International Journal of Current Research and Review
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IJCRR - Vol 04 issue 13, July, 2012

Pages: 48-55

Date of Publication: 18-Jul-2012


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AUTOMOTIVE EMISSION OF BIO FUEL - A REVIEW

Author: Shailendra Singh, Alok Choube

Category: Technology

Abstract:Among several alternative for conventional automotive fuels, bio fuel is catching lot of attention due to its availability and emission characteristics. This review paper discussed about the comparative engine performance and emission characteristics of bio fuel and conventional fuel assist by several researchers. The bio fuel used in the form of various bio fuel such as ethanol, Jatropha, Mahua oil, Biodiesel, pongamia pinnata methyl ester (PPME), vegetable oil. Several bio fuel used as bio diesel.

Keywords: Eco friendly, low cost and easily availability of bio fuel.

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION
The world is presently confronted with the twin crises of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. Indiscriminate and lavish consumption of fossil fuels have led to reduction in underground-based carbon resources. The search for alternative fuels, which promise a harmonious correlation with sustainable development, energy conservation, efficiency and environmental preservation, has become highly pronounced in the present context. [4]. Emissions from combustion engines have a considerable impact on the environment and human health In order to reduce emissions, a wide range of alternative fuels are being developed [12]. Diesel engines are the most efficient prime movers. From the point of view of protecting global environment and concerns for long-term energy security, it becomes necessary to develop alternative fuels [5] Global air-pollution is a serious problem. Much of this pollution is caused by the use of fossil fuels for transportation [13]. The fuel of bio-origin can provide a feasible solution to this world wide petroleum crisis. Gasoline and diesel driven automobiles are the major sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) emission. Scientists around the world have explored several alternative energy resources, which have the potential to quench the everincreasing energy thirst of today‘s population. Various bio fuels energy resources explored including biomass, biogas, primary alcohols, vegetable oils, biodiesel etc. These alternative energy resources are largely environment-friendly but they need to be evaluated on case to case basis for their advantages, disadvantages and specific applications. Some of these fuels can be used directly while other needs to be formulated to bring the relevant properties closer to conventional fuels [4]. Biodiesel is 100% renewable only when the alcohol used in the transesterification process is also renewable, but this proportion is reduced to around 90% (if the balance is made in mass) or 95 %( if the balance is made in carbon mass) when fossil alcohol (usually methanol) is used [11]. It is important for an alternative diesel fuels to be technically acceptable, economically competitive, environmentally acceptable and easily available. Among these alternative fuels, biodiesel and its derivatives, have received much attention in recent years for diesel engines. Biodiesel is an oxygenated diesel engine fuel that can be obtained from vegetable oils or animal fats by conversion of the triglycerides to esters via transesterification. [8]

Energy Scenario
The present energy scenario has simulated active research interest in non-petroleum, renewable and non-pollutant fuels. The world reserves of primary energy and raw materials are very limited. According to an estimate, the reserves will last for 218 years for coal, 41 year for oil, and 63 year for natural gas. The enormous growth of world population, increased technical development and standard of living in the industrial nations has led to this intricate situation in the field of energy supply and demand. The prices of crude oil increasing and fluctuating on a daily basis. This necessitates developing and commercializing fossil fuel alternatives from bio origin. Use of fossil fuels such as petroleum product and coal lead to several environmental problems such as reduction in underground-based carbon energy sources, serious modifications in earth‘s surface layer. Usage of these fossil fuels has led to increase in CO2 level in atmosphere from 280PPM in pre industrial era to 350 PPM now. These CO2 level are still climbing as a function of fuel burnt leading to green house effect, acid rains, smoke and change of climate world over [4]

It has been reported by the results of many studies that biodiesel can be used in diesel engines with little or no modifications and with almost the same performance. Besides it reduces carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), and smoke emissions. [8]

Alternative of Diesel (Petroleum Product)
Ethanol India is the fourth largest ethanol producer after Brazil, the United States and China, its average annual ethanol output amounting to 1,900 million litres with a distillation capacity of 2,900 million litres per year. For a 5 percent ethanol blend in petrol nationally, the ethanol required would be 640 million litres of ethanol in 2006-2007 and 810 million litres in 2011-2012. Current capacity can potentially satisfy this demand. The cost of ethanol production can be decreased by using improved agricultural practices to increase sugarcane yield and deploying energyefficient ethanol dehydration methods like pressure-swing adsorption and membrane separation. Restrictive government policies need to be reformed to loosen constraints on ethanol production.

India is now the world‘s largest sugar consumer and this has put added pressure on the ethanol industry. As agricultural research has amply demonstrated, sweet sorghum and tropical sugar beet are cost-effective feedstock crops that may substitute for sugarcane. Furthermore, exciting new biotechnology involving enzymatic saccharification and fermentation has made it possible to use readily available cellulosic material like wood and crop residue for ethanol production. Also, trade in ethanol can play an important part in helping meet India‘s ethanol requirements. India‘s trade policies do not have to be protectionist, but should rather be aimed at spurring domestic growth [9]. Commercial diesel fuel, 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel fuel, called B20, and 80% biodiesel and 20% ethanol, called BE20, were used in a single cylinder, four strokes direct injection diesel engine. The effect of test fuels on engine torque, power, BSFC, brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature, and CO, CO2, NOx and SO2 emissions was investigated. The experimental results showed that the performance of CI engine was improved with the use of the BE20 especially in comparison to B20. Besides, the exhaust emissions for BE20 were fairly reduced [8]. Biodiesel and petroleum diesel have similar properties, hence, nearly all conventional diesel engines is able to work fueled without any modification with blends from pure diesel up to B20 [14]. Jatropha The Government of India has developed an ambitious National Biodiesel Mission to meet 20 per cent of the country‘s diesel requirements by 2011-2012. Since the demand for edible vegetable oil exceeds supply, the Government decided to use non-edible oil from Jatropha Curcas oilseeds as biodiesel feedstock [9]. The effect of reducing Jatropha oil‘s viscosity by increasing the fuel temperature (using waste heat of the exhaust gases) and thereby eliminating its effect on combustion and emission characteristics of the engine [5]. The performance and emissions tests were conducted with diesel, preheated Jatropha oil, unheated Jatropha oil and blends of Jatropha oil at different loads and constant speed (1500 rpm). From the experimental results obtained, Jatropha oil is found to be a promising alternative fuel for compression ignition engines [5]. Compared to neat diesel operation, methyl esters of Honge oil, Jatropha and sesame oils result in poor performance associated with higher emissions [15]. Mahua Oil Mahua oil (crude) is widely available in India and neighboring countries. Furthermore, the use of non-edible vegetable oils such as Mahua oil is of significance because of the great need for edible oil as food. It is well established that for alkali hydrolysis, the raw vegetable oil has to meet certain specifications. In experimental investigation, Mahua Oil Ethyl Ester (MOEE) was prepared by transesterification using H2SO4 as a catalyst and tested in a 4-stroke direct injection natural aspirated diesel engine. It was observed that properties of MOEE were similar to standard diesel. [16]. Tranesterification, or alcoholysis, is the reaction of a fat or oil with an alcohol to form esters and glycerol. The literature clearly shows that transesterification is the best way to use vegetable oil as a fuel in existing diesel engine [7]. Biodiesel Global air-pollution is a serious problem. Much of this pollution is caused by the use of fossil fuels for transportation. Therefore, engine manufacturers have designed alternatively fueled engines and fuel systems, which provide sufficient power while staying within regulatory emissionlimits. At the same time, a great deal of research and development on internal-combustion engines has taken place not only in the design area but also in finding an appropriate fuel. Many researchers have concluded that biodiesel holds promise as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Diesel-fuel blends with biodiesel have superior lubricity, which reduces wear and tear on the diesel engine and makes the engine components last longer. Biodiesel mixes well with diesel fuel and stays blended. These characteristics of biodiesel reduce the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust gas compared with diesel fuel [1, 2, 9]. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is effective to reduce NOx from diesel engines because it lowers the flame temperature and the oxygen concentration in the combustion chamber. However, EGR results in higher particulate matter (PM) emissions. Thus, the drawback of higher NOx emissions while using biodiesel may be overcome by employing EGR [6].

Pongamia Pinnata Methyl Ester (PPME)
Pongamia pinnata is a non-edible species capable of growing in almost all types of land (sandy, rocky including oolitic limestone). It grows even in salt water and can withstand extreme weather conditions with a temperature range of 0–500C and annual rainfall of 5–25 dm. Transesterification of pongamia oil was carried out by heating of oil, addition of KOH and methyl alcohol, stirring of mixture, separation of glycerol, washing with distilled water and heating for removal of water. The PPME so produced was mixed with diesel in varying proportions from 20% to 100% by volume (B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100) with the help of a magnetic stirrer. The blends were stirred continuously to achieve stable property values. Fuel properties such as flash point, fire point, kinematic viscosity and calorific value were determined for PPME and are compared with the other biodiesel. From the experimental investigation, it is concluded that blends of PPME with diesel up to 40% by volume (B40) could replace the diesel for diesel engine applications for getting less emissions and better performance and will thus help in achieving energy economy, environmental protection and rural economic development. In the near future conventional fuels will be fully replaced by biodiesel and will provide a viable solution for the much threatening environmental pollution problems [10]. Vegetable Oil Bio-diesel, which can be used as an alternative diesel fuel, is made from renewable biological sources such as vegetable oil and animal fats. It is biodegradable, non-toxic and possesses low emission profiles. Also, the uses ofbio-f uels are environmentally beneficial [3].

LITERATURE REVIEW
Huseyin Aydin, Cumali Ilkilic (2010) has used higher percentage of bio diesel in unmodified diesel engine, 20% bio diesel and 80% diesel fuel called as B20, and 80% bio diesel and 20% ethanol is called BE20. On investigation they found that performance increases as well as the Percentage level of CO2, CO, HC, NOX, SOX get decreased. K. Sureshkumar, R. Velraj R. Ganasan (2008) has used Pongamia pinnata methyl ester and its blend with diesel in the proportion of B20, B40, B60, B80, B100. The Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) is lower than diesel and for B40,BSFC is less as well as the Percentage level of CO2, CO, HC, NOX, SOX get decreased. And also said that B40 can replace diesel for better performance and less emission. Deepak Agarwal, Avinash Kumar Agarwal (2007) has used JATROPHA oil in the proportion as J10, J20, J50, J75 and J100, in which J20 is having the better result then diesel in terms of thermal efficiency, BSFC and less emission. Avinash Kumar Agarwal (2006) has used alcohol and biodiesel in CI engine. On experimental investigation the results are better for biodiesel in comparisons to diesel in terms of performance and exhaust emission. Deepak Agarwal, Shailendra Sinha, Avinash Kumar Agarwal (2006) has done experimental investigation of control of NOX emission in bio diesel fueled CI Engine, and with the help of Exhaust gas recirculator (EGR) . by using biodiesel in various proportion give the good result then diesel. Mustafa Canakei, Ahmet Erdil, Erol Areaklioglu (2005) has compaired the performance and emission, then get the results in the favour ofbiodiesel. Sukumar Puhan, N. Vedaraman, G. Sankarayanan, Bopanna V. Bharat Ram(2004) performance and emission study is based on Mahua oil the performance level in terms of thermal efficiency increases as well aw BSFC and exhaust emission was less. Joseph B. Gonsalves (2006). On the basis of Emission, various alternative fuels which are easily available in India studied.

Benefits from the use of biofuels in india Reduced emission of harmful pollutant
Ethanol and biodiesel are both oxygenated compounds containing no sulphur. These fuels do not produce sulphur oxides, which lead to acid rain formation. Sulphur is removed from petrol and diesel by a process called hydrodesulphurization. The hydro-desulphurization of diesel causes a loss in lubricity, which has to be rectified by introducing an additive. Biodiesel has natural lubricity, and thus no lubricity-enhancing additive is required [6,8,9]. Since ethanol and biodiesel contain oxygen, the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and unburnt hydrocarbons in the exhaust is reduced. With the introduction of ethanol in Brazil, CO emission from automobiles decreased from 50 g/km in 1980 to 5.8 g/km in 1995. The emission of nitrogen oxides (NoX) from bio fuels is slightly greater when compared to petroleum, but this problem can be ameliorated by using de-Nox catalysts which work well with biofuels due to the absence of sulphur [6,9]. One of the disadvantages in using pure ethanol is that aldehyde emissions are higher than those of gasoline, but it must be observed that these aldehyde emissions are predominantly acetaldehydes. Acetaldehydes emissions generate less adverse health effects when compared to formaldehydes emitted from gasoline engines. Table below shows the results of the emission tests for pure biodiesel (B100) and 20 per cent biodiesel blend (B20) compared to conventional diesel [9].

The NOx emissions were slightly increased with the use of both biodiesel–ethanol blend and standard diesel fuel with respect to those of the biodiesel–diesel blend [8].

Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions
The net CO 2 emission of burning a biofuel like ethanol is zero since the CO 2 emitted on combustion is equal to that absorbed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis during the growth of the plant (sugarcane) used to manufacture ethanol. This is illustrated by the following equations:

Increased Employment
At the beginning of the new millennium, 260 million people in India did not have access to a consumption basket which defines the poverty line. India is home to 22 per cent of the world‘s poor. A programmed that generates employment is therefore particularly welcome. The bio fuels sector has the potential to serve as a source of substantial employment. The investment in the ethanol industry per job created is $11,000, which is significantly less than the $220,000 per job in the petroleum field. In India, the sugar industry, which is the backbone of ethanol production, is the biggest agro industry in the country. The sugar industry is the source of the livelihood of 45 million farmers and their dependants, comprising 7.5 per cent of the rural population. Another half a million people are employed as skilled or semiskilled labourers in sugarcane cultivation. The first phase of the National Biodiesel Mission demonstration project will generate employment of 127.6 million person days in plantation by 2007. On a sustained basis, the program will create 36.8 million person days in seed collection and 3,680 person years for running the seed collection and oil-extraction centers‘. Table shows the estimated cumulative achievements of the project in terms of output and employment[9].

Improved social well-being
A large part of India‘s population, mostly in rural areas, does not have access to energy services. The enhanced use of renewable (mainly bio fuels) in rural areas is closely linked to poverty reductions because greater access to energy services can: • Improve access to pumped drinking water. Potable water can reduce hunger by allowing for cooked food (95 per cent of food needs cooking); • Reduce the time spent by women and children on basic survival activities (gathering firewood, fetching water, cooking, etc.); • Allow lighting which increases security and enables the night time use of educational media and communication at school and home; and • Reduce indoor pollution caused by firewood use, together with a reduction in deforestation. Lack of access to affordable energy services among the rural poor seriously affects their chances of benefiting from economic development and improved living standards. Women, older people and children suffer disproportionately because of their relative dependence on traditional fuels and their exposure to smoke from cooking, the main cause of respiratory diseases. Electricity through transmission lines to many rural areas is unlikely to happen in the near future, so access to modern decentralized small-scale energy technologies, particularly renewable (including bio fuels), are an important element for effective poverty alleviation policies. A programme that develops energy from raw material grown in rural areas will go a long way in providing energy security to the rural people.

CONCLUSION
The above discussed bio fuels, will play an extremely important role in meeting India‘s energy needs. Today the favorable position is this that petroleum products are costly as compare to the bio fuel. Bio fuels offer several significant benefits including:- Reduced emission of pollutants such as carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. Bio fuels contain virtually no sulphur. Reduced emission of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, which contributes to global warming. Increased employment. Because for the production of bio fuels several plants to be placed which require labor work. Energy security and decreased dependence on oil imports by diversification energy supply. Improved social well-being.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in reference of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

References:

1. Agarwal AK, Bijwe J, Das LM. Effect of biodiesel utilization on wear of vital parts in compression ignition engine. J Eng Gas Turb Power 2003;125:604–11.

2. Agarwal AK, Das LM. Biodiesel development and characterization for use as a fuel in compression ignition engines. J Eng Gas Turb Power 2001;123:440–7.

3. A.S. Ramadhas, S. Jayaraj, C. Muraleedharan Use ofvegetable oils as I.C. engine fuels—A review Renewable Energy 29 (2004) 727–742

4. Avinash kumar Agareal. Bio fuels (alcohols and biodiesel) applications as fuels for Internal combustion engines.progress in Energy and Combustion science 33 (2007) 233-271.

5. Deepak Agarwal , Avinash Kumar Agarwal. Performance and emissions characteristics of Jatropha oil (preheated and blend) in a direct injection compression ignition engine Applied Thermal Engineering 27 (2007) 2314–2323.

6. Deepak Agarwal, Shailendra Sinha, Avinash Kumar Agarwal Experimental investigation of control of NOx Emissions in biodiesel-fueled compression ignition engine Renewable Energy 31 (2006) 2356–2369.

7. Freedman B, Pryde EH, Mounts TL. Variables affecting the yields of fatty esters from transesterified vegetable oils. JAOCS 1984;61(10):1638–43.

8. Huseyin Aydin, Cumali Llkilic. Effect of ethanol blending with biodiesel on engine performance and exhaust emissions in a CI engine. Applied Thermal Engineering 30 (2010) 1199–1204.

9. Joseph B. Gonsalves. An Assessment of the Bio fuels Industry in India United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 18 October 2006.

10. K. Sureshkumar, R. Velraj, R. Ganesan Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with Pongamia pinnata methyl ester (PPME) and its blends with diesel Renewable Energy 33 (2008) 2294–2302.

11. Mag?´n Lapuerta_, Octavio Armas, Jose´ Rodr?´guez-Ferna´ ndez Effect of biodiesel fuels on diesel engine emissions Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 34 (2008) 198–223.

12. M. Lindgren, G. Larsson, P.-A. Hansson. Evaluation of factors influencing emissions from tractors and construction equipment during realistic work operations using diesel fuel and bio-fuels as substitute journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/issn/15375110

13. Mustafa Canakci, Ahmet Erdil, Erol Arcakliog?lu Performance and exhaust emissions of a biodiesel engine Applied Energy 83 (2006) 594–605.

14. N.Janardhana rao, M.R.CH.Sastry, Dr. P.Nageswara Reddy Comparative Analysis Of Performance And Emissions Of An Engine With Palm Oil Biodiesel Blends With Diesel. N.Janardhana Rao et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST).

15. N.R. Banapurmath, P.G. Tewari, R.S. Hosmath. Performance and emission characteristics of a DI compression ignition engine operated on Honge, Jatropha and sesame oil methyl esters Renewable Energy 33 (2008) 1982–1988.

16. Sukumar Puhan, N. Vedaraman, G. Sankaranarayanan, Boppana V. Bharat Ram. Performance and emission study of Mahua oil (madhuca indica oil) ethyl ester in a 4-stroke natural aspirated direct injection diesel engine Renewable Energy 30 (2005) 1269–1278.

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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

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‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Leow Jun Xian and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. entitled "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease
88 Percent Of Delhi Population Has Vitamin D Deficiency: ASSOCHAM Report

List of Awardees

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


Awardees of COVID-19 Research

Woman Researcher Award

A Study by Neha Garg et al. entitled "Optimization of the Response to nCOVID-19 Pandemic in Pregnant Women – An Urgent Appeal in Indian Scenario" published in Vol 12 issue 09

A Study by Sana Parveen and Shraddha Jain entitled "Pathophysiologic Enigma of COVID-19 Pandemic with Clinical Correlates" published in Vol 12 issue 13

A Study by Rashmi Jain et al. entitled "Current Consensus Review Article on Drugs and Biologics against nCOVID-19 – A Systematic Review" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Madhan Jeyaraman et al. entitled "Vitamin-D: An Immune Shield Against nCOVID-19" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Study by Dheeraj Kumar Chopra et al. entitled "Lipid-Based Solid Dispersions of Azilsartan Medoxomil with Improved Oral Bioavailability: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation" published in Vol 12 issue 19


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International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

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