International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 04 Issue 23, December, 2012

Pages: 88-94

Date of Publication: 15-Dec-2012


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EFFECTS OF ANTI-PROGESTERONE ON PROGESTERONE AND OESTROGEN RECEPTORS PRESENT IN STROMAL CELLS OF RAT UTERUS

Author: Khadija Qamar, Iram Iqbal, Umbreen Noor, Ifra Saeed, Humaira Arshad, Farheen Masood

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Objective: To investigates the effect of mifepristone (anti-progesterone) on stromal cells of the uterus of rats. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trials Method: Sixty adult female rats were divided randomly into two groups, comprising of 30 animals in each group. In-group A 1ml of normal saline was given orally daily for three months while in group B mifepristone was given orally in a dose of 1mg/kg body weight daily for three months. All the animals were sacrificed next day after the last oral dose. 2ml blood was taken directly from the heart for measurement of progesterone levels. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for light microscopic study. Immunohistochemical staining procedure was done for demonstration of progesterone receptors Results: The stromal cells were flattened and irregular in outline present around the glands. Some appeared fusiform or spindle shaped. In the experimental group the stromal cells were tightly packed. There was an increase in the number of infiltration of granulocytes and eosinophils in the stroma. Progesterone antagonist application lowered the plasma concentration of progesterone. The number of progesterone receptors in all uterine compartments of the experimental group were decreased and found statistically significant. Conclusion: In conclusion, mifepristone affects stromal, glandular and epithelial morphology in the rat uterus.

Keywords: Mifepristone, receptors, oestrogen, progesterone, stromal cells

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION
Oestrogen effects predominate during the follicular phase of the estrous cycle, whereas progesterone dominates during the proliferative phase in non-pregnant uterus1 . Oestrogen & progesterone have specific intracellular receptors members of the nuclear receptor super family of transcription factors2 . Estraneprogestins are the precursors of Mifepristone, {17(,hydroxyl 11-(-(4- dimethylaminophenyl)-17(-(prop-1-ynyl)-estra-4, 9-dien-3-one,}3 . Mifepristone binds strongly to the progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors, and to a lesser extent to the androgen receptor, thus mediating its effects at the receptor level4 . This study was conducted to investigate the effect of mifepristone (anti-progesterone) on stromal cells of the uterus of rat.

MATERIAL AND METHODS
These laboratory based randomized controlled trials were conducted at the department of Anatomy, Army Medical College Rawalpindi from Jan 2007 to March 2007. Institutional Ethical Committee of Army Medical College Rawalpindi approved all the procedures. Sixty healthy adult female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 200-300g were procured from the National Institute of Health Sciences Islamabad. The animals were randomly divided into two groups having 30 rats in each.

Group A (Control)
Thirty female rats were given 1ml of normal saline orally daily for three months.

Group B (Experimental)
Thirty female rats were given the drug (Mifepristone) orally in a dose of 1mg/kg body weight daily for three months. All the animals were sacrificed next day after the last oral dose. 2ml blood was taken directly from the heart for measurement of progesterone level. About ½cm piece of tissue was taken from the middle of the right uterine horn. Approximately five microns thick sections were cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for light microscopic study. Immunohistochemical staining procedure was done for demonstration of progesterone receptors.

Microscopic observations
Qualitative Parameters
Morphology of the distribution of stroma was noted.

Statistical analysis
Data had been analyzed using SPSS version 15. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the data. Quantitative variables were compared through independent samples’ t-test while qualitative variables were compared through chisquare test between cases and controls. P-value < 0.05 was considered as significant.

RESULT
Total 60 animals were included in the study, 30 in each group. In the control group the tubular sections showed three distinct layers (inner, middle and outer) of endometrium. The luminal side of inner layer was lined by single regular row of cylindrical cells. The stroma consisted of stromal cells, network of collagen fibers stained with eosin, intermingled with amorphous ground substance, and several blood vessels (Fig 1). The stromal cells were flattened and irregular in outline present around the glands. Some appeared fusiform or spindle shaped. They had ovoid nuclei with acidophilic cytoplasm. The eosinophils were recognized by their specific pink stained granules. The lymphocytes with deep staining indented nucleus were also present. While in experimental group at low magnification, inner layer was folded giving it an overall ruffled appearance as a result lumen was much reduced as compared to normal group. Epithelium was low columnar. The superficial part of inner layer consisted of few glands and abundant stroma and a deeper layer had many glands and relatively less stroma. The stromal cells were tightly packed, having basophilic cytoplasm. The infiltration of the stroma with the eosinophils was observed. (Fig.2). Glands varied in size, some of them were dilated and cystic. The mean progesterone level in experimental group was 2.8 + 0.09 ng/ml, which was lower than that of the control group i.e. 5.5 ± 0.8. The difference was found statistically significant when compared with control group (p =0.001). The mild, moderate and marked progesterone receptors were counted in the luminal epithelial cells, glandular epithelial cells, stromal cells and myometrial cells. The number of progesterone receptors in all the compartments of the uterus was reduced in the experimental group as compared with the control group and found statistically significant (Fig.3) (Table-l).

DISCUSSION
The direct effect of the hormone is usually responsible for all the changes seen in the luminal epithelium in response to antiprogesterone5 .

The changes in the uterine wall are likely due to changes in the epithelial – stromal cell interactions and growth factor actions that are required for uterine development6 . Mifepristone suppresses endometrial cell proliferation and thus, causes reduction in overall endometrial thickness7 . Cyclical endometrial proliferation, differentiation and secretion during the human menstrual cycle are strictly controlled by oestrogen and progesterone. A balance is required between oestrogen and progesterone production to ensure normal endometrial growth and proliferation8 . The absence of progesterone removes the ‘progesterone brake’ leading to persistent estrogenicity and constant endometrial proliferation. Although the ratio of stroma to glands remains normal. The endometrium can become disordered and vascular abnormalities such as dilated capillaries may become apparent9 . T he effects of unopposed estrogen may lead to endometrial hyperplasia and possible malignancy, a fact to be kept in mind with long-term use of PR antagonists. In rats receiving long-term PR antagonist treatment estrogenic stimulation of the endometrium has been recorded10 .The nonhuman primate endometrium, however, demonstrates endometrial atrophy and evidence of antiestrogenic. High doses of mifepristone (25mg/d and 50mg/d) cause variable effects, such as atypical cystic changes in eutopic endometrium11 . Serum progesterone levels declined in experimental groups after mifepristone administration. No statistically significant changes in the progesterone levels were observed in the 2-day following the administration of 200mg mifepristone12 . However, with 600mg of mifepristone administered progesterone levels increase on day 1 and then decrease significantly13 . The paradoxical effects (Mifepristone both raises and lowers progesterone levels) have also been explained by the hypothesis, that mifepristone can act either by preventing the progesterone effect or in a way that is similar to that of progesterone, which always stimulates its own secretion by autoregulation. The effects may be variable depending on the duration of pregnancy14. The highest density of stromal cells nuclei was observed in all the uteri of the experimental group. The stromal cells were tightly packed with scanty basophilic cytoplasm. The infiltration of the stroma with the eosinophils was observed. The increased level of leukocytes may not be a direct effect of antiprogestin. Mifepristone treatment may up-regulate potential chemokines that cause leukocyte traffic and interleukin-8 and an increase in MCP-1 and influence leukocyte influx in human decidua15 . Dependent stromal compaction could be identified as one of the key morphological features of the antiprogestrogenic action of mifepristone. It is well established that the proliferation of endometrial stroma is progesterone - dependent in rat. Considering that both the oestrogen and progesterone receptor proteins are oestrogen-dependent, in the present study any change in the concentration or localization of endometrial ER and PR was determined to evaluate whether the antiprogestininduced anti-oestrogenic effects are reflected in these receptors16. The most obvious change in steroid receptor distribution in the uterus was the reduction in staining intensity PR in the glandular epithelium and stromal cells. An increase in the number of endometrial ER and PR has been observed after chronic administration of antiprogestin17. Progesterone receptor concentration could be expected to be highly associated with successful implantation since many of the relevant local factors such as cytokines and growth factors are progesteroneregulated. Endometrial receptivity is strongly related to the down regulation of the progesterone receptor.

CONCLUSION
In the experimental group the stromal cells were tightly packed. There was an increase in the number of infiltration of granulocytes and eosinophils in the stroma. Progesterone antagonist application lowered the plasma concentration of progesterone. The number of progesterone receptors in all uterine compartments of the experimental group were decreased and found statistically significant. In conclusion, mifepristone affects stromal, glandular and epithelial morphology in the rat uterus.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

References:

1. Connelly OM. Female Steroid Hormone Action. Endocrinology 2001; 142(6): 2194- 99.

2. Benakanakere C, Besch-Williford M, Ellersieck R, Hyder SM. Regression of progestin-accelerated7, 12- dimethylbenz [a] anthracene-induced mammary tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats by p53 reactivation and induction of massive apoptosis, a pilot study. Endocr Relat Cancer; March 1, 2009; 16(1): 85-98.

3. Sukjum LS. Studies of oestrogen and progesterone receptors in the sow uterus with special emphasis on the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy [PhD dissertation], Vpp sala. Swedish university of Agricultural Sciences 2005; p 12-17.

4. Antoniou G, Kalogirou D, Karakitsos P. Transdermal estrogen with a levonorgestrelreleasing intrauterine device for climacteric complaints versus estradiol releasing vaginal ring with a vaginal progesterone suppository, Clinical and endometrial responses. Maturities 1997; 26: 103-11.

5. De Vivo I, Hankinson SE, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ. A functional polymorphism in the progesterone receptor gene is associated with an increase in breast cancer risk. Cancer Res 2003; 63: 5236–8.

6. Gopalkrishnan K, Katkam RR, Sachdeva G, KholKute SD, Padwal V, Puri CP. Effects of an Antiprogestin Onapristone on the Endometrium of Bonnet Monkeys, Morphometric and Ultra Structural Studies. Biol Reprod 1959; 68(6): 779-87.

7. Brenner RM, Slayden OD. Estrogen action in the endometrium and oviduct of rhesus monkeys during RU 486 treatment. In: Beier HM, Spitz IM, and editors. Progesterone antagonists in reproductive medicine and oncology. Cary, NC. Oxford University Press 1994; p.82-97.

8. Jeffrey R, Goldberg, MD, Marcus G, Plescia MD, MPH, Geraldine D Anastasio. Mifepristone (RU 486) Current Knowledge and Future Prospects. Arch Fam Med 1998; 7: 219-222.

9. Van Look PFA, Ven herizen H. Postovulatory methods of fertility regulation: the emergence of antiprogestens. In Van Look PFA, Perez – Polacies G, editors. Contraceptive research and development. New Delhi, Oxford University Press 1994; P. 151-201.

10. Baird DT, Glasier AF. Science, medicine and the future contraception. Br Med J 1999; 319: 969-72.

11. Hargrove JT, Maxson WS, Wentz AC, Burnett LS. Menopausal hormone replacement therapy with continuous daily oral micronized estradiol and progesterone. Obstet Gynecol 1989; 73: 606-12.

12. O.D. Slayden, M.B. Zelinski, K. Chwalisz, H. Hess-Stumpp, R.M. Brenner Chronic progesterone antagonist–estradiol therapy suppresses breakthrough bleeding and endometrial proliferation in a menopausal macaque model .Hum. Reprod. 2006; 12: 3081-3090.

13. S. Schäfer-Somi, O.A. Aksoy, H.B. Beceriklisoy, A. Einspanier, H.O. Hoppen , S. Aslan. Repeated induction of abortion in bitches and the effect on plasma concentrations of relaxin, progesterone and estradiol-17β. 2007; 68: 889-895.

14. Murphy AA, Castellano PZ: RU 486: pharmacology and potential use in the treatment of endometriosis and leiomyomata uteri. Curr Opin obstet Gynecol 1994; 6(3): 269-78.

15. Astrid Petersen, et al: The antiprogesterone Org 31710 inhibits human blastocystendometrial interactions in vitro. Fertility and Sterility 2005; 83: 1255-1263.

16. Shwad PC, Katkam RR, Hinduja IN, Chwalisz K, Elger W, Puri CP. Treatment with a progesterone antagonist ZR>98.299 delays endometrial development without blocking ovulation in bonnet monkeys. Contraception 1993; 48: 57-70.

17. Itruk-Ware R. Approval of Mifepristone (RU486) in Europe. Zentraibl Gynakol 2000; 122(5): 241-7



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Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

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Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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