International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 04 Issue 23, December, 2012

Pages: 84-87

Date of Publication: 15-Dec-2012


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STUDIES ON DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH PROTEIN-LOW CALORIE COOKIES

Author: Dayanand Peter, Pagar Nitin Yashwant, M.Revathy

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Cookies rich in protein and low in calories were developed by substituting wheat flour (Maida) with defatted soy flour (DSF) and cane sugar with Stevia leaves powder (SLP). Standardisation of Maida: DSF ratio was done by evaluating the physicochemical parameters and sensory quality of the cookies prepared from the various blends. Once standardisation of blends was completed, the standardised flour mix was used to manufacture cookies by replacing cane sugar with SLP at levels of 0,10,15,20 and 25%. These cookies were then packed in LDPE, HDPE and PP films and stored for a period of 90 days under ambient conditions to assess the quality of the cookies based on sensory and storage parameters. Cookies containing 20% DSF and 20% SLP resulted in 109.36 % increase in proteins and 10.18 % decrease in calories. Storage studies revealed that cookies stored in HDPE package to have good sensory acceptability. In conclusion, DSF and SLP can be incorporated at 20% level in formulation of high protein and low calorie cookies without affecting the overall acceptability of cookie.

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION
In recent years, there has been a considerable shift in the consumers’ perception of foods due to changing lifestyle, modernization, increased women employment, increased per capita income and newer marketing strategies employed by major food manufacturers. Most consumers demand convenience food, ready to eat snacks or food which add bulk and satisfy appetites without taking up preparation times. On the other hand consumers have increasingly shown interest in a trend of healthy life-styles which has created demand for health oriented convenience foods and products. Global Industry Analysts, Inc., (GIA), in a recently concluded off-the-shelf market research stated that the global baking industry is currently facing opportunities as well as challenges created by the economic crisis. Demand for bakery products have always been growing over the years worldwide. Cookies are ready to eat, convenient, inexpensive and one of the most popular and widely consumed processed food products in India. The cookies industry has been growing at an average rate of 6-7 percent during the past 5-6 years and this is expected to maintain in the coming years (Alagh, 1990). Cookies contain wheat flour and sugar as the major ingredients. Wheat is an important part of cookie manufacture because it has the inherited property to form dough and retain gases. However, the protein content of wheat varies from as low as 8 to 15% therefore supplementation of wheat flour with protein rich sources are been explored in recent times. Sugar, the other major ingredient of cookies has high calorie content making it a source of concern for inclusion in the diets of diabetic and obese persons. Therefore there is need of a natural substitute for sugar.

Stevia has been reported to have several beneficial characteristics as a natural sugar substitute because it is natural, contains zero percentage calories, do not affect blood sugar levels like common sugar, is 250-300 times sweeter than table sugar, is heat stable up to 2000C, non-fermentable, prevents cavities and can be easily used in cooked or baked food (Panpatil and Polasa, 2008). The present study investigates the use of DSF as the protein rich supplement for wheat and stevia leaves powder as a substitute for sugar. The investigation had the following objectives:

1. Standardising Maida : DSF blend and Sugar : SLP ratios without affecting the quality of cookies based on chemical and sensory parameters.

2. To study the effect of DSF and SLP in incorporating on protein and reducing the calorific contents of cookies.

3. To study the changes in the sensory quality of the developed cookies during storage.

METHODOLOGY
Preparation of DSF and Maida: DSF blends:
The deoiled cake of soy (DOC) was cleaned manually and milled in a flour mill. The flour thus obtained was sieved through 80 mesh size sieve to obtain fine DSF. The DSF was mixed with Maida at the substitution levels of 0,10,15,20 and 25 % (w/w). In the standardized Maida: DSF blend, the sugar was replaced with SLP at the substitution levels of 0,10,15,20 and 25 percent (% sweetness basis).

Preparation of Cookies
Fat and sugar were creamed until light and fluffy. Flour was sieved with sodium bicarbonate and ammonium bicarbonate. The cream was mixed with flour and sufficient quantity of water was added with vanilla essence to form dough. The sheet of dough was prepared having thickness of 0.5cm and the pieces were cut using cookie cutter. The pieces were placed in the baking tray smeared with fat and baked at 180-2000C for 15  min. The cookies were allowed to cool, packed in various packages and stored at ambient temperature (Kure et al., 1998).

Chemical Evaluation of Cookies
Moisture

About 5g of sample was weighed and transferred to pre-dried, covered dish. Weighed sample was then dried in hot air oven at 105 + 10C for 4hrs. The dish dried sample was transferred to the desiccators and cooled to room temperature. The dish was then weighed. Moisture content in percent was calculated from loss in weight (IS 1011:2002).

 

Protein
The protein content was determined by MicroKjeldahl’s process. About 0.2g defatted powder sample was taken and transferred to the digestion flask. The catalyst mixture (1g) and 5ml each of H2O2 and conc. H2SO4 were added carefully. The sample was digested until it became colourless by frequent rotating the flask. The flask was cooled and a 5ml portion of water was slowly added with mixing. After cooling, the content was transferred to 50 ml volumetric flask with 2-3 rinsing, and the volume was made up with distilled water and mixed thoroughly. Blank digestion was carried out simultaneously. The distillation unit was cleaned by starting and sucking back the water. A beaker of 10 ml capacity containing 10ml boric acid was taken. 4 drops of indicator was added and placed under condenser with its tip dipped in solution. The digest (5 ml) with rinsing was transferred to distillation flask, 5ml NaOH was added and closed with stop cork. The digest was allowed to boil and about 50ml distillate of ammonia liberated in boric acid was collected. The distillate was titrated with hydrochloric acid until blue colour disappeared. Blank titration was carried out simultaneously. Protein content was calculated using following formula.

Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates were calculated by difference method Carbohydrates = 100 - (Moisture % + Protein %)

Calorific Value
The calorific value of cookies was estimated using the sum of the product of respective physiological fuel values and contents of protein, carbohydrate and fat. It was expressed in Kcal/100g.

Storage Studies
The cookies were packed in LDPE, HDPE and PP packages and stored at ambient temperature. The sensory quality of cookies such as colour, flavour was evaluated at an interval of 15 days for a period of 3 months.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The present investigation was carried out with the objective to study the effect of substitution of Maida and sugar with DSF and SLF respectively, on the nutritional and organoleptic characteristics of cookies.

 

It was observed that highest moisture content was noticed in Maida (11.5%) followed by SLP (8.67%) whereas lowest moisture content was observed in DSF (6.16%). The highest protein content was recorded for DSF (43.22%) followed by Maida (12.22%), whereas lowest protein content was observed in SLP (5.95%). Highest carbohydrate content was observed in SLP (78.77%) followed by Maida (73.04%) whereas lowest carbohydrate content was observed in DSF (43.31%)

Chemical parameters of cookies
(
Maida : DSF substitution)
It was noticed that with increase in DSF there was increase in proteins and decrease in carbohydrate content. The increase in proteins and decrease in carbohydrate content of cookies supplemented with DSF might be due to appreciably higher contents in DSF than Maida.

The effect of substitution of Maida with 20% DSF and sugar with 20% SLP on the protein and calories contents of the cookies. The protein content was found to increase from 6.09 to 12.75%.The incorporation of DSF and SLP in cookies was found to have great influence on the protein and calorie contents of cookies. Thus the % of increase in protein content of above standardized cookies was found to be 109.36% compared to control sample prepared with Maida and sugar alone. The calorific value of cookies was found to be decreased from 505.73 to 454.23 kcal/100g with the substitution of Maida with DSF and Sugar with SLP.

Sensory qualities of cookies during storage:
Gradual decrease in colour and appearance of the cookies in HDPE followed by LDPE and PP packages for 90 days of storage. Cookies packed in PP showed more moisture gain during storage and became soft compared to LDPE and HDPE. The flavour retention was higher in case of HDPE package as compared to LDPE and PP packages. Slight change occurred in the taste of cookies packed in HDPE package. While cookies packed in PP packages showed highest change in taste. Cookies packed in HDPE package stored for 3 months at ambient temperature have better organoleptic properties compared to other packages.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The results of the study can be summarized as below;

1. Composition of DSF and SLP used for supplementation of Maida and cane sugar respectively were found to be satisfactory to enrich cookies nutritionally.

2. Cookies prepared from Maida: DSF and sugar: SLP blends were organoleptically accepted and DSF and SLP levels were standardized up to 20 percent substitution, respectively.

3. The substitution of Maida with DSF (20%) and sugar with SLP (20%) in cookies resulted in 109.36 % increase in proteins while 10.18 decrease in calories of the cookies.

4. The storage studies revealed that cookies HDPE package was most acceptable on basis of retention of sensory quality of cookies.

CONCLUSION
Thus from the results, it may be concluded that cookies high in proteins (about 109.36% increase) and low in calories (about 10.18% decrease) could be prepared by substituting Maida with DSF (20%) and cane sugar with SLP (20%) without affecting their overall quality. Also from the storage studies, it may be concluded that cookies could be stored for more than 90 days at ambient conditions without any effect to sensory quality.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.

References:

1. Alagh, 1990. Biscuit industry in India-future scenario. Indian Food Ind.9 (3):18-19.

2. Kennelly, E.J.2002. Sweet and non-sweet constituents of Stevia rebaundiana (Bertoni).In: Stevia, the genus Stevia. Kinghorn AD (Edn.), Medicinal and Aromatic Plants- Industrial Profiles. Taylor and Francis, London. 19:68-85.

3. Kure OA, Bahago E.J, Daniel E.A (1998). Studies on the Proximate Composition and Effect of Flour Particle Size on Acceptability of Biscuit Produced from Blends of Soyabeans and Plantain flours. Namida TechScope J. 3: 17-21

4. Panpatil V.V, Polasa K (2008). Assessment of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana)-natural sweetener: a review. J Food Sci Technol 45:467–473

5. IS 1011:2002 (fourth revision). Scheme of testing and inspection for certification of biscuits.

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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

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Best Article Award

A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
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A Study by Avijit Singh et al. situs slot "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
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A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma situs slot entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by situs slot et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression situs slot
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease situs slot
88 Percent Of Delhi Population Has Vitamin D situs slot  Deficiency: ASSOCHAM Report

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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