International Journal of Current Research and Review
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IJCRR - 4(9), May, 2012

Pages: 115-128

Date of Publication: 17-May-2012

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Author: Nisha K., R.K.Deshwal

Category: General Sciences

Abstract:Plants suffer from many diseases which are caused by various microbes like bacteria, fungi virus etc. Fungi of the genus Fusarium, widely distributed saprophyte, are extremely pathogenic to plants causing damage to plants by various vascular wilts, collar rot of seedlings, rot of tubers, bulbs and corms etc. Most of the diversity studies have been done on pathogenic strains of Fusarium sps which are split into divisions called host specific formae speciales (abbreviated f.sp.) .Many Fusarium sps produce harmful secondary metabolites called mycotoxins like zearalenones, trichothecenes, fumonisins etc. They reproduce by forming spores viz. microconidia, macroconidia and chlamydospores. Genetic variation studies among these can be performed by various methods using different types of molecular markers.
These studies have characterised Fusarium sps. in different plants all over the world which can be exploited for developing biocontrol agents for resistance breeding. This would be an environment friendly and economical viable approach to control fungal plant diseases as compared to chemical fungicides.

Keywords: Fusarium, mycotoxins, formae speciales, biocontrol agent

Full Text:

Plants get damaged by various pathogens. Most of which are biotic agents like fungi, bacteria and viruses or abiotic like frost, hail etc. Biotic agents are responsible for parasitic diseases in which they obtain nutrition by growing on or in the plants. On the other hand non parasitic diseases are caused by abiotic factors like moisture and temperature due to unfavourable growing conditions which affect severity of plant diseases. These diseases are generally named on the basis of parts affected viz. Blight (in which leaves, flower or whole plant undergoes browning and dies suddenly)(Yu etal., 2008 ,Bai etal 2004); stem canker (in which any localised organ dies) (Esmailzadeh etal.,2008); wilt (when turgidity is lost) (Muhammad Sibtain etal., 2001); Gall (when cells overgrow) (Armstrong 1995); Stunting (in which plants do not develop fully); and leaf curl, mosaic, and chlorosis(due to lack of chlorophyll) (Athar Nadeem etal.,2001,Sukalpa etal.,2001,Ghosh and Basak 1951,Biswas etal.,1989)Damping Off(where a young seedling collapses and dies)(Erwin etal.,1996) . Among all pathogens, fungi of the genus Fusarium (member of Ascomycetes)are widely distributed and extremely pathogenic to plants by causing various vascular wilts, collar rot of seedlings, rot of tubers, bulbs and corms etc(Akinsanmi etal.,2004,H Sarami etal.,2007,Setti and Bouznad, 1998; Belabid et al., 2000). Many of the species produce a range of secondary metabolites (mycotoxins) that are harmful to human and animal consumers and also contaminate grains (Desjardin 2006, Vesonder 1989).

Diversity and Life Cycle of Fusarium sps
Fusarium oxysporum is the most common species worldwide among the plant pathogens.(Agrios 1988,Smith etal 1988). F. oxysporum isolates from different agroclimatic areas exhibit considerable diversity(P K Singh et al.,2011)with respect to cultural characteristics (Elwakil and Ghoneem, 1999).It does not reproduce sexually but undergoes asexual reproduction to spread its pathogenecity among plants.It produces three types of spores viz


ii)Macroconidia and

iii) Chlamydospores.

(Agrios 1988)Among these most abundant are microconidia which are oval or bean shaped spores produced on aeriel mycelia .Macroconidia have pointed edges found on surface of diseased plants. The toughest spores are chlamydospores which are thick walled spores produced in chains or cluster and can surive in soil for much longer time. Many plants are drastically infected by Fusarium sps like

F. graminearum,

F. verticillioides,

F. oxysporum,

F. subglutinans,

F. proliferatum.


F. avenaceum,

F. concolor,

F. crookwellense (F. cerealis), F. equiseti, F. semitectum, F.solani, F.sporotrichioides and F. venenatum which causes significant economic losses. Some of these are further divided into subgroups called races, on the basis of virulence.Fusarium oxysporum is split into divisions called formae speciales (singular forma specialis, abbreviated f.sp.) which cause various vascular wilt diseases .Most of diversity studies have been done on pathogenic strains of Fusarium.(Kistler.,1997, Baayen etal.,2000, Lattifah etal.,2009). In general, Fusarium wilt first appears as slight vein clearing on the outer portion of the younger leaves, followed by epinasty (downward drooping) of the older leaves. At the seedling stage, plants infected may die soon after appearance of symptoms. In older plants, vein clearing and leaf epinasty are often followed by stunting, yellowing of the lower leaves, formation of adventitious roots, wilting of leaves and young stems, defoliation, marginal necrosis of remaining leaves, and finally death of the entire plant (Agrios, 1988).Fusarium sps. spreads in short distances by water splash or planting equipments while long distances by infected seeds or transplants. It infects a healthy plant through mycelia or germinating spore penetrates in root tip, root wound or lateral roots. (Bhalla et al., 1992).The mycelium develops intracellularly and reaches xylem vessels where it produces microconidia. These microconidia enter cell sap and move by upward transportation. When the sap flow stops they start germinating and block the vascular vessels by triggering the self-defense mechanisms whereby secretion of gel occurs followed by formation of tylose in the vascular vessels. (Bishop and Cooper, 1984).Due to this plant is not able to absorb water and minerals and translocation of nutrients. The movement of water to the upper part of the host plant is blocked and the rate of transpiration becomes more than rate of transportation which causes yellowing, wilting and eventually death to the host plant. After this the fungus penetrates to all tissues and start infecting other neighbouring plants. The pathogen persists in the soil as chlamydospores that can remain viable for several seasons. (Erskine and Bayaa, 1996) As a result of the persistence of the pathogen in the soil, the disease is best controlled through host plant resistance.

Diseases caused by Fusarium species and symptoms
There are more than 100 Fusarium vascular wilt diseases world-wide.(Machardy 1981) .There are over 100 formae speciales divisions, each with one or two different races. Each forma specialis within the species are host-specific (i.e. specific to a certain plant) and produce different symptoms as pathogenic as well as non pathogenic forms.(Armstrong and Armstrong,1981)It is a cosmopolitan soil-borne fungus which colonizes the vascular system of the host plant. It infects tomato, tobacco, legumes, cucurbits, sweet potatoes and banana alongwith many other herbaceous plants. The symptoms are different in different hosts depending on type of Fusarium sps. Early symptoms of diseases caused by Fusarium sps causes leaf yellowing, slight wilting during the day and stunting. In hot conditions diseased plants such as tomato and peas can die within a few days. Diseased bananas usually die slowly, taking 1–2 months. Browning of the internal stem (vascular) tissue is a key symptom of pathogens which cause vascular wilt disease. It appears like clearing of vein on younger leaves and drooping of older leaves.Then stunting or yellowing of leaves, defoliation take place and finally plant dies.Various researchers have characterised Fusarium sp. in different plants all over the world which have diverse symptoms .Some of them are as follows: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. asparagi (Fusarium yellows on asparagus)(Elmer and Stephens 1989); f.sp. callistephi (wilt on staghorn sumac) (Oellete etal.,2006) ; f.sp. cubense (Panama disease/wilt on banana) (Leong etal.,2010,Pegg atal.,1995).; f.sp. dianthi (wilt on carnation)(Oellete 2002, Baaen etal.,1996);f.sp. koae (on koa)(Gardener 1980); f.sp. lycopersici (wilt on tomato) (Jones etal.,1982); f.sp. melonis (fusarium wilt on muskmelon) (Gordon etal.,1989,Namiki et al.,1998 ); f.sp. niveum (fusarium wilt on watermelon)(Martin and Bruton 1989); f.sp. pisi (on edible-podded pea)(Shirley 1963); f.sp. tracheiphilum (wilt on Glycine max) (Li and Hartman 2003); and f.sp. zingiberi (fusarium yellows on ginger) (Raabe et al., 1981).f.sp.cumini (Wilt of cumin) (Bardia and Rai 2008),f. sp. vasinfectum (Wilt of cotton ) (Assigbetse et al., 1994 ) , f. sp. Phaseoli (Wilt of bean) (Woo etal.,1996,Fernando etal.,1999) ,f. sp. Lentis (Wilt of lentil)(Tosi and Capelli 2001) , f.sp. ciceri( Wilt of chickpea) (Jiménez-Gasco et al., 2001,Bhim Pratap etal.,2006) f.sp.lagenariae(Wilt of bottle gourd)(Matio and Yamamoto1956), f.sp.momordicae(Wilt of bitter gourd) (Sun and Huang 1983), f.sp.batatas (wilt in sweet potato) (Shimizu etal.,2005), f.sp.curcumerinum(wilt of Cucumber)( Owen 1956)F.verticillioides(Ear rot of Maize)(Eller etal.,2009) F.graminearum(Head Blight of Wheat)(Bechtel 1985) F.fujikuroi (Bakanae disease of Rice)(Zhang etal.,1998).

Estimation of Genetic Variation
The genus Fusarium consists of variable number of populations (Jelena etal., 2012).Genetic variation studies among these can be performed by various methods using different types of molecular markers which vary in their principles andmethodologies. (Mohammadi and Mofrad, 2009, Hill etal.,2011)One can choose according to the requirement of study among these 11 different molecular marker methods: restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), intersimple sequence repeats (ISSRs), sequence characterized regions (SCARs), sequence tag 118 International Journal of Current Research and Review Vol. 04 issue 09 May 2012 sites (STSs), cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS), microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), expressed sequence tags (ESTs), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and diversity arrays technology (DArT)( Avinash etal.,2011,Semagn etal.,2006, Assigbetse et al., 1994 Woo etal.,2006,Bogale etal.,2006). Among these widely used method of estimation of genetic variation is Vegetative compatibility grouping(VCG) which is based on the ability of the mycelium to anastomose to form heterokaryon(Chen etal.,2007,Lattifah etal 2008,Kistler etal.,1998,Puhalla 1985).This helps to determine genetic relatedness .This requires special culture media and methods, as well as standard incubation conditions.High variability in species, especially under different environmental conditions, has caused taxonomists to consider some special criteria to be important in the classification of species. For this reason, different methods and keys have been developed.The large variation in some of the characteristics of Fusarium isolates such as pathogenicity, colony morphology e.g. form and color, mode of development of the chlamydospores, existence or lack of sporodochia or type of microconidia, have resulted in classification of species into different intra-specific groups. Most of the intra specific classifications are based on pathogenic behavior and vegetative compatibility groups (VCG). Some researchers have placed some isolates of VCG into the same race using the pectic zymogram technique(Balali and Iranpoor 2006, Mukesh etal.,2005, Szekzi 1990 a,b)). Zymogram is an electrophoretic method for measuring protheolithic activity in which the enzymes are separated from one another in a polyacryl-amid gel .The study of the genetic variation among and within species and subspecies using a pectic zymogram marker helps in identifying the relation among genotypes and pathogenic phenotypes. It can also help in understanding evolution of different species through time. Apart from this, there is another method called RAPD analysis which is a fast, PCR-based method of genetic typing based on genomic polymorphisms. The technique is highly sensitive to nucleotide differences and can assay single nucleotide differences. RAPD produces DNA profiles of varying complexity, depending on the primer and template used. Random markers as products of the PCR-RAPD technique have been developed to differentiate numerous fungi in various plants.(Arif etal.,2011,Arici and Koc 2010) RAPD markers generated with single primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequence have been used in detecting intraspecific polymorphisms among fungi (Pegg etal., 1995). This technique can generate specific DNA fragments that can be used for the identification of isolates, and in molecular ecology (Hadrys et al., 1992). This technique has been applied widely in the detection and genetic characterization of phytopathogenic fungi including race differentiation in several formae speciales of F. oxysporum. (El Fadly etal. 2008).A similarity matrix on simple matching co-efficients is calculated from the data based on the RAPD of all isolates. The matrix is used to construct a dendrogram using Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean Analysis (UPGMA tool of NTSYS) for establishing relatedness.(Rohlf 2000) The dendrogram obtained shows the hierarchical clustering which separated the isolates into different groups according to their similarity coefficients. (Peter etal., 2009)Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) is a novel molecular marker technique based on twoprimer amplification that preferentially amplifies open reading frames (ORFs). (Li etal. 2001)The forward primers amplify exonic regions, and the reverse primers preferentially amplify intronic regions and promoters. With this unique primer design, SRAP markers are more reproducible, more stable, and less complex than RAPD and AFLPs. Different studies have been done worldwide to understand the diversity of Fusarium species using different molecular markers as per requirement. In 2008 and 2009, samples of weeds and plant debris were collected from 12 locations in eastern Croatia, and 300 Fusarium isolates colonizing them were identified. (Jelena etal., 2012).Strains were grouped and identified based on morphology and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) patterns. Fourteen Fusarium species were identified with F. graminearum , F. verticillioides , F. oxysporum , F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum, F.cuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. concolor, F. crookwellense (F. cerealis), F. equiseti, F. semitectum, F. solani, F.sporotrichioides and F. venenatum.Their study indicated that economically important Fusarium sps. may be isolated from numerous alternative hosts during the off season and that weeds and plant debris can serve as a reservoir of genetically diverse inoculum. To identify Fusarium sps associated with diseases of root and basal plate of onion, surveys were conducted in seven provinces of Turkey in 2007(Harun etal. 2011). Samplings were performed in 223 fields, and 332 isolates belonging to 7 Fusarium spp. were obtained. The isolates were identified as F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum,F. equiseti, F. proliferatum, F. redolens, and F. culmorum based on morphological and cultural characteristics. Also, species-specific primers were used to confirm the identity of Fusarium sps. In India many crops are affected by Fusarium sps but the research on genetic diversity is in intial stages. A study was conducted in 1995-2006 in which 48 isolates of F. oxysporum f.sp.ciceris (FOC) collected from the diverse agro-climatic chickpea growing regions of India was done using AFLP markers. Out of these 41 were found pathogenic showing characteristic wilt symptoms and seven isolates were nonpathogenic which did not show any symptoms at all. (Sharma etal, 2009). Not only these but much more research has been conducted to understand the pathogenecity of Fusarium sps in plants worldwide. It‘s not possible to quote all of them but the objective is same that variability in Fusarium sps in differents areas is found which affect their pathogenecity to different degrees.

Types of Toxins released from Fusarium species
Fusarium toxins are categorised in different groups based on international regulation. First group consists of those which are under international regulation like deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone and fumonisins . Other group comprises of new emerging varieties, such as beauvericin, enniatins and culmorins. Nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin produced by Fusarium species, are under evaluation by European regulation. The zearalenones are biosynthesized through a polyketide pathway by Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium equiseti, and Fusarium crookwellense. All these species are regular contaminants of cereal crops worldwide.(Hagler etal.,2001) Fumonisins are synthesized by condensation of the amino acid alanine into an acetate-derived precursor (Sweeney and Dobson 1999).They are produced by a number of Fusarium sps like Fusarium verticillioides , Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium nygamai, as well as Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (Rheeder etal.,2002,Marasas etal.,2001)).The trichothecenes are a family of more than sixty sesquiterpenoid metabolites produced by a number of fungal genera, including Fusarium, Myrothecium, Phomopsis, Stachybotrys, Trichoderma, Trichothecium etc. (Uneno 1983,Scott 1989). They can be classified into macrocylic or nonmacrocyclic, depending on the presence of a macrocylic ester or an ester-ether bridge between C-4 and C-15 (Chu 1998). Non macrocyclic trichothecenes are produced by Fusarium sps while macrocyclic by Myrothecium, Stachybotrys, and Trichothecium species (Marasas etal.,1984). The nonmacrocylic trichothecenes can be subclassified into two groups: type A, which have a hydrogen or ester type side chain at the C-8 position, and include T-2 toxin, neosolaniol, and diacetoxyscirpenol, while the type B group contain a ketone and include fusarenon-x, nivalenol, and deoxynivalenol. Diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol(DON), and T-2 are the best studied of the trichothecenes produced by Fusarium species.(Desjardin and Proctor., 2007,Kristensen etal.,2007)

Fusarium sps is widespread in many crops so it poses a significant problem. Certain difficulties have been encountered for the management of various fungal diseases in plants because there is lack of proper knowledge of recommended fungicides in the market. Different chemicals are used in form of pesticides to protect plants from pathogens. These cause a lot of harm to the environment through pollution. In addition, these chemicals are costly and not fully efficacious in some cases. Not only this but many plants have become resistant against these chemical bactericides and fungicides. (Nene et al., 2000) and some new pathogenic strain have also been identified and documented (Mamatha et al., 2004). In such situation, wilt can be managed by resistance breeding using biocontrol agents which is an economically viable and ecologically desirable strategy. (Reid et al., 2002; Jegathambigai et al., 2009). Knowledge of diversity and relatedness among the pathogen populations is, however, a prerequisite for exploitation of resistance breeding. Several nonpathogenic strains of F. oxysporum have been selected as potential biological control agents they can protect plants against the pathogenic strains (Biles and Martin 1989,; Postma and Luttikholt 1996, Bao et al. 2000). These can be introduced in infected crops .They take nutrients from those pathogens and thus help in defending plant by creating tough competition for food and nutrition among pathogens Better screening and breeding procedures are required to access the host plant resistance in new cultivars.

Future prospects
Fusarium species have vast morphological and physiological variations. Most of the research focuses on this fungus due to its ability to cause diseases to economically important plants. But this is not enough as its presence in soils in different areas worldwide have reveal wider and diversified ecological activities.The study of relationships between pathogenic and nonpathogenic forms may shed new light on the evolution of pathogenic F. oxysporum strains (Corelle 1991, Gordon and Martin 1997). Most research has been focused on strains capable of causing disease and nonpathogenic strains have been neglected, except using as biocontrol agents. For better understanding of biological significance Fusarium species should be studied in their natural habitats. They can be used as a model for studying soil borne pathogens. Molecular-biotechnological tools can be promoted for disease characterisation and longterm local monitoring which can lead to regional capacity strengthening.

We want to acknowledge Mr Govind K Vyas, Institute of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology (Chemind Biosolutions, Jaipur) for providing valuable suggestions. We are also grateful to authors/editors/publishers of all those articles, journals, and books from where the literature has been reviewed.


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49. Kistler H.C., Alabouvette C., Baayen R.P., Bentley S., Brayford D.,Coddington A., C orrell J., Daboussi M.J., Elias K., Fernánd ez D.,Gordon T.R.,Katan T., Kim H.G.,Le slie J.F., Martyn R.D.,Migheli Q., Moore N.Y., O‘Donnell K.,Ploetz R.C.,Rutherfor d M.A., Summerell B., Waalwijk C., Woo S.(1998) Systematic numbering of vegetative compatibility groups in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Phytopathology 88:30–32.

50. Kristensen R., Berdal K.G., Holst-Jensen A.,(2007)Simultaneous detection and identification of trichothecene-and moniliformin-producing Fusarium species based on multiplex SNP analysis. Journal of Applied Microbiology 102:1071-1081.

51. Latiffah, Z., Nur Hayati, M. Z., Baharuddin, S. and Maziah, Z(2008) Vegetative compatibility group of Fusarium species associated with root and stem rot of Orchid Malaysian Journal of Microbiology, 4(1): 49-52.

52. Latiffah Z., M.Z. Nur Hayati, S. Baharuddin and Z. Maziah(2009) Identification and Pathogenicity of Fusarium Species Associated with Root Rot and Stem Rot of Dendrobium. Asian Journal of Plant Pathology, 3: 14-21.

53. Leber, T. M. and Balkwill, F. R. (1997). Zymography: A single-step staining method for quantification of proteolytic activity on substrate gels. Analytical Biochemistry, 296, 24-28.

54. Leong S. K., Z. Latiffah and S. Baharuddin (2010) Genetic diversity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.cubense isolates from Malaysia.African Journal of Microbiology Research : 4 (11), 1026- 1037.

55. Li, G.; Quiros, C.F.( 2001)Sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), a new system based on a simple PCR reaction: Its application to mapping and gene tagging in Brassica. Theor. Appl. Genet., 103, 455–461.

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Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A study by Dorothy Ebere Adimora et al. entitled \"Remediation for Effects of Domestic Violence on Psychological well-being, Depression and Suicide among Women During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-cultural Study of Nigeria and Spain\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 23
A study by Muhas C. et al. entitled \"Study on Knowledge & Awareness About Pharmacovigilance Among Pharmacists in South India\" is awarded Best article for Vol 14 issue 22
A study by Saurabh Suvidha entitled \"A Case of Mucoid Degeneration of Uterine Fibroid with Hydrosalphinx and Ovarian Cyst\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 21
A study by Alice Alice entitled \"Strengthening of Human Milk Banking across South Asian Countries: A Next Step Forward\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 20
A study by Sathyanarayanan AR et al. entitled \"The on-task Attention of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder-An Eye Tracker Study Using Auticare\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 19
A study by Gupta P. et al. entitled \"A Short Review on \"A Novel Approach in Fast Dissolving Film & their Evaluation Studies\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 18.
A study by Shafaque M. et al. entitled \"A Case-Control Study Performed in Karachi on Inflammatory Markers by Ciprofloxacin and CoAmoxicillin in Patients with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 17
A study by Ali Nawaz et al. entitled \"A Comparative Study of Tubeless versus Standard Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) \? A Randomized Controlled Study\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 16.
A study by Singh R. et al. entitled \"A Prospective Study to Find the Association of Astigmatism in Patients of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in a Tertiary Health Care Centre in India (Vindhya Region MP)\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 15
A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


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