al., 2007). A research tells that the main reason why customers are unwilling to use iBanking is information diffusion between the banks and their customers. This problem was articulated this way “the youth are more likely to use iBanking than the older citizens because they are more familiar with the Internet but for older customers, there is a need to entice them through Internet awareness programs” (Andoh-Baidoo, and Osatuyi, 2009).

d. Perceived Usefulness (PU)
 It is natural that if a human being considers a technology valuable, he/she gets mentally prepared to learn about even by taking pains. The user resistance to change is reduced due to the positive effects of the modern digital devices. Perceived usefulness is the extent to which an individual considers that using a particular system would improve his performance (Al-Hajri, 2008). It is also correct that perceived usefulness depends completely on the level of customer awareness about the features and functions of new technologies. If they have inadequate information about the utilities provided by the new devices, it is very much possible that users may misjudge the usefulness of eBanking (Riyadh et al., 2009).

e. Perceived Ease of Use (PEU)
It is commonly acknowledged that user acceptance is radically related with the „perceived ease of use and usefulness of modern technologies. If users value them negatively, their attitude towards change will also be negatively prejudiced. Moutinho and Smith (2000) studied the behavior of bank customers and concluded that simplicity of baking operations and convenience are the two important expectations. Furthermore, the variety of eBanking users and the lack of any special training to ensure ease of use are the important concerns to successfully implement the eBanking strategies (Hertzum et al., 2004). From the viewpoint of technology, ease of use is usually regarded as an important quality characteristic in computer services (Floh and Treiblmaier, 2006; Shih, 2007; Al-Hajri, 2008; Riyadh et al., 2009; Amin and Ramayah, 2010; Adesina and Ayo, 2010).

g. Security and Privacy (SandP)
People understand about the risks but they have pessimistic view regarding protection from ibanking risk. It has been found that customers have confidence on the bank but not sure about the security and privacy of their confidential information (Roboff and Charles, 1998). The researchers have also found that though the customers? confidence on the bank was strong but they were having weak confidence on the technology (Howcroft et al., 2002). eBanking must be safe, secure and easy to use. Automation, instruction, and understanding can be recognized as three approaches to practical security. Instruction is the main approach of the systems evaluated; automation ease the user from taking part in security, at a possible level; and understanding goes beyond step-by-step commands, to permit users to act proficiently and securely (Hertzum et al., 2004).

h. Trust of the Customer (TOC)
In order to examine the significance of eLoyalty, the identification of factors influencing recurring purchasing behavior and word-of-mouth suggestion is a crucial area of research. The extensive adoption of online banking services calls for research to investigate the factors which determine eBanking customers? loyalty. The most imperative factors affecting eLoyalty are unavailability of infrastructure, lack of trust on technology, service charges and security and privacy (Padachi et al., 2007). In response to these demands banks attempt to enhance the satisfaction of customers by offering improved products and services at reduced operating costs. Thus, customer trust plays a central role for eReadiness to use eServices (Wahab et al., 2009).

i. Quality of eBanking Services (QOS)
The internet infrastructure plays a very important role in eBanking and some grave steps should be taken for the development of internet. If we compare the current infrastructure with the five years before, we observe that a great many technological advancements have been made especially in the private sector and the credit of all this goes to the Government of Pakistan for fostering the privatization of banks in Pakistan (Pauline, 2001). This has resulted in the development and increase of IT infrastructure, online branches, ATM machines, ePayment systems, and eTransactions (State Bank of Pakistan, 2003).

Demographic Factors
Customer demographics play an important role in shaping their behaviors towards new technologies. There is a series of research studies on the measurement of demographic implications on the users of computer based information systems including eBanking (see for example, Ramayah et al., 2003; Shih, 2007; Padachi et al., 2007; Yang and Ahmad, 2009; Adesina and Ayo, 2010; Amin and Ramayah, 2010). Demographics have been identified as the intervening and/or moderating variables in affecting the relationships between the determinants of customer acceptance in case of using eBanking (Tat et al., 2008; Wahab et al., 2009). Similarly the researchers have explored and tested several demographic characteristics however some of these are very frequently used in researches on eBanking. These characteristics include: Gender, education, marital status, position (Ramayah et al., 2003); Gender, age, involvement, seeking behavior and technophobia (Floh and Treiblmaier, 2006); age, education, and income (Padachi et al., (2007); experience with eBanking, experience of using Internet, and frequency of use at least once a week (Shih, 2007); Gender, marital status, education level, and religion (Amin and Ramayah, 2010). In this research we have used the following demographics for analysis: Education, Gender, Age, Experience with eBanking, eBank(s) used, and Frequency of Use.

Factors of Customer Acceptance
From the literature review (presented above) a customized conceptual model (Figure 1) has been constructed which is grounded in the literature on one hand and reflects the current environment in Pakistan?s eBanking and iBanking industry on the other hand. The hypotheses emerging from the model have been identified which will be tested in the field surveys to be conducted by the researchers in near future.

All businesses are the recipients of eBanking, irrespective of their size or physical locations. Internet has made it possible to perform all types of commercial transactions on an electronic medium without geographical restrictions (Yang and Ahmed, 2009). The banks have been proved as the principal user of ICTs for many years because the use of IS helps in cost reduction, mainly due to the reduction of bank branches and their staff. The understandings and control of operational risks has also become easier for the banks using the modern Information Systems. Moreover, the successful use of Information System enable banks to process credit card and loan applications speedily, without wasting time in too many formalities (Wahab et al., 2009). There is a massive gap between developed and developing countries in terms of development and growth of  eBanking services. The developed countries are far ahead in the adoption and use of leading-edge technologies in business and commerce, whereas the developing countries are mainly lacking the modern technology infrastructure, and where it is available, a large number of people are not familiar with the use of technology and thus, not using it (Pasquet et al., 2008). The banking industry has made substantial progress and the use of Internet technology has turned out to be a strong force changing the very core of conventional banking. So, technology is no doubt a single most leading strategic issue that has created regulatory challenges for eBanking (Banan, 2010). Investments of an organization in IS creates different problems, such as hardware and software inappropriateness, information overload, and feelings of job insecurity among staff members who fear that they will be replaced by machines. These problems may have unfavorable effects on productivity as well as lessen the growth and use of other IS applications (Kuppusamy et al., 2009). Least-developed countries are facing a shortage of quality IT professionals to design, develop, and operate eBanking systems. A short term solution to this problem is to launch, on emergency basis, the high quality training programs for IT professionals to foster the development of eBanking applications, but the development of modern high quality higher education institutions, to promote the educational standard of masses would be a real long-term solution (Hasan et al., 2010).

Currently the customers in the developed countries like UK, USA, Sweden, and Denmark are enjoying the benefits of eBanking but Pakistan is still lagging far behind due to several factors (Shahzada, 2006). For example, in Pakistan the acquisitions, installation, use, and maintenance of eBanking technologies along with user training are big issues. Similarly, due to below standard and poorly established IT education institutions, the developing countries are facing serious shortages of qualified IT professionals to meet their national requirements of eBusiness (Kundi and Shah, 2009). When asked about the key challenges and complexities of existing eBanking operations, fifty percent people argued for the lack of in-house IT professionals. The small banks have outsourced the development of their website design and eBanking service operations but they suffered from delays and slow responses of outside IT professional (Yang et al., 2005; Hamzaee and Hughs, 2006). IS-savvy customers refer to the customers? understanding and acceptance of eBanking services. Although the Banks? web traffic statistics indicate rise in the number of web visitors due to anytime, anywhere convenience of eBanking, but this increase in visitor traffic is not matched by a related increase in iTransactions. Regardless of the increase in online visitors and use of the website, just a mere tenth of households have used Internet for their financial transactions (Kuppusamy et al., 2009). This is due to the fact that today?s world has not only made remarkable developments in every field and has created exciting opportunities for the people and organizations, but has also caused general uncertainty, which is often a great concern of eBanking users (Banan, 2010). Today in a highly competitive economy, banks are investing huge sums of money on ICTs to meet the growing demands for eBanking and they are also well are of the fact that failure to do so will lead to their demise (Kuppusamy et al., 2009). Banking sector has achieved substantial growth and the Internet technology has turned out to be a strong force shifting the pattern of banking from conventional banking to eBanking. Therefore it can be claimed that technology is the single most leading strategic weapon that has created paramount challenges for the banking sector (Banan, 2010).



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58. Wahab, S. Noor, N.A.M. and Ali, J. (2009).Technology Trust and E-Banking Adoption: The Mediating Effect of Customer Relationship Management Performance. The Asian Journal of Technology Management, 2 (2): 1-10.

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Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021

Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A study by Dorothy Ebere Adimora et al. entitled \"Remediation for Effects of Domestic Violence on Psychological well-being, Depression and Suicide among Women During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-cultural Study of Nigeria and Spain\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 23
A study by Muhas C. et al. entitled \"Study on Knowledge & Awareness About Pharmacovigilance Among Pharmacists in South India\" is awarded Best article for Vol 14 issue 22
A study by Saurabh Suvidha entitled \"A Case of Mucoid Degeneration of Uterine Fibroid with Hydrosalphinx and Ovarian Cyst\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 21
A study by Alice Alice entitled \"Strengthening of Human Milk Banking across South Asian Countries: A Next Step Forward\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 20
A study by Sathyanarayanan AR et al. entitled \"The on-task Attention of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder-An Eye Tracker Study Using Auticare\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 19
A study by Gupta P. et al. entitled \"A Short Review on \"A Novel Approach in Fast Dissolving Film & their Evaluation Studies\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 18.
A study by Shafaque M. et al. entitled \"A Case-Control Study Performed in Karachi on Inflammatory Markers by Ciprofloxacin and CoAmoxicillin in Patients with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 17
A study by Ali Nawaz et al. entitled \"A Comparative Study of Tubeless versus Standard Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) \? A Randomized Controlled Study\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 16.
A study by Singh R. et al. entitled \"A Prospective Study to Find the Association of Astigmatism in Patients of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in a Tertiary Health Care Centre in India (Vindhya Region MP)\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 15
A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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IJCRR Code of Conduct: To achieve a high standard of publication, we adopt Good Publishing Practices (updated in 2022) which are inspired by guidelines provided by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


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