International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, CiteFactor, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), Indian Journals Index (IJINDEX), Internet Archive, IP Indexing, Google Scholar, Scientific Indexing Services, Index Copernicus, ResearchBib, Science Central, Revistas Medicas Portuguesas, EBSCO, SOROS, NEWJOUR, ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, DocStoc, PdfCast, getCITED, SkyDrive, Citebase, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services), Electronic Journals Library by University Library of Regensburg.

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Advertisement

Full Html

IJCRR - Vol 04 Issue 05, March, 2012

Pages: 38-43

Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001


Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

PREVAILING PRACTICES OF PRELACTEAL FEEDING IN RURAL AREA OF ARATHAWADA
REGION IN MAHARASHTRA STATE OF INDIA

Author: Sonali Gajanan Choudhari, Rajesh N. Lakde, Abhay Bhausaheb Mudey, Deepali S. Deo, Vinod L. Vedpathak, Prashant L. Dahire

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Title: Prevailing practices of prelacteal feeding in rural area of Marathawada region in
Maharashtra state of India. Objective: To study prevailing practices of prelacteal feeding and
impact of various sociodemographic factors on it. Method \? A community based cross
sectional was conducted in rural area of Marathawada region in Maharashtra State of India. The
study participants were 262 mothers having youngest child in the age group of 0 to 12 months.
Questionnaire included sociodemographic structure of the family, the prelacteal practices
followed in youngest child. Results: Out of total participant mothers, 107 (40.84%) mothers
gave some kind of prelacteal feed to their baby while 155 (59.16%) did not give it. Literacy
status, type of family, socioeconomic status, place of delivery found to have impact on
prelacteal practices. Correlation with mode of delivery found to be non significant.
Conclusion: Ignorance, blindly following generation old beliefs, influence of elderly persons at
home, poverty were found to be various factors leading to prelacteal feeding and thereby
emerging as barriers to appropriate infant feeding practices.

Keywords: prelacteal, literacy, type of family, mode of delivery

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION
Childhood nutrition in most of the countries mostly originates from inadequate and faulty practices of feeding newborn and infant, coupled with exposure to contaminated environment.(1) As per BFHI, no food or drink other than for breast milk is to be given to newborn infant, unless medically indicated. It is now more than 15 years since the launch of BFHI and still the practice of Prelacteal feeds is prevalent in many developing countries and is mainly governed by different cultural norms prevalent.(2) In India also, prelacteal feeding is widely prevalent, since ancient times. Countrywide data from National Family Health SurveyIII (2005-2006) documented that as many as 57% women practiced prelacteal feeding.(3) The common substances used are honey, glucose, sugar water, Ghutti, castor oil, Cow? milk, Goat?s milk, Gangajal, Cow? urine or simply plain water.(2) Prelacteals should not be given to babies because of the following reasons.

1. Giving prelacteal feeds can lead to less frequent, less vigorous and less effective suckling at the breast since the baby feels less hungry. This in turn reduces milk production.

2. The baby is deprived of full benefits of colostrum. 

3. Nipple confusion is common if prelacteal feeds are given in a bottle. Nipple confusion interferes with breastfeeding, making failure more likely.

4. Further contaminated feeds or feeding utensils, water and hands may cause infections.(4) Poor infant feeding practices are to a great extent a man made problem, which directly or indirectly contribute to infectious illnesses, malnutrition, and mortality in infants. Knowledge of various cultural practices associated with infant feeding forms an essential first step for any „need felt? intervention programme deigned to bring about positive behavioral change in infant health. (5) Considering this it was decided to study prevailing practices of prelacteal feeding and impact of various sociodemographic factors on it, in a rural area which formed the basis of a „need felt? educational intervention imparted thereafter.

MATERIAL AND METHODS
Study setting:-The present community based cross sectional study was undertaken in five randomly selected villages out of 10 surrounding villages around the rural medical college, in Marathawada region during February to April 2010. Study ParticipantsMothers having a youngest child as infant i.e. up to the age of 1 year were included in the study. Methodology The mothers having youngest child as infant i.e. in the age group of 0-12 months were first enlisted by house to house survey. Initially the pilot study was undertaken in one of the five villages for pretesting the proforma and necessary modifications were made accordingly. For identification, initial contact and to minimize the non-response, the help of medical social worker and anganwadi workers was obtained. All the enlisted mothers were called in „Anganwadi? with their children and were interviewed and interacted with the help of pretested and predesigned proforma. Questions were asked in local language. Out of total population of about 10237 in the selected five villages, 277 mothers were having a child up to 1 year of age. Out of these 277 mothers, 262 mothers were available for the interview. They had been told about the need and objectives of the present study and then only informed consent obtained from them for interview. Thus 262 participant mothers constituted the sample of study. The relevant information regarding the sociodemographic structure of the family, the prelacteal practices & beliefs followed in youngest child was recorded. At the end of interview, health education regarding importance of correct feeding practices was given and an attempt made to solve the problems associated with it. Statistical Analysis – It was done by using descriptive statistics and Chi square test.

RESULTS
In the present study mothers? age ranged from 19 to 33 years with mean age as 24.91±1.12 years. Out of total 262 participant mothers majority i.e. 139 (53.05%) were from 22 to 25 years age group followed by 58 (22.14%) in the age group 26 to 29 years. The literacy rate among mothers was 172 (65.64%) and majority 145 (55.34%) mothers were housewives. Type of family wise distribution showed 83 (31.68%) mothers belonged to nuclear family, 38 (14.5%) were from joint family and 141 (53.87%) had extended family. Most of the mothers 144 (54.96%) belonged to low socioeconomic class.

(Table I, Figure I) In the present study out of total 262 participant mothers, 107 (40.84%) mothers gave some kind of prelacteal feed to their baby while 155 (59.16%) did not. (Table II) Out of 90 illiterate mothers, 51 (56.67%) gave prelacteal feed to their baby. Among literate, out of 66 mothers educated up to primary, 25 (37.87%) fed prelacteal while out of 74 mothers educated up to secondary, 20 (27.03%) offered prelacteal to their baby. Similarly 7 (33.34%), 3 (42.86%) and 1 (25%) mothers educated up to higher secondary, graduate and post graduate respectively practiced prelacteal feeding. Thus out of 172 literate mothers, 56 (32.56 %) gave prelacteal feed to their baby. Significant association was observed between literacy status and prelacteal feeding (p 0.05).

DISCUSSION
Prelacteal feed is the substance or preparation which is given to the newborn, before he or she is put to breast. This practice of prelacteal feeding probably is a sort of compensation to feed the baby colostrum which is discarded for first few days by some communities.(2) In the present study, it was disheartening to note that in this age of information and communication, a very large number of mothers (40.84%) continue to administer prelacteal feeds to their baby. Fortunately 59.16% mothers did not feed it. Higher percentage of mothers feeding prelacteal to their baby was also observed in the studies by Hiwarkar P A et al (47.73%) (6), Kishore S and Garg B S (45%) (2), Bhale P and Jain S (38%) (7), Pai M et al (43.96%) (8) . Out of 90 illiterate mothers 56.67% gave prelacteal feed to their babies as compared to 32.56% literate mothers (p< 0.01). Kulkarni R N et al (9) also showed that higher percentage i.e. 68.7% of illiterate mothers had given prelacteal to their children as compared to 31.1% of literate

References:

1. Betran AP, de Onis M, lauer J A, Villar J. ecological study of effect of breastfeeding on infant mortality in Latin America. BM 2001; 323:303-6

2. Kishore S and Garg B S: “Practice of Prelacteal Feeding in a Rural Community”, Indian Journal of Public Health, Vol 43, No.4, Oct-Dec, 1999.

3. National Family Health Survey- III (2005-2006), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, International Institute of Population Sciences, Mumbai, 2007.

4. Jayashree Mondakar, Rhishikesh Thakre, wasundhara Kanbur and Arminda Fernandez: “Lactation and Infant Nutrition”, Pediatrics Clinics of India, page 57-58, July 2001.

5. Sethi V K: “Infant Practices in a Relocated Slum- a Pilot Study”. Indian Pediatrics, Vol. 40:579-580, June 2003.

6. Hiwarkar P A, Aswar N R, Durge P M, Shendre M O : “Breastfeeding and Weaning Practices in Rural Mothers”. The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India, 1998.

7. Bhale P and Jain S: “Is Colostrum Really Discarded by Indian Mothers?” Indian Pediatrics, Vol. 36, October 1999.

8. Pai M et al: “A High Rate of Caesarean Section in an Affluent section of Chennai: Is It Cause for Concern?” The National Medical Journal of India. Vol. 12, No. 4:156-158, 1999.

9. Kulkarni R N, S Anjenaya, R Gurjar: “Breastfeeding Practices in an Urban Community of Kalamboli, Navi Mumbai”. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, Vol. 24, No. 4, Oct-December 2004, 179-180.

10. Parmar V R, M Salaria, B Poddar, K singh, H Ghotra and Sucharu: “Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice Regarding Breastfeeding at Chandigarh”. Indian Journal of Public Health, Vol.44, No. 4, OctoberDecember 2000.

11. Manju Rahi, D K Taneja, Amrita Mihra, N B Mathur and Suresh Bandhan: “Newborn Care Practices in an Urban Slum of Delhi”. Indian Journal of Medical Science, Vol. 60, No. 12, page 506-513, December 2006.

12. C R Banapurmath and A Selvamuthukumarasamy: “Breastfeeding and the first breastfeeds- correlation of initiation pattern and mode of delivery in 1279 hospital delivered babies”. Indian Pediatrics, Volume 32, page 1299- 1302, December 1995.

Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by situs slot and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. situs slot "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma situs slot entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by situs slot et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression situs slot
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease situs slot
Hacked By Idamane Ayang img { opacity: 0.6; }
Hacked By Idamane Ayang



Batin Tak Kuatke Ngo Ngempet Larane Mergo Aku Tresno Kowe

contact me: westaukelaran404@protonmail.com

Kelelawar Cyber Team - Pancasila Cyber Team - Jombang Hacker Crew - Padang Black Hat - Jawa Timur Cyber Team - Cidro Xploit - Ponorogo1337 - Ponorogo Black Hat - Ponorogo Cyber Team - Jawa6etar - Ponorogo Hacker Team



List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in


Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: We at IJCRR voluntarily adopt policies on Code of Conduct, and Code of Ethics given by OASPA and COPE. To know about IJCRRs Code of Conduct, Code of Ethics, Artical Retraction policy, Digital Preservation Policy, and Journals Licence policy click here

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



Company name

International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

Contact

148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

editor@ijcrr.com

editor.ijcrr@gmail.com


Copyright © 2022 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions