IJCRR - 4(1), January, 2012
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FACTORS AFFECTING JOB SATISFACTION IN UNIVERSITY FACULTY MEMBERS
Author: Mohammad Farzanjou
Category: General Sciences
Abstract:This paper have been produced and developed to study the factors affecting job satisfaction of university faculty members. Various concepts and sometimes conflicting views have been formed and developed concerning the definition of \"job satisfaction\". Some experts such as Herzberg believes that it has two dimensions: one group is the factors and conditions that their absence may lead to dissatisfaction; however, they do not cause a strong motivation if provided, but only prevents the occurrence of dissatisfaction, that is the health factors or the ones influencing in maintaining the status quo or survival factor. According to Herzberg, these factors include: staff attitudes and perceptions, methods of administration, organization policies, nature and extent of supervision, job security, working conditions, status, salary level, the establishment of bilateral relations, supervisors, homogeneous, subordinate staff?s personal life. The lack of these factors may lead staff to dissatisfaction to the extent that employees leave the organization and endanger its existence. Hence, Herzberg maintains that these factors are necessary to provide and maintain the organization?s health. The second factors are the ones affecting in creating motivation which are lead to individual?s motivation and satisfaction, but their absence only makes a poor satisfaction. Therefore, the absence of the second group factors is the same as not having attitude. According to Herzberg, the factors affecting in creating motivation are: business success, recognition and appreciation of the people and their work, job and career development, personal growth and the nature of one?s work are called motivational factors.
Keywords: satisfaction, dissatisfaction, job satisfaction, needs, factors affecting job satisfaction
From the early 1920s, the discussion about job satisfaction has been paid attention to different management schools and as Locke (1972) predicted, at least 3,350 articles were published in this field up to 1978, and over hundreds of articles are annually published on job satisfaction now. Robbins defines job satisfaction as person?s general attitude towards his job. Shertzer maintains that job satisfaction is considered as having interest the tasks required to have a job, the conditions where a job is performed and the reward obtained for. Graham conducted a research concerning job satisfaction.
One of the most important theories in the field of human motivation proposed by Abraham Maslow entitled “ hierarchy of needs” including: physiological needs, safety needs, need to love, esteem needs, self-actualization needs, the needs of research and freedom of speech and the need to acquire knowledge and understanding. Maslow maintained that once one level of needs is met they are no longer motivational and higher level of motivation are initiated for person?s motivation. In the end, Maslow did not maintain that his hierarchy of needs are comprehensive and total and the same goes for everyone and everywhere.
One of the controversial theories in human nature was offered y “Frederick Herzberg” which is called Herzberg?s two-factor theory. Herzberg conducted a study of approximately 200 accountants and engineers employed in institutions located in the preview of Petersburg, Pennsylvania. He made use of “ expressing the critical events” to present a substantive theory, then the responses have been analyzed and the reasons of staff?s satisfaction and dissatisfaction are derived, and came to this conclusion that bad feelings often related to job environment and/or job satisfaction is concerned with job content and dissatisfaction is the one with job environment. Satisfying factors are called “stimulators” and dissatisfaction factors are “health factors”. Health factors or the ones maintain the status quo which their absence lead to dissatisfaction, but they are not lead to strong and powerful motivation if not existed provided and. Providing these factors only prevents dissatisfaction, but they are not lead to motivation if existed. Existing these factors maintain staff in the organization, otherwise they are affected to extreme satisfaction and may leave the organization. There are other factors affecting in creating motivation and are lead to individual?s satisfaction and motivation if existed, while they are lead to weak dissatisfaction if not existed. Therefore, their absence is lead to lack of motivation. Herzberg maintains that the factors affecting in creating motivation are business success, recognition and appreciation of people and their works, job development and advancement. He called these factors “motivational factors” . According to Herzberg, job satisfaction may be increased without job dissatisfaction decreased, and vice versa. Table (1) shows the theoretical relationship between motivational and health factors in job environment in Herzberg?s model.
Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction
1. Five dimensions of job are as follows: 1. Automatic or nature of work: the amount where by a job provides interesting tasks, opportunities to learn and the possibility to accept responsibilities for the person.
2. Promotion opportunities: opportunities and chances for advancement in the organizational hierarchy.
3. Payment: the rewards and wages someone receives and the amount considers the payment as just and equitable against other staff?s wages.
4. Monitoring and control: the ability to supervise in providing supportive behaviors and technical assistance.
5. Partners: the extent to which partners are technically efficient and are socially supportive to the person.
Concerning job satisfaction, Snider (1975) maintains that job satisfaction is one?s assessment of the current conditions and positions in the job and the results achieved from having the job. Poti and Khan maintain that one?s emotional aspects of working in an organization is called job satisfaction.
In 1960s, Mrs. Smith and colleagues mentioned the following factors affecting job satisfaction:
1. Wages (income)
2. The nature of job
3. Opportunities for job promotion
4. Monitoring and supervision
5. The peer group
Wage Sand Income
It has a determining role on staff?s job satisfaction. In a research conducted on more than 2000manager, Porter and Lowler found out that there is a relatively strong relationship between income and job satisfaction. Similar reports are offered by Smith and Kindal. They reckoned that there is a strong relationship between annual incomes of industrial workers in 21 factories and job satisfaction . Automatic or nature of job: having published Herzberg?s research results in the book “Motivation at Work” in 1959, the role of automaticity in job satisfaction has been considered. Three aspects of nature of job affecting job satisfaction are as follows:
1. High control on methods of work performed and its rapid measurement.
2. Variation in scientific management school, high emphasis on specialization and division of responsibilities and jobs to enhance efficiency.
3. Using skills and abilities.
Instruments to Measure Job Satisfaction
People do not clearly express their views to what they reveal, but preserve their attitudes towards the policies, laws and other issues which are widely relevant to them. The attitudes associated with the work are no exception. Most of these people reveal their attitudes related to job towards their close friends and relatives, but do not make it clear to their own supervisors and chiefs. Thus, contrary to initial impressions, assessing job satisfaction is a difficult task. However, there are several ways to evaluate job satisfaction that one is briefly explicated in this section. Job Description Index (JDI): one of the most accurate and common means of measuring job satisfaction is Job Description Index which has been developed by Smith at Cornell University (Nanchian, Tavakoli, Mousavi and Trameshlou). In this index, respondents respond to some descriptive and short sentences about each five aspects of job position. These include regarded nature of work, supervision, coworkers, salary and wage and job promotions.
Research on Job Satisfaction
The research conducted by Frederick Herzberg in 1966 on 200 accountants and engineers of industrial and commercial organizations in Petersburg City, in Philadelphia State of America may be considered as one of the first ones performed n this field. Having studied in this regard, he concluded that job satisfaction depends on five factors including job success, job identification, job attractiveness, job responsibilities and career advancement, and the lack of employee?s job satisfaction depends on some factors as below:
1. Regulations, policies and administrative regulations.
2. Proper monitoring and control.
3. Wage rights.
4. Private relations of corporate individuals
From the beginning of human relations movement, all comments were concerned with the relationship between performance and satisfaction. Content theories are absolutely assumed that satisfaction causes improving performance; and on the contrary, dissatisfaction causes the lack of attention to performance. However, Porter and Lowler maintain that motivation is not the same as satisfaction and performance. Satisfaction, motivation and performance are separate variables that are related to each other differently, and there is a complex relationship between motivation, satisfaction and performance. Porter and Lawler maintain that the rewards that are consecrated and how they received is determined by satisfaction and indicated that satisfaction is lead to performance and suggested that in practice, managers must step beyond what are traditionally thought and measure variables such as the values of possible rewards, understanding possible effort-reward and understanding the roles; these variables certainly helps management have a better understanding staff?s efforts and performance .
Woroum came to the following conclusions in his research:
- There is a negative relationship between job satisfaction and retirement from work.
- There is a negative relationship between job satisfaction and job absence.
- There is a negative relationship between job satisfaction, the extent of injuries and accidents resulted from working.
- There is a positive relationship between job satisfaction and performance.
Kimbel Wilez maintains, in his research lasted four years, that the following factors are the ones affecting job satisfaction among faculty members:
1. Assuredness and comfort in life
2. Fair and equitable treatment
3. Feeling love and attachment
4. Participating in determining working policy
5. Desirable working conditions
6. Support and assistance of managers towards personnel
7. Appreciation and acknowledgments to the services performed
8. Feeling of success and development
The above mentioned research hypotheses was confirmed by various correlation coefficients. Good satisfaction will increase the level of job satisfaction. Faculty member?s job dissatisfaction is more in men than women and there is an inverse relationship between job satisfaction and level of education. Having reviewed the scientific writings, Ratsoury concluded that job satisfaction among faculty members in bureaucratic universities is low and there is also a correlation between job satisfaction and motivation . Hersy and Blanchard found out in their studies that there is a positive relationship between leadership styles (ordering, understanding, participative and delegating personality) and job satisfaction of faculty members. They found out that faculty members are less satisfied with wages and facilities and are more pleased with cooperation and participation in leadership.
Kenly and Lerin Stone (1993) reported that experienced faculty member?s participation in re-designing job cause their job satisfaction and this has less effect on new faculty members. But increasing salary is effective in increasing job satisfaction in both groups. Kahn also points out four independent factors in his investigations that indicate employee?s satisfaction:
- Usefulness and satisfaction of duty.
- Certain elements of the task that are mutually beneficial, such as
- Being satisfied by job?s physical value, the present salaries and those of the future.
- Job satisfaction, having interest and enthusiasm to job and the dignity that it provides for the owner.
- Being satisfied by organization, working conditions and operation of device.
- Being satisfied by professional?s competency in the role of supervisors and leaders. Roll and Kani (1993), Barry Foldokrouk Vadani. etc. conducted some studies concerning job satisfaction and as others, they discussed the factors affecting the employee?s job satisfaction and considered it as an effective factor in organizational efficiency and effectiveness and implicitly indicated that regarding it is one of administrative needs. Maghaze found out in his study that faculty members are satisfied with their jobs but are not satisfied with the ones such as authorities? performance, how to administrate university, working conditions, inadequate facilities and amounts of salaries. Esmailei (2008) came to this general conclusion, in a research conducted in Tehran, that there is a positive and significant relationship between faculty member?s job satisfaction and their academic performance. That is to say, the academic satisfaction is increased when job satisfaction is increased and their performance is reduced when their satisfaction is declined. Moradi (2010) came to a conclusion, regarding job satisfaction that was almost different from the ones obtained in other studies. He concluded that men have more job satisfaction than women. Kontenz maintains that job satisfaction is lead to organizational effectiveness and efficiency. According to the aforementioned studies, it seems that factors as nature of work, colleagues, opportunities for promotion and advancement, salaries and facilities and management is effective on faculty member?s job satisfaction. Generally speaking, it can be said that people who are motivated to work are more required into high level needs of hierarchy of needs, such as the need to be respected, the need to be independent and the need for self-actualization. Regarding other?s needs is resulted to their satisfaction sand satisfaction is lead to consistency and commitment.
As the above-mentioned studies indicated, job satisfactions are among the factors that can be resulted into organizational effectiveness and efficiency and prevents from negative consequences of its absence. Therefore, the following cases are suggested to headmasters, assistants and administrators in universities and higher education:
1. Faculty members are often dissatisfied their jobs and currently do not involve in their working.
Being away from workplace help dissatisfied people avoid from unpleasant aspects of their workplace. On the contrary, satisfied faculty members are less inclined to making complain; they are more acquired with health and longevity and quickly learn the tasks associated with their job. Therefore, it is required the workplace to be pleasant and desirable for faculty members to be benefited from increasing satisfaction as well as other consequences.
2. Manager?s support and is an important factor in faculty member?s satisfaction which can be effective in developing a good understanding of organization?s environment. If faculty members are assured they are acquired with managers and co-worker?s support, they will continue their work with greater confidence and interest and will be more satisfied.
Being satisfied with university?s goals and performances can increase people?s motivation and morale in higher education, and on the contrary, if someone does not satisfied with one?s workplace, hell will not be satisfied and his working motivation will be reduced. An appropriate and desirable atmosphere is so effective in creating motivation and satisfaction in people. It would be diligent to create such an atmosphere. One of the important factors in creating motivation and an appropriate atmosphere is workplace satisfaction. If the workplace is inappropriate and people are not satisfied within, their motivation will be weakened. There are many factors involved in creating a suitable and satisfactory environment, including: Creating intimacy and cordiality among people, establishing security, regarding rest times and classroom, the time to handle personal affairs and being reasonable. Establishing facilities and healthy recreation: healthy and appropriate recreation must be arranged to create diversity and increasing work and life motivation with taking into account appropriate time and duration. Creating a sense of mutual respect among people, regarding respect and considerate attention. People are required to the opportunities for advancement and promotion in workplace, having rights and adequate facilities. Establishing these factors is highly significant in the profession of faculty and higher education members. Creating a rewarding and encouraging system which is appropriate with providing objectives and organization?s missions is tremendously significant in employee?s advancement and personal development as well as creating job satisfaction within.
The author wish to tanks from Prof. M.H. Pardakhtchi and Prof. K. Fathi due to their efforts, also tanks to assistants for cooperation in editing this paper.
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