International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - 4(23), December, 2012

Pages: 100-103

Date of Publication: 15-Dec-2012

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Author: Jain Suman, Sharma Renu, Sharma Suman, Varadkar A. M.

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:The present comparative and prospective study includes 400 normal subjects, out of which 200 were Indian and 200 were Hungarians. The latter population distinctly differed from Indian population in four respects. First is race wise, second living in relatively unpolluted environment, third liberal use of alcohol and fourth moderate to heavy smokers. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in Hungarians were 300% higher (males, 8.60 \? 2.70 nmol/ml, females, 7.10 \? 0.62 nmol/ml) than Indians (males, 2.55 \? 0.71 nmol/ml, females, 2.25 \? 0.56 nmol/ml).

Keywords: MDA(Malondialdehyde)/ TBARS, SOD(Superoxide dismutase), Catalase, GSH(Glutathione), GPX (glutathione peroxidase)

Full Text:

Lipid Peroxidation, a primary reactive free radical formed by O2 - and OH, which interacts with poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), initiates a complex series of reactions that results in a variety of degradation products (1, 2). It is assumed that lipid peroxidation can be set into motion whenever prooxidant conditions occur in the cell. Lipid peroxidation can cause deleterious effects on cellular functions both directly by producing loss of membrane structure and indirectly by causing the evolution of toxicity produced metabolites, especially reactive aldehyde as alkenals, capable of reaching molecular target at a distance (3, 4, and 5). Some of the aldehydes are highly reactive and are now designated as second toxic messengers which degenerate and augment initial free radical reactions. Among the many different aldehydes formed, the most intensively studied is MDA (malondialdehyde), which is new widely used as biochemical markers for the assessment of lipid peroxidation. MDA is reactive towards sulphydryl and amino groups of proteins. It produces intra molecular and intermolecular linkage which can lead to inactivation and polymerisation of enzymes such as ribonuclease. Besides self inflicting damage on lipids its reactivity towards amino groups can result in interactions with the nitrogenous bases of DNA and inhibition of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis (6, 7, and 8). Increased formation of free radicals and enhanced lipid peroxidation has been observed after active and chronic ethanol consumption (9, 10). Heavy smokers are also reported to face higher peroxidation level and lower antioxidant status (10). The Hungarian population in general is a liberal consumer of alcohol and fond of smoking. At the same time their nutritional status is better. This impelled us to evaluate their blood peroxide and antioxidant levels in healthy Indian and Hungarians to determine the differences, if any, in aforesaid parameters.


Indian subjects:- Two hundred healthy subjects were selected for this part of the study. Detailed present and past history of subjects was recorded on a separate proforma regarding their general information i.e. Age, sex, height, weight, caste, religion, dietary habits and education. The normal Indian subjects were healthy medical students, staff members and attendant of patients, donors of blood bank of Maharana Bhupal Hospital/RNT Medical College Udaipur.

Hungarian subjects: - Two hundred healthy Hungarians comprised this group. All were healthy student and staff of JATE University in Szeged (Hungary). This Hungarian group had different dietary habits and culture. They were non-vegetarians and had liberal use of alcohol and smoking habit.

Biochemical parameters assayed:- Blood samples were collected in EDTA (2mg/ml) sodium salt as anticoagulant. Peroxidation was assayed by determining TBAR levels (a) in plasma. SOD (12), Catalase (13), GSH (14) and GPX (15) were assayed by standard procedures.

Statistical Analysis:- The biochemical parameters are expressed as mean ± SD(Standard deviation) for each group. A statistically significant deviations in the Hungarian compared with the Indian subjects were arrived at using analysis of variance.

We had opportunity to examine normal Hungarian subjects in addition to Indians. Therefore we though it germane to take up study in them for several reasons for example though Caucasoid is a common factor but Hungarians do have some genetic differences from Indians. The other features which make them different from Indians are (a) they are living under relatively less populated atmosphere. (b) Better nutrient intake (c) common use of tinned food. (d) Usually regular habits of drinking alcoholic beverages and (e) smoking habits. All this factors are known to influence oxidant status. Smoking (10) and alcohol (9, 16) increases peroxidative stress. The TBARS level in normal Hungarian males and females were 8.60 ± 2.70 nmol/ml and 7.10 ± 0.62 nmol/ml and 2.25 ± 0.56 nmol/ml. Thus TBARS levels in Hungarians were about 3 times higher than Indians. This is very significant observation as much as it explicitly points out higher oxidant burden in Hungarians (17).

Since MDA is direct adduct of PUFA this are essential constituents of cellular membrane lipids and many other cellular components, three deductions can be made. (a) Membrane lipids may be more damaged in Hungarians than Indians (b) PUFA located in other cellular or extra cellular compartment are more damaged and (c) else both are partly damaged. We would like to emphasize that damage need not to be necessarily expressed in form of pathology because tissues are always in state of dynamic equilibrium and possess an effective repair system. The data however assumes greater significance if viewed in context to antioxidant status which is better in them. We measured four antioxidants namely GSH, SOD, Catalase, GSHPX. Interestingly, SOD and GSH levels were significantly higher and other tended to be higher in them than Indians. Obviously the reason could be need for better defence battery. It is now well know that all the three enzymes are inducible enzymes. Their activity in Hungarians innately implies that their induction should be to meet enhanced generation of superoxide anion and free hydroxyl radical. Similarly the increased level of GSH should meet increased demand of GSH-PX. It has repeatedly been pointed out in literature that reduced GSH is a major endogenous antioxidant (18). In the western population the reported normal range is 47-80 mg/100ml. in Hungarians males and females its level was 67.10 ± 7.30 and 69.00 ± 7.31 respectively. These levels clearly indicate an adequate status. In Indian subjects its level is reported to very widely. Our study found values comparable (21) but in others it was found to be lower (19, 20). Green and Paller (18) showed that potent exogenous sources of free radicals include oxidized drugs, smoke, radiations and other substances and that endogenous antioxidation GSH is preferentially oxidized to save tissues from disasters of oxidant injury. It is also known that free radicals are by products of metabolic processes and originate from environmental pollutant (22). Here again GSH comes to rescue along with other antioxidants. Lower level of GSH in Indians, therefore, represents a discouraging picture about antioxidant status which is usually weak due to weaker nutrient antioxidant status. (23, 24) Strikingly SOD (superoxide dismutase) levels are higher in both Hungarian males (1.32 ± 0.40 units/ml haemolysate) and females (1.91 ± 0.36 units/ml haemolysate). This is 3.4 and 5.82 times higher than corresponding subjects. This higher level may be a genetic consequences or an adaptive mechanism to meet increased flux of superoxide anion. The latter one appears are more plausible.

Comparative prospective study was undertaken between Indian and Hungarian subjects with respect to lipid peroxidation and antioxidant level. MDA (malondialdehyde) levels (8.60±2.70) in males and 7.10±0.62 in females were 3-4 times higher than Indians. SOD (superoxide dismutase) levels were lower than Indians and were higher in females as compared to males. Hungarian males had higher Catalase levels than Indian males while females had lower levels than Indian females. GSH (glutathione) and GSH-px (Glutathione peroxidase) levels were higher than Indians.

We sincerely thank R.N.T. medical college & associated hospital, Udaipur & JATE University in Szeged (Hungary) for extending all the facilities for conducting the work. Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.


1. Halliwell, B. (1997): Antioxidant and human disease: General introduction. Nutr. Rev. 55: 544.

2. Slater, T.P. (1984): Free radical mechanism in tissue injury. Biochem J. 222: 1.

3. Comporti, M. (1985): Lipid peroxidation and cellular damage in toxic liver injury. Lab. Invest. 53: 599.

4. Rajnesh CP, Manimaran A, Shashikala KR and Adaikappam P. Lipidperoxidation and antioxidant status in patients with breast cancer. Singapore Med. J. 2008 49(8): 640- 643.

5. Cross C.E, Vandervliet A, O’ Neill C.A. and Eisterich, J.P. (1994): Reactive oxygen species under lung. The Lancet. 344: 930.

6. Kang DH. Oxidative stress, DNA damage and breast cancer. AACN Clin. 2002; 13: 540-49.

7. Bird J. (1989): Early events in ischemic renal failure in the rat: Effect of antioxidant therapy. Kidney Int. 35: 1282.

8. Chick J, Pikkarainen J and Pant M. (1987): Serum ferritin as a marker of alcohol consumption in working men. Alc slcohol. 22:155.

9. Fink R.; Clemens M.R. and Dormandy T.L. (1985): Increased free-radical activity in alcoholics. Lancet 2: 291.

10. Hughes D.A, Wright A.J and Finglas P.M. (1997): The effect of β-carotene supplementation on the immune function of blood monocytes from healthy male nonsmokers. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 129.

11. Buege JA and Aust SD (1978): The thiobarbituric acid assay method in enzymology. 52: 306.

12. Misra H.P and Fridovich I. (1972): The role of superoxide anion in the autoxidation of epinephrine and a simple assay for SOD. J Biol Chem. 247:3170.

13. Sinha, A.K. (1972) : colorimetric assay of catalase. Anal. Biochem., 47 : 389

14. Beutler, E. and Kelly, B.M. (1963): Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. J. Lab. Clin. Med., 61: 882.

15. Hopkins, J. and Tudhope, g.r. (1973): GSH in human red cells in health and disease. Br. J. haematol. 25: 563.

16. Lecomte, E.; Herberth, B.:Pirollet, P.; Chancerelle, Y.; Arnaud, J.; Musse, N.; Paille, F.; Siest, G.and Artur, Y. (1994) : Effect of alcohol consumption on blood antioxidant nutrients and oxidative stress indicators. Am J. Clin. Nutr. 60: 255.

17. Feher, J.; Csomos, G. and Vereckei, A. (1992): Role of free radical reactions in liver diseases: Free Radicals and the Liver. Cosmos, G and Feher, J. pl-17. Hungary.

18. Green, E.L. and Paller, S.M. (1991): Oxy free radicals in acute renal failure. Miner Electrolyte Metabolism. 17: 124.

19. Singh, G. (1997): Assessment of nephrotoxicity in health and diseases with special reference to environment. Ph.D. Thesis submitted to M.L.S. University, Udaipur.

20. Kothari, S. (1999): A clinical and experimental study of reactive oxygen species mediated injury by drugs and redox cycling chemical species in biological system. Ph.D. Thesis submitted to M.L.S.University, Udaipur.

21. Vashistha, C. (1998): A study of some herbs of medicinal and nutritive value in health nad some selected animals with special reference to tribal population. P.h.D. Thesis submitted to M.L.S.University, Udaipur.

22. Jacob. R.A. and Burri, B.J. (1996): Oxidative damage and defense. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 63: 985.

23. Wagner B.A, Buettner G R, Burns P. Vitamin slows the rate of free radical mediated lipid in cells. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1996; 334: 261-267.

24. Eastwood, M.A. Interaction of dietary antioxidants in vivo: how fruits and vegetables prevent disease? QIM.1999; 92: 527-530.


Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

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Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

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A study by Muhas C. et al. entitled \"Study on Knowledge & Awareness About Pharmacovigilance Among Pharmacists in South India\" is awarded Best article for Vol 14 issue 22
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A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
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A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
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A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
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A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
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A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
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A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
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A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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