International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - 4(23), December, 2012

Pages: 73-83

Date of Publication: 15-Dec-2012

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Author: Alia Bilal, Nasreen Jahan, Ajij Ahmed, Saima Naaz Bilal, Shahida Habib, Syeda Hajra

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Plants are one of the most important sources of medicines. Basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) is one such plant which symbolizes all that is wondrous in nature because, the whole plant has been used as traditional medicine for household remedy against various human ailments from antiquity. The objective of this paper is to review the literature regarding Ocimum basilicum, specifically for its chemical properties, therapeutic benefits and scientific studies. This review consists of all publications relevant to Ocimum basilicum that were identified by the authors through a systemic search of major computerized medical database. Studies indicate Ocimum basilicum to possess analgesic, anti inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti ulcerogenic, cardiac stimulant, chemomodulatory, CNS depressant, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, immunomodulator and larvicidal activities. The drug was also searched for its folkloric claims. It is used in traditional medicine as a tonic and vermifuge, and Basil tea taken hot is good for treating nausea, flatulence, and dysentery. The oil of the plant has been found to be beneficial for the alleviation of mental fatigue, cold, spasm, rhinitis, and as a first aid treatment for wasp stings and snakebites. Preliminary studies have found various constituents of Ocimum basilicum to exhibit a variety of therapeutic effects. These results are very encouraging and indicate that this drug should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and to find other potential therapeutic effects.

Keywords: Basil; Pharmacological studies; Phytochemical studies; Ethnobotanical reports.

Full Text:

The medicinal plants are rich in secondary metabolites and essential oils of therapeutic importance. The important advantages claimed for therapeutic uses of medicinal plants in various ailments are their safety besides being economical, effective and their easy availability. Because of these advantages the medicinal plants have been widely used by the traditional medical practitioners in their day to day practice. Among the plants known for medicinal value, the plants of genus Ocimum are rich in phenolic compounds and are very useful for their therapeutic potentials.1 Ocimum basilicum Linn. popularly known as “Sweet basil” is used in both Unani and Ayurvedic system of medicine2 . Moreover, among more than 150 species of the genus Ocimum, Basil is the major essential oil crop which is cultivated commercially in many countries3 It is a popular herb, valued for its rich and spicy, mildly peppery flavour with a trace of mint and clove and has been used widely as a food ingredient for flavouring confectionary, baked foods and meat products.4 It is used both as a culinary and an ornamental herb.(5)

Historical Background
The history of use of Basil as a medicine can be traced back to the age of Dioscorides as he mentioned it in one of the earliest book on medicinal plants, De Materia medica, as a potent antidote for scorpion sting. Several interesting believes are ascribed to the historical use of Basil. Europeans considered it to be funereal and to dream of it, unlucky whereas, in Italy, women wear it in hair and the youths stick a spring of it above the ear when they go courting.(6). In India, Hindus believed that a leaf of Basil buried with them would serve as their passport to the heaven. In early 1600, the English used it in their food and in doorways to ward off uninvited pests, such as flies as well as evil spirits.

Taxonomic Classification8
Kingdom : Plantae
Subkingdom : Tracheobionta
Superdivision : Spermatophyta
Division : Magnoliophyta
Class : Magnoliopsida
Subclass : Asteridae
Order : Lamiales
Family : Lamiaceae
Genus : Ocimum
Species : basilicum
Binomial Name : Ocimum basilicum9

Etymology of Basil
The name basil is thought to be derived from the Greek word “Basileus”, meaning “Royal or King”. It is often referred as King of the Herbs.7

O. caryophyllatum Roxb.
O. minimum
O. pilosum

Ocimum basilicum var. purpurscens is popularly known as Purple Basil. The leaves are as same as that of sweet basil. It is known for its culinary properties and excellent ornamental foliage.

Ocimum basilicum var. genovese is also called Genovese Basil This basil has dark green leaves that grows upto 2 inches long. It is used on a large scale in pesto and garlic dishes.

Ocimum basilicum var. crispum is used largely as garnishing in salad or in sauce, it does not taste much as compared to other green basils and popularly known as Lettuce Leaf Basil. Its leaves are quite wide and large.

Description of Plant
Ocimum basilicum is known by different names in different languages around the world including the Indian sub continent. In English, it is known as Basil, Common Basil or Sweet Basil12 whereas, in Hindi13 and Bengali6 , it is called Babui Tulsi. The plant is known as Badrooj, Hebak or Rihan in Arabic; as Nasabo or Sabje in Gujrati and as Jangli Tulsi in Urdu. Tohrakhurasani and Okimon are the ascribed names of the plant in Persian and Unani languages9

Habitat and Distribution
Sweet basil is indigenous to Persia and Sindh and lower hills of Punjab in India.(13) The plant is widely grown as an ornamental and field crop throughout the greater part of India, Burma, Cylone9 and several Mediterranean countries including Turkey.

Botanical description of the plant
An erect branching herb, 0.6 to 0.9 m high, glabrous, more or less hispidly pubescent. Stems and branches are green or sometimes purplish. Leaves of Ocimum basilicum are simple, opposite,(12) 2.5-5 cm or more long, ovate, acute, entire or more or less toothed or lobed with a cuneate and entire base. The petiole is 1.3-2.5 cm long. The leaves have numerous dot like oil glands which secrete strongly scented volatile oil. Whorls densely racemose, where the terminal receme is usually much longer than the lateral ones. The bracts are stalked, shorter than the calyx, ovate and acute. Calyx is five mm long, enlarging in fruit and very shortly pedicelled. Its lower lip with the two central teeth is longer than the rounded upper lip. Corolla being 8-13 mm long are white, pink or purplish in colour, glabrous or variously pubescent. The upper filaments of slightly exerted stamen are toothed at the base. Nutlets are about two mm long, ellipsoid, black and pitted.9 Sepals of flower are five and remain fused into a 2-lipped calyx. Ovary is superior and there is a 2-carpellary, 4- locular and a 4-partite fruit of four achenes.12

Ethnobotanical Description
Basil is well-known as a plant of folk medicinal value and as such is accepted officially in a number of countries. The leaves of the Basil are used in folk medicine as a tonic and vermifuge, and Basil tea taken hot is good for treating nausea, flatulence, and dysentery. The oil of the plant has been found to be beneficial for the alleviation of mental fatigue, cold, spasm, rhinitis, and as a first aid treatment for wasp stings and snakebites.14

Pharmacological Actions
The plant is stomachic, alexipharmic and antipyretic. It also possesses diuretic and emmenagogue properties. In Annam, an infusion of the plant is considered to be antihelminthic, diaphoretic, anti emetic and anti diarrhoeaic.9 Diuretic, aphrodisiac and anti dysenteric actions have also been ascribed to the seeds of this plant. The juice of the plant shows carminative, stimulant12,13 and anti bacterial actions; its essential oil possesses anti bacterial, anti fungal and insecticidal effects10 . The flowers of this plant are stimulant, diuretic and demulcent in action.15 The flowers are also considered to be carminative, anti-spasmodic and digestive stimulant.12

Therapeutic Uses Plant:
Basil is useful in diseases of heart and blood, biliousness kapha and Vata, leucoderma etc. The juice relieves joints pain, gives luster to eyes, is good for toothache, earache and cures epistaxis when used with camphor.9 The juice of plant is dropped into ears to cure dullness of hearing.10,13 The infusion of the plant is given to treat cephalgia and gouty joints and used as gargle for foul breath. Basil cures headache, aids digestion9 and acts as a mild laxative. The plant is also reported to keep away the flies and snakes.16 A 12% decoction of the plant used as irrigation in nasal myosis, produces anesthesia and acts as a parasiticide and antiseptic, so that the larvae which causes the disease rendered inactive and expelled. The plant is useful in treatment of stomach complaints, fever, cough and gout.13 It cures Kustha (obstinate skin disease including leprosy) and scorpion bite. According to Ainslie, it is used in India to assuage the pain of childbirth.17 The warm leaves juice of this plant along with honey is used to treat croup.15 It also forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ringworm. It is used as a lotion for sore eyes too. In Guinea, the decoction of leaves and stem are given to treat fever, neuralgia, catarrh, renal troubles and burning micturation.9 In Ethiopia, leaves are used against malaria, headache and diarrhea. In homeopathy, the fresh mature leaves are used to treat spermatorrhoea, blood dysentery, haematuria, inflammation and congestion of kidney. Aqueous extract of the leaves is used in southern Nigeria to relieve the severe pain associated with post natal uterine contraction. The juice of leaves is used as insecticide and applied on the nostrils of camels to kill the worms, which infest them during winter13,16 The juice of the leaves is also used to treat otitis. The roots of this plant are used to treat bowel complaints of children.9,12,15 The seeds washed and pounded are used in poultices for unhealthy sores and sinuses. An infusion of seeds is given in fever. The seeds are chewed in case of snake-bite, one portion is swallowed and the other portion is applied to the bitten part.9 A cold infusion of it is said to relieve the after pain of parturition. They are also given internally to treat cystitis, nephritis and in internal piles.13 Due to the mucilaginous and cooling effect, an infusion of basil seed is given to treat gonorrhoea, diarrhoea and chronic dysentery.16

Scientific studies
Physicochemical Study
Bihari et al.,18 carried out the physicochemical evaluation of Ocimum basilicum. The total ash value of the plant is found to be 8.7% whereas, the acid insoluble, water soluble and the sulphated ash values are recorded as 0.3%, 3.7% and 0.6 % respectively. Extractive values of Basil are reported as 6.24%, 4.0% and 3.7% (w/w) in water, alcohol and ether, respectively. As much as 0.1% foreign organic matter is also contained in O. basilicum. The following table shows the Fluorescence characteristics of the test drug with different reagents as observed under day light and UV light.


bitten part.9 A cold infusion of it is said to relieve the after pain of parturition. They are also given internally to treat cystitis, nephritis and in internal piles.13 Due to the mucilaginous and cooling effect, an infusion of basil seed is given to treat gonorrhoea, diarrhoea and chronic dysentery.16 Scientific studies Physicochemical Study Bihari et al.,18 carried out the physicochemical evaluation of Ocimum basilicum. The total ash value of the plant is found to be 8.7% whereas, the acid insoluble, water soluble and the sulphated ash values are recorded as 0.3%, 3.7% and 0.6 % respectively. Extractive values of Basil are reported as 6.24%, 4.0% and 3.7% (w/w) in water, alcohol and ether, respectively. As much as 0.1% foreign organic matter is also contained in O. basilicum. The following table shows the Fluorescence characteristics of the test drug with different reagents as observed under day light and UV light.


Phytochemical Studies
Fresh flowering herb yield essential oil containing small amount of estragol, eucalyptol, ocimene, linalool acetate, eugenol, 1- epibicyclosesquiphellandrene, menthol, menthone, cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, myrcenol and nerol.19 The leaves distilled with water yield about 1.56% of yellowish green oil, lighter than water which when kept in air, solidifies almost wholly, as crystallized from alcohol forms 4-sided prism, having a faint smell and taste. Crystallized from water, it forms white, transparent, nearly tasteless tetrahedrons.6 The green leaves contain high concentration of vitamins minerals and oils.10,16 Bihari et al.,18 reports that the phytochemical screening of O.basilicum revealed the presence of glycoside, gums, mucilage, proteins, amino acids, tannins, phenolic compound, triterpenoids steroids, sterols, saponins, flavones and flavonoids in it. A total of 29 compounds representing 98.0+99.7% of the oils are identified by Hussain et al.,3 in the plant of Ocimum basilicum. Linalool is the main constituent of essential oil (56.7-60.6%). Analyzed essential oils mainly consists oxygenated monoterpenes (60.7-68.9%) followed by sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (16.0-24.3%) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (12.0-14.4%). The major oxygenated monoterpenes are: linalool, camphor, cis-geraniol and 1,8-cineole. While, abergamotene, b-caryophyllene, germacrene D, ccadinene and bicyclogermacrene are the main sesquiterpene hydrocarbons whereas, epi-acadinol and viridiflorol are the important oxygenated sesquiterpene.

Seasonal variations in chemical composition of drug
The herb, depending upon the stage of its life and the place of its cultivation, contains varying amount of essential oil. The chemical composition of Basil as affected by the four seasons namely, summer, autumn, winter and spring was investigated by Hussain et al.,3 . He found that the content of the essential oils is distributed unevenly among seasons. The highest amount of the oil in the O. basilicum is found during winter (0.8%) which decreases significantly (p<0.05) in summer to 0.5%. Samples collected in winter are found to be richer in oxygenated monoterpenes (68.9%), while those of summer are higher in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (24.3%). The contents of most of the chemical constituents vary significantly (p<0.05) with different seasons.

Horticulture Characteristics
Javanmardi et al.,5 studied the horticulture characteristics, including quantitative and qualitative traits along with the chemical variation of phenolic acids of 23 accessions of Basil from Iran and reported that rosmarinic acid, lithospermic acid B, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, and gentisic acid are found in various concentrations in flower and leaf tissues of different accessions of Basil. Rosmarinic acid is the predominant phenolic compound found in several basil accessions. Morphological studies of accessions show a high level of variability in recorded traits. Quantification of phenolic acids using high performance liquid chromatography shows drastic variations between accessions. Rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid and caftaric acid (in the order of most abundant to least; all derivatives of caffeic acid) were identified by Lee and Scagel 20 in fresh basil leaves. Moreover, Fresh Basil leaves contain higher concentrations of chicoric acid than dried basil flakes.20 The seeds (from Pakistan) contain 21.4% fixed oil with the following fatty acid composition:lauric 0.85; myristic 0.36; palmitic 9.70; stearic 5.45; oleic 13.33; linoleic 321.81 and linolenic 48.50%.16

Drying Methods
In a study carried out by Polatc and Tarhan,21 Basil (Ocimum basilicum) was dehydrated using five different drying methods (contact drying, oven drying, shaded-open atmosphere drying, sun drying and microwave drying). The drying performance (drying time, final moisture content), drying kinetics, color analysis, essential oil analysis, were performed for all drying methods. Research results show that the drying Basil with air heated up to 45-55 ºC is appropriate.

Extractive Methods
Soran22 used three different techniques (maceration, sonication and extraction in microwave field) for extraction of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum. The extracts were analyzed by TLC/HPTLC technique and the fingerprint information was obtained. The gas chromatograph with flame- ionization detection was used to characterize the extraction efficiency and to identify the terpenic bioactive compounds. They concluded that most efficient extraction technique is maceration followed by microwave and ultrasound. The best extraction solvent system is ethyl ether + ethanol (1:1, v/v).

Aroma Profile
Aroma profiles of five Basil samples were analyzed by Klimankova et al.,23 A headspace solid-phase microextraction method coupled to gas chromatography–ion trap mass spectrometry has been developed and applied for profiling of volatile compounds released from five Ocimum basilicum cultivars grown under both organic and conventional conditions. Comprehensive twodimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed for confirmation of identity of volatiles extracted from the basil headspace by solid-phase microextraction. Linalool, methyl chavicol, eugenol, bergamotene, and methyl cinnamate were the dominant volatile components, the relative content of which was found to enable differentiating between the cultivars examined. 

The relative content of some sesquiterpenes, hydrocarbons benzenoid compounds, and monoterpene hydrocarbons was lower in dried and frozen leaves as compared to fresh basil leaves. A sensory analysis of the all examined samples proved the differences between evaluated cultivars.

Pharmacological studies
Analgesic Activity
Methanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum was evaluated for its analgesic activity by tail immersion method in Swiss mice. The extract was able to show analgesic activity at 200 mg/kg concentration which was well comparable with the standard drug, aspirin.24

Anti inflammatory activity
Benedec et al.,25 investigated the effects of Ocimum basilicum tincture (1:10) in acute inflammation induced with turpentine oil (IM 0.6 ml/100 gm) in Wistar male rats. Compared to diclofenac, the tincture had a smaller inhibitory effect on all tested parameters. Thus, Ocimum basilicum tincture has important anti inflammatory effects on bone marrow acute phase response and a reduced one on NO synthesis. Chinnasamy et al.,26 too observed somehow, similar results when they investigated the anti inflammatory activity of crude methanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum where, it showed a good inhibitory effect on the proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in mitogenic lymphocyte proliferation assays in healthy individuals. Furthermore, gene expression studies on lipopolysaccharide induced production of proinflammatory cytokines like Tumor necrosis factor-α, Interlukin-1ß and IL-2 showed down regulation of the markers. It also suppressed the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase and the subsequent production of nitric oxide in a time-dependent manner. The results showed that Ocimum basilicum crude methanolic extract inhibits the key proinflammatory cytokines and mediators, which accounts for its anti inflammatory effects.

Antimicrobial Activity
When investigated for in vitro anti microbial properties, none of the ethanol, methanol and hexane extract from Ocimum basilicum showed antifungal activities but anti candidal and anti bacterial effects. Both the hexane and methanol extracts, but not the ethanol extracts, inhibited three isolates out of 23 strains of Candida albicans. The hexane extract showed a strong and broader spectrum of antibacterial activity followed by methanol and ethanol extracts. The minimal inhibition zones of the hexane, methanol and ethanol extracts ranged from 125 to 250 µl/ml, respectively.27 Somewhere in other part of the world, Harsh et al.,28 investigated the Rosmarinic acid (RA), a multifunctional caffeic acid ester present in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) and found that RA shows antimicrobial activity against a range of soilborne microorganisms, with its most deleterious effects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Confocal and scanning imaging of Aspergillus niger hyphae treated with RA (250 μM) exhibited damaged cytoskeletons with broken interseptas and convoluted cell surfaces resulting in a multinucleated stage compared to the untreated control. Both strains of P. aeruginosa tested, PAO1 and PA14, showed increased spatial division and condensation of DNA upon RA treatment compared to the untreated control. Their findings suggest that in nature RA is a constitutive antimicrobial compound that may be released into the surrounding rhizosphere upon microbe challenge.

Anti oxidant activity
In vitro antioxidant activities of 50% hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum species namely Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum sanctum were achieved at varying concentrations (10- 50µg/ml) using DPPH radical scavenging activity. The results showed that Ocimum basilicum had more antioxidant activity than Ocimum sanctum. 1 In another study carried out by Meera et al.,29 the ethanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum exhibited potent antioxidant effects. A similar result was obtained by Hussain et al.,3 while investigating the essential oil from the aerial parts of Basil which exhibited good antioxidant activity as measured by 2,2’- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH free radicalscavenging ability, bleaching β-carotene in linoleic acid oxidation. Seung et al.,30 examined twelve aroma constituents of basil for its antioxidant activity using the aldehyde/carboxylic acid assay. Eugenol, thymol, carvacrol, and 4- allylphenol showed stronger antioxidant activities than did the other components tested in the assay. They all inhibited the oxidation of hexanal by almost 100% for a period of 30 days at a concentration of 5µg/ml. Their antioxidant activities were comparable to those of the known antioxidants, α-tocopherol and butylated hydroxy toluene. Anti-ulcerogenic activity Ocmium basilicum (aerial parts) powder and its aqueous and methanolic extract decrease the ulcer index in aspirin induced gastric ulcer in rat model. Moreover, the acid output was decreased by its methanolic extract while hexosamine secretion was enhanced. This suggests that its ulcerogenic effect is due to the decreased acid and pepsin outputs which enhance gastric mucosal strength.31 The fixed oil of Ocimum basilicum has also been found by Singh et al.,32 to possess significant antiulcer activity against aspirin, indomethacin, alcohol, histamine, reserpine, serotonin and stress-induced ulceration in experimental animal models. Significant inhibition was also observed in aspirin-induced gastric ulceration and secretion in pylorus ligated rats. Hence, concluded that the lipoxygenase inhibiting histamine antagonistic and anti secretory effects of the oil could probably contribute towards its antiulcer activity. Cardiac stimulant activity The alcoholic and aqueous extract of Ocimum basilicum exhibited a cardiac tonic and ß- adrenergic effect respectively, when screened by Muralidharan and Dhananjayan,2 for their effects on frog-heart in situ preparation. The alcoholic extract produced significant positive ionotropic and negative chronotropic actions on frog heart. A significant decrease in membrane Na+/K+ ATPase, Mg2+ ATPase and an increase in Ca2+ ATPase pointed the basis for its cardiotonic effect. The aqueous extract produced positive chronotropic and positive ionotropic effects which were antagonized by propranolol. Chemomodulatory activity The effects of doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic extract of the fresh leaves of Ocimum basilicum on xenobiotic metabolizing Phase I and Phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione content, lactate dehydrogenase and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 8-9 weeks old Swiss mice were examined. Furthermore, the anticarcinogenic potential of basil leaf extract was studied, using the model of Benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach and 7,12 dimethyl benz(a)anthracene-initiated skin papillomagenesis. Basil leaf extract was very effective in elevating antioxidant enzyme response. There were significant decrease in lipid peroxidation and lactate dehydrogenase activity. Chemopreventive response was evident from the reduced tumour burden, as well as from the reduced percentage of tumor-bearing animals. Basil leaf augmented mainly the Phase I enzyme activity. Moreover, Basil leaf extract was highly effective in inhibiting carcinogen induced tumor incidence in both the tumor models at periinitiational level. 33

CNS Activities
Ismail14 screened the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum (OB) for some CNS activities viz. sedative, hypnotic, anticonvulsant, local anesthetic etc. on mice. Higher doses of OB essential oil produced motor impairment at all time intervals. Pentobarbitone sleeping time was significantly increased by all doses of the essential oil higher than 0.2mLkg_1 . Intraperitoneal administration of OB essential oil significantly increased the latency of convulsion and percent of animals exhibiting clonic seizures in a dose-dependent manner. The ED50 values of the essential oil of OB were 0.61mLkg_1 , 0.43mLkg_1, and 1.27mLkg_1, against convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole, picrotoxin, and strychnine, respectively. A study of the local anesthetic activity of the OB essential oil by using a nerve block model employing in frog revealed that it had no local anesthetic effect.

Hepatoprotective Activity
Significant hepatoprotective effects were obtained by ethanolic extract of leaves of Ocimum basilicum against liver damage induced by H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) and CCl4 (Carbon tetrachloride) as evidenced by decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes in a trial carried out by Meera et al., 29 The extract also showed significant anti lipid peroxidation effect in vitro.

Hypoglycaemic Activity
The hypoglycaemic effect of the aqueous extract of Ocimum basilicum was investigated in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats by Zeggwagh et al.,34 to conclude that the aqueous extract exhibits potent anti hyperglycaemic activity in diabetic rats without affecting basal plasma insulin concentrations.

Hypolipidaemic activity
Armani et al., 35 in their study evaluates the lipid lowering effect of aqueous Ocimum basilicum extract in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidaemic rats. At 24 h following Ocimum basilicum administration, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol levels decreased by 56%, 63% and 68%, respectively, in comparison with the Triton treated group and HDL-cholesterol was not increased significantly. The hypolipidaemic effect exerted was markedly stronger than the effect induced by fenofibrate treatments. Further, it was demonstrated that Ocimum basilicum aqueous extract displayed a very high antioxidant power.

Immunomodulatory activity
The aqueous and ethanolic extract of leaves of Ocimum basilicum (OB) was administered orally at the dose of 400mg/kg/day in mice, showed a significant increase in the production of circulating antibody titre in response to sheep red blood cells. A significant increase in both primary and secondary haemagglutination antibody (HA) titre was observed while compared to control group, whereas, in cyclophosphamide treated group OB showed significant increase in HA titre. OB significantly potentiated the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction by facilitating the footpad thickness response to sheep red blood cells in synthesized mice. Also OB evoked a significant increase in percentage neutrophil adhesion to Nylon fibres and phagocytic activity. The study demonstrates that OB triggers both specific and non specific responses to a greater extent. From the results obtained and phytochemical studies, the immunostimulant effect of OB could be attributed to the flavonoid content.7

Larvicidal activity
Laboratory investigation carried out by Arthi et al.,36 using the extract of plants like Ocimum basilicum and microbial pesticide spinosad against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi Liston showed 85% mortality.

The idea of using medicinal plants to treat human ailments is not new and in many developing countries their use is still vogue. Ocimum basilicum Linn. is a very important drug and is traditionally used to treat a number of health problems. This review provides evidence based scientific validation to some of its action and therapeutic uses described in ethnobotanical literature. But the compounds responsible for these activities have not yet been clearly elaborated so, further studies should be taken into consideration to justify its reported actions through related phytoconstituents.

In the recent years, traditional system of medicines have emerged as a potential source to cope with the growing rate of chronic, degenerative, environmental, lifestyle and stress related diseases. Traditionally, Basil has been used as whole herb to treat a good number of diseases. The wide range of and the diversities in the action of Basil can be a result of synergistic effect of its phytochemical constituents which cannot be fully duplicated with the isolated extracts or constituents. This article briefly reviews the traditional knowledge, ethnomedicinal, pharmacological and therapeutic applications of the plant Ocimum basilicum Linn. This is an attempt to compile and document information on different aspects of the plant and highlight the need for research and development.

Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors/ editors/ publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.


1. Ramesh B, Satakopan VN. In vitro antioxidant activities Of Ocimum species: Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum sanctum. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 2010; 10(1): 2145-50

2. Muralidharan A, Dhananjayan R. Cardiac stimulant activity of Ocimum basilicum Linn. extracts. Indian J Pharmacol 2004; 36: 163-6.

3. Hussain AI, Anwar AF, Sherazi STH, Przybylski R. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oils depends on seasonal variations. 9.pdf 986 - 96

4. Chang X, Alderson PG, Wright CJ. Variation in the essential oils in different leaves of Basil (O. basilicum L.) at day time, The Open Horticulture Journal 2009; 2: 13-16.

5. Javanmardi J, Khalighi A, Kashi A, Bais HP, Vivanco JM. Chemical characterization of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) found in local accessions and used in traditional medicines in Iran. J. Agric. Food Chem 2002; 50: 5878- 83

6. Dymock W, Warden CJH, Hooper D. Pharmacographica Indica. A history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin. Vol III. New Delhi: Shrishti book distributors; 2005. 82-5

7. Neelam LD, Nilofer SN. Preliminary immunomodulatory activity of aqueous and ethanolic leaves extracts of Ocimum basilicum Linn in mice. International Journal of PharmTech Research 2010; 2(2): 1342-9

8. Natural resources conservation service. United States department of agriculture, [cited on 07/03/12].

9. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian Medicinal Plants with Illustrations. 2 nd ed. Vol VIII. Uttaranchal: Oriental Enterprises; 2003. 2701-2705

10. Khare CP. Indian Medicinal Plannts, An Illustrated Dictionary. New Delhi: Springer India (P) Ltd; 2007. 442-4.

11. Agro Products, official website, [Cited on November 4th 2010] ds/seeds-basil-seed.html

12. Jayaweera DMA. Medicinal Plants, (Indigenous and Exotic) Used in Ceylon. Part III. Colombo: The National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka; 1981. 101-3.


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A study by Sathyanarayanan AR et al. entitled \"The on-task Attention of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder-An Eye Tracker Study Using Auticare\" is awarded Best article of Vol 14 issue 19
A study by Gupta P. et al. entitled \"A Short Review on \"A Novel Approach in Fast Dissolving Film & their Evaluation Studies\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 18.
A study by Shafaque M. et al. entitled \"A Case-Control Study Performed in Karachi on Inflammatory Markers by Ciprofloxacin and CoAmoxicillin in Patients with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media\" is awarded Best Article of Vol 14 issue 17
A study by Ali Nawaz et al. entitled \"A Comparative Study of Tubeless versus Standard Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) \? A Randomized Controlled Study\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 16.
A study by Singh R. et al. entitled \"A Prospective Study to Find the Association of Astigmatism in Patients of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in a Tertiary Health Care Centre in India (Vindhya Region MP)\" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 15
A Study by Humaira Tahir et al. entitled "Comparison of First Analgesic Demand after Major Surgeries of Obstetrics and Gynecology between Pre-Emptive Versus Intra-Operative Groups by Using Intravenous Paracetamol: A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 14
A Study by Monica K. entitled "Risk Predictors for Lymphoma Development in Sjogren Syndrome - A Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 13
A Study by Mokhtar M Sh et al. entitled "Prevalence of Hospital Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 12
A Study by Vidya S. Bhat et al. entitled "Effect of an Indigenous Cleanser on the Microbial Biofilm on Acrylic Denture Base - A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 11
A Study by Pandya S. et al. entitled "Acute and 28-Day Repeated Dose Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of Coroprotect Tablet in Rodents" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 10
A Study by Muhammad Zaki et al. entitled "Effect of Hemoglobin Level on the Severity of Acute Bronchiolitis in Children: A Case-Control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 09
A Study by Vinita S & Ayushi S entitled "Role of Colour Doppler and Transvaginal Sonography for diagnosis of endometrial pathology in women presenting with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 08
A Study by Prabhu A et al. entitled "Awareness of Common Eye Conditions among the ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) Workers in the Rural Communities of Udupi District- A Pilot Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 07
A Study by Divya MP et al. entitled "Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 3D Fiesta Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences with High Resolution Computed Tomography Temporal Bone in Assessment and Predicting the Outcome of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 06
A Study by Zahoor Illahi Soomro et al. entitled "Functional Outcomes of Fracture Distal Radius after Fixation with Two Different Plates: A Retrospective Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 05
A Study by Ajai KG & Athira KN entitled "Patients’ Gratification Towards Service Delivery Among Government Hospitals with Particular Orientation Towards Primary Health Centres" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 04
A Study by Mbungu Mulaila AP et al. entitled "Ovarian Pregnancy in Kindu City, D.R. Congo - A Case Report" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 03
A Study by Maryam MJ et al. entitled "Evaluation Serum Chemerin and Visfatin Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Diagnostic Biomarkers" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 02
A Study by Shanthan KR et al. entitled "Comparison of Ultrasound Guided Versus Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique of Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Patients Undergoing Upper Limb Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 14 issue 01
A Study by Amol Sanap et al. entitled "The Outcome of Coxofemoral Bypass Using Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture of Femur in a Rural Setup" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 24
A Study by Manoj KP et al. entitled "A Randomized Comparative Clinical Trial to Know the Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Against Multimodal Analgesia for Postoperative Analgesia Following Caesarean Section" is awarded Best Article Award of Vol 13 issue 23
A Study by Karimova II et al. entitled "Changes in the Activity of Intestinal Carbohydrases in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats and Their Correction with Prenalon" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 22
A Study by Ashish B Roge et al. entitled "Development, Validation of RP-HPLC Method and GC MS Analysis of Desloratadine HCL and It’s Degradation Products" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 21
A Study by Isha Gaurav et al. entitled "Association of ABO Blood Group with Oral Cancer and Precancer – A Case-control Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 20
A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh"Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09

List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.


International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal


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