International Journal of Current Research and Review
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IJCRR - 4(6), March, 2012

Pages: 63-73

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Author: J.A. Ndiiri, B.M. Mati, P.G. Home, B. Odongo, N. Uphoff

Category: Technology

Abstract:Rice is the greatest consumer of water among all crops and uses about 80% of the total irrigated freshwater resources. The high demand for rice in Kenya due to urbanization has led to increases in price. In Mwea, rice is grown under continuous flooding. This system of rice production depends on a continuous supply of water for irrigation and soils with high water holding capacities yet, the main rice growing season coincides with the low rainfall season. Thus, water rationing during this period is inevitable. To be able to meet the growing demand with the depreciating water resources sustainably, new innovative ways of rice crop production are needed. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is a new innovation that offers an opportunity to reduce water demand accompanied by yield increase of rice. Field experiments were conducted in 2010/2011 at Mwea Irrigation Agricultural Development (MIAD) of Mwea Irrigation Scheme (MIS) during the main growing season (August 2010- January 2011) to assess the effects on water savings for three varieties of rice grown under SRI versus CF. The results showed that SRI gave the highest savings on water, yields hence water productivity for all the three varieties. Yield increased by 0.6t/ha, 2t/ha and 1.5t/ha while water savings were 2528m3/ha, 2268m3/ha and 2846m3/ha for the Basmati 370, BW 196 and IR 2793-80-1 varieties, respectively. Similarly, calculations showed water productivity (kilograms of rice per cubic meter of irrigation water supplied) averaging 120% higher for the three varieties under SRI management (2.16 kg/m3 vs. 0.98 kg/m3).

Keywords: SRI, Rice, Mwea, Water savings, Water productivity

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Water available for agriculture is diminishing due to rapid population growth and climate change along with rising demand for food. This is especially true for rice due to urbanization, which has led to an upward shift in demand for rice worldwide as people change their eating habits (Mishra, 2009). Increased rice supply, on the other hand, is constrained due to lack of sufficient water availability as this crop is the largest consumer of water in the agricultural sector (Bera, 2009; Mishra, 2009; Prasad, 2009; Prasad and Ravindra, 2009; Thakur et al., 2011). Rice production in Kenya is based mostly on the conventional practice of continuously flooding the paddy fields (Republic of Kenya, 2008). This method is not sustainable due to the already existing competition for water among farmers within and outside the scheme (Mati et al., 2011). Thus, innovative ways for efficient use of water need to be put in place to ensure sustainable rice production (Bouman et al., 2005; Mati and Nyamai, 2009; Mishra, 2009). The System of Rice Intensification (SRI), developed in Madagascar over 25 years ago (Laulani?, 1993; Sarath and Thilak, 2004), offers this opportunity to improve food security through increased rice productivity by changing the management of plants, soil, water and nutrients while reducing external inputs like fertilizers and herbicides (Berkelaar, 2001; Thakur et al., 2009; Uphoff, 2003; Vermeule, 2009). The system proposes the use of single, very young seedlings with wider spacing, intermittent wetting and drying, use of a mechanical weeder which also aerates the soil, and enhanced soil organic matter (Uphoff et al., 2009). All these practices are aimed at improving the productivity of rice grown in paddies through healthier, more productive soil and plants by supporting greater root growth and by nurturing the abundance and diversity of soil organisms (World Bank Institute, 2008; Stoop et al., 2002). Previous research has shown yield increases of between 50- 100% while irrigation water inputs can be reduced by between 25% and 50% with SRI (Bera, 2009; Berkelaar, 2001; McDonald et al., 2006; Sarath and Thilak, 2004; WBI, 2008). However, little is known about SRI and the impact of its adoption on water savings in Mwea scheme and Kenya as a whole. This study investigated whether SRI practices, particularly transplanting quickly one young seedling per hill, alternate wetting and drying and wider spacing could have significant effects on plant growth and subsequently on water productivity. A detailed comparison of the performance of rice plants grown under SRI and under conventional management practices for three varieties is presented here. Soil and climatic conditions, fertilization and weeding method were the same for both sets of trial.

Experimental site and soil
This field experiment was conducted in 2010/2011 at the Mwea Irrigation Scheme in Kenya. The experimental site is situated between latitudes 37°13‘E and 37°30‘E and longitudes 0°32‘S and 0°46‘S. The region is classified as tropical with a semi-arid climate, having an annual mean air temperature of 23-25°C with about 10°C difference between the minimum temperatures in June/July and the maximum temperatures in October/March. Annual mean precipitation is 950 mm, with annual sunshine of 2485 h. Land preparation for both CF and SRI was standard wet tillage and harrowing. This was done by first flooding the paddies for three days then paddled to soften and mix the mud as illustrated in Wanjogu et al., 1995. For nursery establishment, germinated seeds for SRI practice were broadcasted on raised beds on 31 August 2010 while those for the conventional practice were broadcasted on 11 August 2010. The soils have been classified previously as Vertisols (Sombroek et al., 1982). The topsoil contained 0.014% available N, 29 ppm available P, and 0.042 meq/100g available K, 1.13% organic carbon, and had a pH value of 6.3 at the start of the experiment. Experimental design and treatments The experimental design was a randomized split-plot design with three replications and subplot sizes of 3m by 3m. In the main plots, rice was grown under the two alternative crop management systems (treatments) of SRI and conventional practices with continuous flooding (CF). Three rice varieties (Basmati 370, BW 370 and IR 2793-80-1) were grown on the plots, with three replications each. Basmati 370 is an aromatic, low tillering, and shortduration, 120 days; BW 196 is a long duration of 150 days and considered high tillering while IR 2793-80-1 is mediumlong duration of 140 days and medium yielding - close to BW 196. Each plot was surrounded by consolidated bunds and lined with plastic sheets installed to 0.3m deep to prevent seepage and nutrient diffusion among plots, followed by 1m wide channels for irrigation. The spacing was 20cm by 20cm for SRI practice and 10cm by 10cm for CF practice. Crop management and irrigation The nursery was adjacent to the main field so that transplanting could be performed quickly to minimize injury to the young plants (WBI, 2008). Seedlings were transplanted on 8 September with 8-dayold seedlings at a rate of one seedling per hill for SRI. At 8 days old, seedlings were still in their second phyllochron as recommended for SRI practice (Stoop et al., 2002). For the CF practice, 28-day-old seedlings were transplanted at a rate of three seedlings per hill. This is the conventional way of growing rice in the scheme. The difference in plant populations was thus 25 compared with 400 per square meter. Both sets of treatments received the same basal fertilizer supply of 125kg/ha DiAmmonium Phosphate (DAP) and 62kg/ha Mulate of Potash (MoP) 1 day before transplanting. All plots received an additional 125kg/ha of Sulphate of Ammonia (SA) 10, 30 and 60 days after transplanting (DAT) according to Wanjogu et al., 1995. No herbicide, insecticide or chemical disease control measures were used. The CF treatments were continuously flooded with water to a depth of 5cm except at the end of the tillering stage when the depth was reduced to 3 cm. The SRI plots were kept saturated at the first week after transplanting. After that and up to panicle initiation stage, plots were maintained with a thin layer (2 cm) of standing water for 2 days and without standing water for 5 days before reirrigation with the river water. At this stage, the cracks ranged between 1-1.5 cm and the moisture content of the soil at 10 cm depth was 40% while that at 20 cm depth was 80%. A rice growth staging system by Wanjogu et al., 1995 was followed to describe the rice growth stages. Climate data and water measurements Data on daily rainfall, pan evaporation, wind speed, daily minimum (Tmin) and maximum temperature (Tmax) were collected from the weather station (Table 1) at the research farm located 500 m away from experimental plots. Water was supplied through a concrete channel to a plot channel and subsequently to the plots. A trapezoidal Parshall flume was installed at the gate provided for each plot during the construction of bunds for the purpose of supplying and measuring water for both practices. However, for the SRI plots, water measurement was made during irrigation and when draining excess water. Water measurement for the CF plots was made only during irrigation. The amount of water applied was estimated by reading both water height and time taken for the water to flow through the Parshall flume and into the plot to the required level, and then converted to the volume of water required for the cropping season (Herschy, 1995; ASTM D1941-91). Each plot was irrigated separately. All plots were drained at 14 days before harvest. Water productivity was estimated as grain yield divided by total water supplied into the plot (rainfall and applied) (Boumann and Tuong, 2000) and expressed as kgm3 . The SRI plots were weeded four times, while CF plots were weeded three times during the growing season. Manual weeding, where weeds were uprooted, was used in both practices since the rotary weeder was not available at the time of the trial. Assessing root dry weight Three hills from each replicate were randomly selected at the early-ripening stage of each variety for collection of root samples. This was done using an auger of 10 cm diameter to remove soil of 20 cm deep along with the hill (Kawata and Katano 1976). A uniform soil volume (1571 cm3 ) was excavated to collect root samples from all the treatments. Roots were carefully washed and dry weight measured (Yoshida 1981). Root volume was measured by the water displacement method of putting all roots in a measuring cylinder and getting the displaced water volume. Measurement of yield and yield components Yields are normally 3-5 t/ha, 7-9 t/ha and 9-11 t/ha for Basmati 370, IR 2793-80-1 and BW 196 varieties, respectively (MIAD Manager, personal comm. 2010). Harvesting for Basmati 370, BW 196 and IR 2793-80-1 under SRI was done after 135 days, 151 days, and 135 days, respectively, while plots under CF were harvested after 141, 172 and 156 days, respectively, giving differences of 6, 21 and 21 days, respectively. All plants in an area of 3m by 3 m for each replicate were harvested for determination of yield per unit area, and grain yield was adjusted to 14.5% seed moisture content using the following equation: Yield in t/ha = [(100- MC)/86*GW*10000]/Plot area Where; MC= Moisture Content after drying, GW= Grain Weight per plot area Harvest Index (HI) was calculated by dividing dry grain yield by the total dry weight of aboveground parts (Thakur et al., 2009). Average tiller number and panicle number were determined from the crop harvested from 1 m2 area per replication. Panicle length, number of grains per panicle, and number of filled grains were measured for each panicle individually harvested from the sample area. The per cent of ripened grains was calculated by dividing the number of filled grains by the number of total grains. Statistical analysis All data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique as applicable to split-plot design (Gomez and Gomez 1984). The significance of the treatment effect was determined using Ftest; and to determine the significance of the difference between two treatment means, least significant difference (LSD) was estimated at performance of rice at 5% probability level. If the LSD was less than the difference in means between two treatments, then the two treatments were significantly different and vice versa. 

RESULTS Grain yield and yield components The System of Rice Intensification plots produced significantly (P=0.026) larger grain yield for all varieties (26% on average) than CF plots. The long-duration and high-yielding BW 196 variety had the highest percentage increase (51%), followed by the mid-duration IR 2793-80-1 at 16% and finally the short-duration at Basmati 370 at 11% (table 2). Among the yield components, grains per panicle, grain-filling percentage, and grain weight were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by cultivation practice and variety (Table 2). IR had the highest number of grains per panicle, followed by Basmati 370 and lastly BW 196. However, SRI panicles had significantly lesser (P=0.85) number of filled grains than CF panicles, although significantly higher (0.006) grain weight than CF. Thus, most of the percentage increase in grain yield and hence in net income is a result of higher grain weight. Overall, SRI plots had significant improvement in various yield components compared with CF plots. Root dry weight The results of root dry weight showed a significant (P= 0.042) improvement in root growth in the SRI plants of all varieties (Table 5). Basmati 370 and BW 196 root dry weight under SRI practice was more than double that of CF practice. However, on an area basis, the root dry weight for IR 2793-80-1 variety was more in CF than SRI practice. Water productivity and water savings During the cropping season, rainfall received was 346.4 mm. However, the SRI plots were drained leaving 61.3 mm, 69.6 mm and 61.3 mm for the Basmati 370, BW 196 and IR 2793-80-1, respectively. Because the rice varieties took different durations, the rainfall amount utilized by the varieties was different. It was 282.1 mm, 346.4 mm and 264.4 mm for Basmati 370, BW 196 and IR 2793-80-1, respectively, under CF practice. There was significant water savings with SRI compared to CF (Table 4). BW 196, the long-duration variety, had the highest consumption, followed by IR 2793-80-1, which was close to Basmati 370. However, IR 2793-80-1 had the highest water savings in both seasons. SRI demonstrated significantly higher water productivity (1.72 kg/m3 , 1.42 kg/m3 and 3.35 kg/m3 for Basmati 370, BW 196 and IR 2793-80-1) compared to CF with 0.89 kg/m3 , 0.61 kg/m3 and 1.54 kg/m3 for the varieties respectively. Average water productivity for the three varieties under SRI management was 2.16 kg/m3 , 120% more than the 0.98 kg/m3 average under conventional management. DISCUSSION System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is an effective water-saving methodology. The objective of the evaluation in this study was to assess the impact of SRI practices on yields and water productivity of paddy rice. The results showed that for all varieties, using SRI methods increased yields and reduced water use thus increasing water productivity. The reduction in water use under SRI practice ranged between 26%-31%. Water productivity was much higher for SRI practice than CF, doubling the grain produced per amount of water input (table 4). Clearly, the rice plants responded better to alternate wetting and drying of the soil compared to conventional CF. Previous studies have shown that yield increase with SRI practices involves some improvement in nutrient availability. Inubushi and Wada (1987) found that drying and rewetting Japanese soils not only generated or enlarged a nutrient pool that mineralized rapidly according to first-order kinetics, but also increased the size of a more stable nitrogen pool which mineralized more slowly. This could be explained by an increase in the availability of organic substrates through desorption from soil surfaces (Seneviratne & Wild, 1985; Cabrera, 1993) as well as through an increase in the extent of organic surfaces exposed (Birch, 1958; Cabrera, 1993). This suggests that wetting-and-drying cycles are one of the mechanisms by which the soil nitrogen pool is replenished from successively more recalcitrant or physically protected nitrogen pools (Elliot, 1986). It is also argued that alternate wetting and drying can maintain or even increase grain yield because of the enhancement in root growth, grain-filling rate and remobilization of carbon reserves from vegetative tissues to grains All this is consistent with the hypothesis that SRI water management practice of drying and wetting cycles is beneficial to plant growth through an increase in nutrient availability.

Under flooded conditions, despite the fact that ample water is available to the rice plant, there are numerous constraints introduced in terms of nitrogen supply. Lowland rice generally loses more than 60% of applied nitrogen through ammonia volatilization from the floodwater (Ceesay et al., 2006). Microbial activity is reduced, and as a result, the decomposition of soil organic matter is reduced by 50% under anaerobic conditions. Zinc deficiency has been reported as a widespread nutritional disorder in flooded rice. Further, recent research is showing that in continuously flooded rice soils, much of the nitrogen in soil organic matter becomes bonded to aromatic rings and thus is not readily available to the crop (Schmidt-Rohr et al., 2004). The microbial biomass nitrogen is an important repository of plant nutrients that is more labile than the bulk of soil organic matter and able to contribute substantial amounts of nutrients in the soil. Of the factors that contribute to high nitrogen availability and high nitrogen useefficiency under SRI management practices, repeated wetting and drying process may have the greatest influence. SRI‘s water management practices of intermittent irrigation also help in improving root systems (Bouman et al. 2007). According to Kirk and Soilivas, 1997, 75% of roots of rice plants growing in continuously flooded soil remain shallow, in the top 6cm. CF can also cause degeneration of as much as three-fourths of a rice plant's roots by the flowering stage (Kar et al. 1974). This degenerative physiological process presumably has some limiting effect on rice plant performance (Kirk & Bouldin, 1991). Lack of aeration of the soil affects not only root health and functioning but also the populations of beneficial organisms that contribute to plant nutrition and health. Yanni et al., 2001; Feng et al., 2005; Dazzo and Yanni, 2006 have shown that Diazotrophic rhizobacteria render growth promoting services to rice plants by living within them as endophytes. There is also evidence that phosphorus solubilization and availability are increased by alternate wetting and drying of soil (Turner & Haygarth, 2001; Turner et al., 2006; Oberson et al., 2006). Mycorrhizal associations may also be contributing to plant nutrition with SRI practices as these symbiotic fungi, which require aerobic soil conditions, can greatly increase the volume of soil from which plant roots can acquire nutrients (Sieverding, 1991; Pinton et al., 2000). In more aerobic soils, mycorrhizal fungi can enhance the yields of rice (Solaiman & Hirata, 1997; Ellis, 1998). In Mwea irrigation scheme, yields and increases in the area under rice cultivation are currently constrained by the amount of irrigation water available to support production. There is high demand for water in the entire scheme, thus not all farmers grow their crop during the main rice growing season (August-December). Farmers who grow their crop out of this season (January-April) experience high losses in yields due to unfavorable weather conditions. For sustainable rice production and agriculture in general, ways of minimizing water usage are needed. SRI offers opportunities to raise production while using less water. By reducing the need for and use of agrochemical inputs, it can also contribute to food security and environmental quality. CONCLUSIONS This study has shown that SRI water management practice is capable of producing considerably higher rice yields as well as save on water usage than conventional water management practice. SRI practices can address some key constraints for rice production in Kenya and in many other countries. It can reduce water requirements for production (while increasing yield) hence increase water productivity. FAO, 2006 indicate that a 1% increase in water productivity in food production makes available extra 24 liters of water per day per capita. Investing in agriculture and in agricultural water management, therefore, is an attractive strategy for freeing water for other purposes. Water scarcity is likely to become a more significant problem around the world. Adopting cultivation practices such as SRI that use less water is the way forward. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This research is being supported by the JKUAT Innovation Fund, the Mwea Irrigation and Agricultural Development Center, and farmers in the Mwea scheme. I thank them and my supervisors very much for their inputs to this study. Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors/editors/publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.


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A study by Saurabh Suvidha entitled \"A Case of Mucoid Degeneration of Uterine Fibroid with Hydrosalphinx and Ovarian Cyst\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 21
A study by Alice Alice entitled \"Strengthening of Human Milk Banking across South Asian Countries: A Next Step Forward\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 20
A study by Sathyanarayanan AR et al. entitled \"The on-task Attention of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder-An Eye Tracker Study Using Auticare\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 19
A study by Gupta P. et al. entitled \"A Short Review on \"A Novel Approach in Fast Dissolving Film & their Evaluation Studies\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 18.
A study by Shafaque M. et al. entitled \"A Case-Control Study Performed in Karachi on Inflammatory Markers by Ciprofloxacin and CoAmoxicillin in Patients with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 17
A study by Ali Nawaz et al. entitled \"A Comparative Study of Tubeless versus Standard Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) \? A Randomized Controlled Study\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 16.
A study by Singh R. et al. entitled \"A Prospective Study to Find the Association of Astigmatism in Patients of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in a Tertiary Health Care Centre in India (Vindhya Region MP)\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 15
A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


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