International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, CiteFactor, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), Indian Journals Index (IJINDEX), Internet Archive, IP Indexing, Google Scholar, Scientific Indexing Services, Index Copernicus, ResearchBib, Science Central, Revistas Medicas Portuguesas, EBSCO, SOROS, NEWJOUR, ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, DocStoc, PdfCast, getCITED, SkyDrive, Citebase, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services), Electronic Journals Library by University Library of Regensburg.

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Advertisement

Full Html

IJCRR - Vol 04 Issue 05, March, 2012

Pages: 80-88

Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001


Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

DOES PROLONGED SITTING WORK AMONG MIDDLE AGED WOMEN IMPAIR KNEE JOINT POSITION SENSE? A COMPARATIVE STUDY

Author: Saranya Subramanian, Amitesh Narayan

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Objectives: Work, when performed in prolonged sitting position can have an impact on knee jointposition se nse (JPS) due to altered weight transmission and may contribute to early degeneration of knee joint. However no literature is available that compares the knee JPS between the women involved in prolonged sitting type of job to non-working women. Hence this study compares theknee JPS between working and non-working women to find the impact of prolonged sitting. Materials and Methods: Knee JPS was measured in both knee joints by active repositioning method with a standardized goniometer in terms ofabsolute and relative error on 80 subjects (40 in each group). Subjects were selected through random convenient sampling. Result: There were no significant differences in-terms of both absolute and relative error between the groups (P< 0.05) in both the knees. Conclusion: This is the first study (to the
best of our knowledge)`which has analysed the position sense error between the working and nonworking women group. It was found that prolonged sitting has no influence on knee JPS and this could be a least contributing factor for the development of the knee joint degeneration in any women at 40-50 years of age. side at 45\?, 60\? respectively. And RE of right side at 60\? strongly correlated with RE of right side 80\?, left 60\?, 80\?. Other strong positive correlations between errors of different angles are given in table- 5. DISCUSSION Joint position sense may be impaired in case of decreased feedback from the joint receptors in case of prolonged non-weight bearing positions when adopted e.g. seated office work.11,12,14 The impaired position sense could be a contributing factor for the initiation of early stage of structural damage in the knee rather being secondary to the disease.7 Also because the progressive development of articular surfaces degeneration of knee joint is solely not the disease of aging, but potentially have etiological link with the occupation.12 The aim of the study was to determine the differences in knee joint position sense among working and non-working middle aged women to see the scientific basis of posture related changes and to detect the development of early signs of degenerative changes in the joint. Hence the age range of 40 - 50 yrs was considered for the study, since the degenerative changes in the joints among women sets in at 51 yrs of age on an average;12 and the average age at which osteoarthritis becomes clinically symptomatic, was found to be 59-60 years for females involved in desk job.12 In this study the age and BMI of the subjects of both the groups were not statistically significant, (p= 1.31, 0.68) suggesting that the confounding factors were controlled. Our understanding while designing the study was that there will be subtle differences in knee joint position sense between working and nonworking females, since working women would have probably uniform sitting pattern for a fixed number of hours compared to the non-working subjects. But the results indicated that in this age range, among both the groups, changes in the joint position sense at all angles were relatively equal; Average AE of working women was 6.624\?\?5.033\? and non-working was 5.665\?\?4.957\?. Average RE of working women was 2.84\?\?8.13\? and non-working women was 2.46\?\?7.185\? (p< 0.05). Such differences in joint position sense are statistically insignificant. These changes are also clinically insignificant (minimal clinical difference was found to be 5\? in a previous study12) suggesting that, both groups activity levels did not have any influence on knee joint position sense in this age range. However 40 - 50 years can be considered as a healthy age range, therefore we can assume that the individual may not demonstrate any initiation of changes in terms of position sense error, which can begin the process of degenerative changes physiologically.12 In this study we observed that the speed at which the subjects adopted to reposition their joints was not uniform among the subjects. Literature indicates that slower velocity can influence the position sense capacity negatively even in healthy individuals.15 But the velocity at which the joints were repositioned was not analyzed. Therefore we cannot attribute that the velocity would have any influence among the groups in order to have their joint position sense relatively uniform. Furthermore, both the AE and RE was found to be relatively uniform (larger) in the right knee at 45\?, and left knee at 60\? in both the groups. Such uniformity was more in the right compared to left, this we attribute on limb dominance factor. But when analysis was done for specific angle, we noticed that at 80\?, the errors were less in both the knees. This result is in favor of the previous studies, where authors had concluded that articular afferents discharge maximally at the extremes of joint movements, and are also active within the joint?s midranges.16

Keywords: Knee joint position sense, middle aged women, degeneration, prolonged sitting. Running title: Does prolonged sitting impair knee JPS?

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION Work, when performed in awkward postures or with excessive effort, may result in fatigue and discomfort, leading to micro trauma of the surrounding structures.1 It can be controlled by identifying workplace stressors and managing them by adopting morenormal ergonomic sitting pattern.2 Proprioception is defined as, „the ability to detect, without visual input, the spatial position and/or movement of limbs in relation to the rest of the body?.3,4 The physiological systems that contribute to proprioceptive acuity include visual and vestibular systems, articular, cutaneous and muscle mechanoreceptors which finely controls muscle contraction; enabling smooth, coordinated movements.5 The role of the proprioception has become increasingly important as proprioceptive dTesting Procedure for Knee Joint Position sense:eficiency facilitates the injury, 6 and may lead to poor control and greater mechanical load on the joint, which in turn leads to an increased risk of development of degenerative changes in the joint.7 Proprioception is affected by factors such as age, physical activity, muscle fatigue and degenerative arthritis of the joint.3, 4 Any activity that puts excessive weight-bearing force across the joint, after activities like prolonged squatting, sitting, and standing;affects the protective stabilizing mechanisms of proprioception and may initiate or contribute to the abnormal joint forces and hence to the degenerative changes in a joint.8 The knee joint is one of the largest and most complex synovial joint of the body having predominant dynamic functions.9The degenerative joint disease (DJD) of knee joint is a leading cause of disability among the middle aged women in India and its impact on the public health is substantial.10 The risk of developing the proprioceptive deficits in the knee joint in middle age can be attributed to the occupation to an extent. It has been estimated that the jobs involving prolong bending, squatting, standing and sitting predisposes to structural damage to the knee joint.11A study had reported that approximately 27% office workers are prone for knee joint degeneration because of their sitting type of job.12 The relative prevalence of arthritic changes among white collar professionals in age group 20- 59 years was 0.1 and prolonged sitting may be a risk factor with the relative risk of 1.1 (odds ratio).13 However, this was not a major risk factor for degenerative changes over the knee joint and the white collar professionals were considered as „low risk group? for developing degenerative changes in the knee.11, 13 The evidences have concluded that impaired proprioception is involved in the early degenerative changes in the knee joint7 during active life. Therefore early detection of the degenerative changes in terms of joint position sense deficits is key to develop preventive measures in the workplace to reduce knee pathologies in the community.13 However; the available studies related to this subject are very much limited. So we planned to trace the pathophysiology of degenerative changes in the knee joint, in terms of joint position sense errors, which we hypothesized to be affected in women, who is involved in seating work environment for a prolonged period.

MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was approved by the Time-Bound ethical committee, KMC, Mangalore (Ref No: (IEC/KMC/03/2010-2011) before its commencement. A total of 106 subjects were screened (working and non-working) from the banks, offices and community through physiotherapy camps in and around Mangalore. Working women included women who are involved in desk job, who sits on an average of 7 hrs/day (a pilot study was carried-out before the commencement of this study and 7 hrs was identified as average time of working). Through this process 80 subjects (40 in each group) were included as per inclusion and exclusion criteria proposed for the study. Rest 26 were excluded as 8 subjects had knee pain, knee joint crepitus and early arthritic changes, 7 were working in small scale industry at home, 5 subjects had underwent hysterectomy, 3 were asthmatic, 2 had history of seizures, and 1 had undergone TKR. The sample size was calculated with the formula {(Zα+Zβ)2 .σ 2 }/δ2 ,where Zα and Zβ value is 1.96 and 1.28 respectively. A written informed consent was obtained from all 80 subjects after explaining the study procedure and purpose. The demographic details were obtained and subjects were assessed by the following procedure for the knee joint position sense.

Testing Procedure for Knee Joint Position sense: Subjects were made to sit on a high couch with folded towels placed behind the lower thigh so that it appears horizontal, having 90° angle with trunk at hip joint. The relaxed knee (i.e. Tibia) assumed right angle with the hip (i.e. Femur). Reference mark was applied on the lateral aspect of the testing knee joint. A transparent degreecalibrated clinical goniometer was placed in a manner that the proximal arm orienting along the long axis of the femur and distal arm along the tibia. Subjects relaxed and eyes open; examiner lightly grasped the foot and passively extended the knee from the resting position (~90° flexion) to the chosen test position- which was unknown to the subjects. Then the subjects were blindfolded and the same procedure was repeated. The knee was kept in the selected test position for ~4 s. At this time the subject was asked to perceive their knee position. Next the examiner re-supported the foot and lowered the relaxed leg to the initial resting position. Now the subjects were then asked to actively extend the knee to the perceived test position, and to hold in this response position for ≥ 5 sec and the goniometric measurement of joint position sense in degrees was obtained. Finally, the foot was re-positioned back to the initial resting position by the subject. Two practice sessions were done with eyes open and closed. The procedure was carried on at three angles of extension 45º, 60º, and, 80º randomly selected by chit method by the subject. 30 seconds of rest was given and the subject was asked to reproduce the perceived position after blinding. Three trials for each angle were done. The differences between the target and estimated angle were noted down, and the relative and absolute error was calculated.

Statistical analysis: For statistical analysis, data was interpreted with the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 13.0. The level of significance of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant with 95% confidence interval.

  • Unpaired T-test was used for the comparison of BMI and age, for both the groups (working and non-working).
  • Mann-Whitney U test was used for the comparisons of the absolute and relative errors between the groups.
  • The correlations between the variables like BMI, age, menopausal history were evaluated with Pearson?s correlation test.

RESULT
The working and non-working groups comprised of 40 females each had age range of 40-50 years. The mean age and BMI of both the groups are shown in table 1. There was no statistical difference between the groups with respect to age and BMI (p=0.19, 0.68 respectively). To test the primary hypothesis, i.e. comparison between the knee joint position errors of the working and non-working group (table 2) the Mann-Whitney U test was used and there was no statistical significant difference between the groups in terms of the absolute and relative errors. The mean AE of working group was 6.623±5.04° and that of the non-working group was 5.665±4.95°. The mean RE of the working group was 2.84±8.13° and that of the nonworking group was 2.46±7.185°. In addition to the main hypothesis, the correlation of post and pre- menopausal history with the absolute and relative errors of both the groups was analyzed. The results are displayed in the table 3, which shows that there is no significant difference between the menopausal history and the errors in both the groups. The age and the BMI of both the groups were compared with the errors and the following findings were obtained: (table 4).

a) The age and the errors of both the groups combined did not show statistical significance (p= 0.409)

b) The relative errors on right side at 60°,80° and left side at 80° had a weak positive correlation with the BMI with p values 0.031, 0.012 and 0.041 respectively. The absolute and relative errors within the groups were analyzed and the correlations between AE and RE of the right and left side were observed. The AE of right side at 45° and 60° strongly correlated with AE and RE of left We also analyzed the effect of menopause on joint position sense error, which was found to have no correlation; this indicates that in this age range menopause do not affect the joint position sense. Since the effect on musculoskeletal changes for women begins at the age of 51 years, therefore similarities were detected between the post and pre-menopausal groups with respect to joint position sense error. The uniqueness of this study was that AE and RE demonstrated good correlation at 45° and 60° for both right and left knees respectively.

This suggests that in future, the AE and RE terms can be used interchangeably at these angles for the knee joint position sense error. The limitations of the study were non consideration of joint velocity on position sense error, influence of lifestyle (mode of transport) and psychosocial aspects (stress levels). This study also does not involve gender comparison to know which gender would have demonstrated more differences in joint position error with same working nature. Suggestions for further research: Comparison of joint position sense error between working females and males; Use of more precise objective tools e.g. electro-goniometer, to measure position sense errors among same age range and subject type; The same study in small age cohorts with 2 years band from 50 - 51,51 - 52…… to know at what age actual joint position sense declination occurs; Consideration of joint velocity using instruments like isokinetic dynamometerduring position sense detection. Clinical outcomes of the study 40 - 50 years of age may not be the age when early signs of degenerative changes at knee to be detected; AE and RE can be interchangeably used at 45° and 60° for knee extension; Menopausal history may not have relation with the knee joint position sense for women between 40 - 50 years of age.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Our gratitude to the members of Lion?s club, LIC office, Mangalore for their support rendered for bringing out the study.We acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. We are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

References:

1. Easy Ergonomics-A practical approach for improving the workplace. Salem.www.orosha.org.

2. Healthy Work-Managing stress and fatigue in the workplace.1st ed. Occupational safety and health service, Department of labour, Wellington, New Zealand; 2003.

3. Bayramoglu M, Toprak R, Sozay S. Effects of Osteoarthritis and Fatigue on Proprioception of the Knee Joint. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2007;88:346-50.

4. Koralewicz LM, Engh GA. Comparison of proprioception in arthritic and age-matched normal knees. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2000;82:1582-8.

5. Felson DT et al. The effects of impaired joint position sense on the development and progression of pain and structural damage in knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2009;61:1070-6.

6. Akseki D, Akkaya G, Erduran M, Pinnar H. Proprioception of the knee joint in patellofemoral pain syndrome. ActaOrthopTraumatolTurc 2008;42:316-21.

7. Lund H et al. Movement detection impairment in patients with knee osteoarthritis compared to healthy controls: A cross- sectional case-control study. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 2008;8:391-400.

8. Wall S. Degenerative joint disease of the knee and hip- Structural yoga therapy research paper (cited 2007 January), Available from suewall@snet.net.

9. Palastanga N, Field D, Soames R. Anatomy and Human movement –structure and function. 4thed .Edinburgh: Elsevier science;2002.p.334-71.

10. Hooper MM, Tending to the musculoskeletal problems of obesity. Cleve clin J med 2006;73:839-45.

11. Jones GT, Harkness EF, Nahit ES, McBeth J, SilMan AJ, Mactarlane GJ. Predicting the onset of knee pain: results from a 2-year prospective study of new workers. Ann Rheum Dis 2007;66:400-6.

12. Vingard E et al. Occupation and osteoarthritis of the hip and knee: A registerbased cohort study. Int J Epidemiol 1991;20:1025-31.

13. Rossignol M, Leclerc A, Hilliquin P. Primary osteoarthritis and occupations: a national level cross sectional survey. Occup Environ Med 2003;60:882-6.

14. Riskowski JL, Mikesky AE, Bahamonde RE, Alvey TV, Burr DB. Proprioception, gait,kinematics, and rate of loading during walking: Are they related? J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 2005;5:379-87.

15. Grigg P, Greenspan BJ. Response of primate joint afferent neurons to mechanical stimulation of knee joint. J neurophysiol 1977;40:1-8.

16. Clark FJ, Larwood KJ, Davis ME, Deffenbacher KA. A metric for assessing acuity in positioning joints and limbs. Experimental brain research 1995;107:73-9.

Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by situs slot and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. situs slot "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma situs slot entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by situs slot et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression situs slot
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease situs slot
Hacked By Idamane Ayang img { opacity: 0.6; }
Hacked By Idamane Ayang



Batin Tak Kuatke Ngo Ngempet Larane Mergo Aku Tresno Kowe

contact me: westaukelaran404@protonmail.com

Kelelawar Cyber Team - Pancasila Cyber Team - Jombang Hacker Crew - Padang Black Hat - Jawa Timur Cyber Team - Cidro Xploit - Ponorogo1337 - Ponorogo Black Hat - Ponorogo Cyber Team - Jawa6etar - Ponorogo Hacker Team



List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in


Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: We at IJCRR voluntarily adopt policies on Code of Conduct, and Code of Ethics given by OASPA and COPE. To know about IJCRRs Code of Conduct, Code of Ethics, Artical Retraction policy, Digital Preservation Policy, and Journals Licence policy click here

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



Company name

International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

Contact

148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

editor@ijcrr.com

editor.ijcrr@gmail.com


Copyright © 2022 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions