International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, CiteFactor, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), Indian Journals Index (IJINDEX), Internet Archive, IP Indexing, Google Scholar, Scientific Indexing Services, Index Copernicus, ResearchBib, Science Central, Revistas Medicas Portuguesas, EBSCO, SOROS, NEWJOUR, ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, DocStoc, PdfCast, getCITED, SkyDrive, Citebase, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services), Electronic Journals Library by University Library of Regensburg.

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Advertisement

Full Html

IJCRR - Vol 04 Issue 05, March, 2012

Pages: 118-123

Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001


Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

MORPHOMETRIC AND OSTEOMETRIC STUDY OF MENTAL FORAMEN

Author: Varsha Shenoy, P. Saraswathi, Gunapriya Raghunath, S. Vijayalakshmi

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Objective: Mental nerve is sensory nerve of lower lip, gingiva and vestibule. Mental nerve
emerges through the mental foramen, a foramen on the antero lateral aspect of body of
mandible. To anesthetise the mental nerve local anesthetic must be injected at the point where it emerges out fr om mental foramen. Hence it was decided to study the mental foramen.
Methods: Sixty human dry mandibles were studied to measure the distance of mental foramen
from symphysis menti, alveolar ridge, base of mandible and posterior border of ramus of
mandible. The shape, direction of mental foramen were recorded. Location of mental foramen
in relation to the lower teeth was also recorded and all the parameters were tabulated and
analysed. Results and Conclusion: According to the present study mental foramen was located
1.3cm below the alveolar ridge, 1.25 cm above the base of mandible, 2.5 cm postero-lateral to
symphysis menti, 6.4 cm anterior to the posterior border of ramus and was most commonly in
line with 2nd lower premolar tooth. The shape was round and direction was postero-superior in
most of the cases.

Keywords: Mental foramen, mental nerve, alveolar ridge, implant, orthognathic surgery.

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION
The mental foramen (MF) is situated on the anterolateral aspect of the body of mandible on either side. The mental nerve and vessels which appear through the MF provide sensory nerve supply and blood supply to the soft tissues of the chin, lower lip and gingiva.1 Since the location of MF differ among various racial and ethnic groups, in the present study it was decided to locate MF in relation to the neighbouring bony landmarks.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
A total of 60 dry human mandibles were studied. Only the mandibles with the teeth or intact alveolar ridge were studied. Mandibles of children and mandibles with reabsorption of the alveolar ridge were excluded from the study.

I. Following parameters were studied using vernier caliper on both sides to locate the MF:

(1) Distance from MF to symphysis menti(SM) - (MF-SM)

(2) Distance from MF to alveolar ridge - (MF-AR)

(3) Distance from MF to inferior border of the mandible - (MF-MB)

(4) Distance from MF to posterior border of ramus of mandible - (MF-PB) (Figure 1).

II. The position of MF was noted in relation to mandibular teeth and was documented as:

a) In line with the 1st premolar (1st PM)

b) Between the 1st and 2nd premolar (1st &2nd PM)

c) In line with second premolar (2nd PM).

d) Between second premolar and 1st molar (2nd PM &1st M) e) In line with 1st molar (1st M).

III. The direction of opening of MF was recorded as: Postero-superior (PS), superior (U), lateral (L), posterior (P) or anterior (A). A comparison of the mean values between sides was performed using the t-test, p-value<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

RESULTS
The present study revealed that average (AVG) distance of MF from SM was 2.49 cm and 2.53 cm on the right and left side respectively which was a statistically significant difference (Table 1). AVG distance of MF to the alveolar ridge was found to be 1.32 cm on the right side and 1.36 cm on the left side. AVG distance of MF to the inferior border of mandible was 1.25 cm and 1.26 cm on right and left sides. AVG distance of MF to the posterior border of ramus on right and left side was 6.46 cm and 6.41 cm respectively. None of these parameters showed a significant difference in the values on right and left side (Table 1). Table 2 reveals that according to present study on an average MF was 2.51 cm postero-lateral to the SM with a SD of 0.178601, was 1.34 cm below the AR with a SD of 0.229425, was 1.25 cm above the inferior border of mandible with a SD of 0.1378 and was 6.44 cm anterior to the posterior border of ramus with a SD of 0.421013. In the present study it was found that MF was located most commonly in line with the 2nd PM (81 sides or 67.5%) and the next common position was in between 2nd PM & 1st M (32 sides or 26.67%) (Table 3). In 79 out of 120 sides studied, the shape of MF was found to be rounded, out of which 41were on right side and 38 were on left side. MF was found to be oval in shape in 41 sides, 19 on right side and 22 on left side (Table 4). Almost 63.33% of the MF studied, the opening was directed postero-superiorly, 18.33% of MF opened posteriorly, 16.33% MF were directed upwards, 3.33% of the cases MF was directed anteriorly and only in 1.67% of the MF were directed laterally (Table 5).

DISCUSSION
Recently surgical procedures in the mental region have increased because of the advancements in orthognathic surgery.2 Since the mental nerve is responsible for sensory innervations of soft tissues of the chin, lower lip and gingiva, during any surgical approach to these regions, mental nerve blockage is the anesthetic technique used. Hence exact localisation of MF, through which mental nerve emerges, becomes mandatory prior to the procedure. This will ensure an effective nerve block and also will help in prevention of post surgical neurovascular complications. 2, 3 The present study revealed that MF was located 2.51 cm postero-lateral to the SM, 1.33 cm below the alveolar ridges, 1.25 cm above the inferior border of mandible and 6.43 cm in front of posterior border of ramus. Most commonly MF was in line with 2nd PM and PS direction of MF was the commonest finding. These findings are in accordance with the studies in the past. 3- 9 Whereas a radiographic study on MF in the Asian Indian population found that MF was most commonly located between the two premolars and along the long axis of second premolar was the second common position. 10 Another study conducted in South Gujarath found that the most frequent position of MF was in line with the 2nd premolar for both right (81.55%) and left (81.50%) sides. The direction of MF was PS in 92%. The shape of foramen was oval in 92% cases and rounded in 8% cases, 3 whereas the present study found that MF was most commonly round in shape (in 65.8 percent of the cases studied). A previous report on MF stated that the position of MF in the Mongoloid population was in line with axis of second lower premolar whereas in Caucasoid samples MF were just medial to those in Mongoloid, Melanesian, and African samples. 8 Clinically MF cannot be visualised or palpated hence, it is localised in relation to the lower teeth. 3 MF is an important bony landmark during osteotomy procedures, implant in the mental region, any surgical approach or biopsy of this region. Therefore its location and the possibility of an anterior loop of the mental nerve should be considered before any kind of procedure to avoid mental nerve injury. Since there are many reports regarding the variations of MF with respect to the size, shape, location and direction, MF region is considered to be one of the challenging areas for implants in the mandible. 11 A dissection study conducted in 1997 reported that in 15% of the specimens studied, mental nerve or its branches reentered the labial plate. The same study concluded by stating that the finding of the mental nerve re-entering the labial plate to supply the lower incisors explains the crossover innervation from the contralateral mental nerve and also explains the anesthesia of lower incisors during the labial infiltration of anesthetic injection. 12 Precise knowledge of the location of the foramen, in relation to anatomical or bony landmarks can be of great help in localising important neurovascular structures during various interventions in the region. 9, 13 Such information must be used to develop newer minimally invasive surgical techniques in the region. 13

CONCLUSION
Since mental nerve block is routinely practiced in common procedures like suturing, biopsy of vestibular region, of lower lip, localisation of MF is a clinically significant factor in such conditions. In general, altered lip sensations can be prevented if the MF is precisely located. 14 According to the present study MF was located 1.3cm below the alveolar ridge, 1.25 cm above the base of mandible, 2.5 cm postero-lateral to SM, 6.4 cm anterior to the posterior border of ramus and was most commonly in line with 2nd lower premolar tooth. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We are grateful to Dr. Thenmozhli, Mr. Yuvraj Babu for their support during the course of this study. Authors also acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

 

References:

1. A.K. Datta. Essentials of Human Anatomy Head and neck. 3rd ed. Kolkata: Current books International; 1999.

2. Tabinda Hasan, Mahmood Fauzi, Deeba Hasan Bilateral absence of mental foramen – a rare variation. International Journal of Anatomical Variations 2010; 3: 167-9.

3. Deepa Rani Agarwal, Sandeep B. Gupta. Morphometric Analysis of Mental Foramen in Human Mandibles of South Gujarat. People?s Journal of Scientific Research 2011; 4(1): 15-8.

4. Rajani Singh and A. K. Srivastav Study of Position, Shape, Size and Incidence of Mental Foramen and Accessory Mental Foramen in Indian Adult Human Skulls. Int. J. Morphol 2010; 28:1141- 6.

5. NM Al Jasser and AL Nwoku. Radiographic study of the mental foramen in a selected Saudi population. Dentomaxillofacial Radiology 1998; 27:341-3.

6. Shankland WE 2nd. The position of the mental foramen in Asian Indians. J Oral Implantol 1994; 20:118-23.

7. Mwaniki DL, Hassanali J. The position of mandibular and mental foramina in Kenyan African mandibles. East Afr Med J 1992; 69: 210-3.

8. Wandee Apinhasmit , Supin Chompoopong , Dolly Methathrathip , Roengsak Sansuk, Wannapa Phetphunphiphat. Supraorbital Notch/Foramen, Infraorbital Foramen and Mental Foramen in Thais: Anthropometric Measurements and Surgical Relevance. J Med Assoc Thai 2006; 89: 675-82.

9. Ngeow WC, Yuzawati Y. The location of the mental foramen in a selected Malay Population. J Oral Sci 2003; 45:171-5.

10. S. Rupesh, J. Jasmin Winnier, Sherin Anna John, Tatu Joy, Arun Prasad Rao and Venugopal Reddy. Radiographic Study of the Location of Mental Foramen in a Randomly Selected Asian Indian Population on Digital Panoramic Radiographs. Journal of Medical Sciences 2011; 11: 90-5.

11. Gintaras Juodzbalys, Hom-Lay Wang. Guidelines for the Identification of the Mandibular Vital Structures: Practical Clinical Applications of Anatomy and Radiological Examination Methods. J Oral Maxillofac Res 2010 (Apr-Jun); 1(2).

12. Pogrel MA, Smith R, Ahani R. Innervation of the mandibular incisors by the mental nerve. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1997; 55: 961-3.

13. Oliveira Junior E M, Araújo A L D, Da Silva C M F, Sousa-Rodrigues C F, Lima F J C. Morphological and morphometric study of the mental foramen on the M-CP-18 jiachenjiang point. Int. J. Morphol 2009; 27: 231-8.

14. Greenstein G, Tarnow D. The mental foramen and nerve: clinical and anatomical factors related to dental implant placement: a literature review. J Periodontol 2006; 77: 1933-43.

Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by situs slot and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. situs slot "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma situs slot entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by situs slot et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression situs slot
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease situs slot
Hacked By Idamane Ayang img { opacity: 0.6; }
Hacked By Idamane Ayang



Batin Tak Kuatke Ngo Ngempet Larane Mergo Aku Tresno Kowe

contact me: westaukelaran404@protonmail.com

Kelelawar Cyber Team - Pancasila Cyber Team - Jombang Hacker Crew - Padang Black Hat - Jawa Timur Cyber Team - Cidro Xploit - Ponorogo1337 - Ponorogo Black Hat - Ponorogo Cyber Team - Jawa6etar - Ponorogo Hacker Team



List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in


Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: We at IJCRR voluntarily adopt policies on Code of Conduct, and Code of Ethics given by OASPA and COPE. To know about IJCRRs Code of Conduct, Code of Ethics, Artical Retraction policy, Digital Preservation Policy, and Journals Licence policy click here

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



Company name

International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

Contact

148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

editor@ijcrr.com

editor.ijcrr@gmail.com


Copyright © 2022 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions