International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 04 Issue 24, December, 2012

Pages: 59-63

Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001

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Author: Jain Suman, Sharma Renu, Sharma Suman, Varadkar A.M. Department of Biochemistry and Physiology, Geetanjali Medical College and Hospital

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Introduction: Liver cancer is the leading cause of death due to malignancies worldwide. The extent of free radical induced oxidative stress can be exacerbated by the decreased efficiency of antioxidant mechanisms, The present study was conducted to investigate the extent of oxidative stress and the levels of antioxidants in the circulation of liver cancer patients. Method: Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and level of some antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and non enzymatic antioxidants vitaminC and vitamin E were estimated in the circulations of 50 liver cancer patients and an equal number of age matched normal subjects. Results: Significantly increased concentrations of plasma TBARS, significantly lowered levels of SOD, CAT, VitC and VitE were observed in liver cancer patients and may be due to their increased utilization to scavenge lipids peroxides as well as their sequestration by tumor cells. Increase levels of lipid peroxidation may be due to excessive oxidative stress.

Keywords: Antioxidants, Peroxidative stress, Malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), catalase, vitaminC, vitaminE

Full Text:

Globally, primary liver cancer ranked seventh in men in 1975 and by 1990 it reached the fifth position with a 73% increase in the burden. (1) According to WHO more than 6,22,000 people across the world die because of the fatal disease. The disease is very much related to Hepatitis B and C virus. The exposure of these viruses is the primary reason of this disease, but smoking and liquor is also among the main reasons of liver cancer. (2) Role of oxidative damage in carcinogenesis is increasingly being appreciated. Free radicals are species capable of independent existence containing one or more unpaired electrons in their outer most orbital. Majority of tumors are caused by environmental factors which act almost always via free radicals. They are involved in both initiation and promotion of multistage carcinogenesis by damaging DNA, resulting in mutation protooncogene activation, inactivation or loss of tumor suppressor gene. (3) Oxidative stress plays important role in the pathogenesis of toxic liver diseases and also of some kinds of hepatic alterations (4) An antioxidant is the substance which delays or prevents oxidation of a substrates and constitutes the body’s primary defense against free radicals injury. Reducing the oxidative stress by supplementation of antioxidant could be effective option of chemoprevention and was suggested. (3) Oxidative stress caused by increased free radical generation and or decreased antioxidant level in the target cells and tissues has been suggested to play a important role in carcinogenesis. (5,6,7) 

The levels of free radicals molecules are controlled by various cellular defense mechanisms consisting of enzymes Catalase (CAT), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione peroxidase and non enzymatic vitamin C and vitamin E glutathione components.(8) The present study is aimed to determine the extent of oxidative stress by measuring TBARS and antioxidant parameters in plasma of the patients with liver cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was conducted in R.N.T. Medical College and associated M.B. Hospital. Healthy subjects (50) & 50 liver cancer patients (outdoor & inward) were selected for this study. Patient Detailed present and past history of subjects was recorded on a separate proforma regarding their general information i.e. Age, sex, height, weight, caste, religion, dietary habits and education. The normal subjects were healthy medical students, staff members and attendant of patients, donors of blood bank of Maharana Bhupal Hospital/RNT Medical College Udaipur. Biochemical Estimations Lipid peroxide was estimated by measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in plasma by method of Yagi. (9) The lipid peroxidation was estimated at 532nm. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was assayed by the method of Kakkar et al (10) based on the 50% inhibition of the formation of NADH-phenazine methosulphate nitroblue tetrazolium formazan at 520nm. Catalase activity was assayed by the method of Sinha(11) Hemolysate was treated with H2O2 (0.2mol/L) and the reaction was arrested after 60 sec by the addition of dichromate – acetic acid reagent cooled and the intensity of color read at 620nm. Various aliquots of H2O2 were used as the standard. A system devoid of the enzyme served as the control. Plasma vitamin C (ascorbic acid) was estimated by the method of Roe and Kuether (12) in which dehydroascorbic acid is coupled with 2, 4- dinitrophenylhydrazine and when treated with sulphuric acid forms an orange colour compound which was measured at 520nm. Plasma vitamin E(α-tocopherol ) was estimated by the method of Baker and Frank (13) The method involves the reduction of ferric ions to ferrous ions by α-tocopherol and the formation of a colored complex with 2, 2-dipyridyl. Absorbance of the chromophore was measured at 520nm. The data for biochemical analysis are expressed as mean, Standared Deviation. Statistical comparisons were performed by student’s‘t’ test. RESULTS Table 1 shows the level of lipid peroxidation in plasma of normal and liver cancer patients. Lipid peroxidation as assayed by thiobarbuturicacid reactive substances (TBARS) level was significantly higher in liver cancer patients as compared with normal subjects. Table 2 shows the level of antioxidants in the circulation of normal and liver cancer patients. The enzymatic antioxidants such as Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase in the hemolysate were significantly lower in liver cancer patients as compared with normal subjects. Also the nonenzymatic antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E in plasma were significantly lower in liver cancer patients Vs control.

Oxidative stress is due to a disturbance in the balance between the production of ROS and the efficiency of the antioxidant defense. (14) Potential targets for free radical attack includes lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. (15) The epoxides generated due to increased oxidative stress may spontaneously react with nucleophilic centres in the cell and thereby covalently bind to DNA and RNA and protein. Such reactions may lead to cytotoxicity and carcinogenicity depending on the properties of the epoxides. (16) Moreover, severe oxidative stress is not only known to cause DNA and mutations in tumor suppressor genes but play important role in the promotion of multistep carcinogenesis. (17, 18) The end product of lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde, due to its high cytotoxicity and inhibitory action on protective enzymes is suggested to act as a tumor promoter and a cocarcinogenic agent. (19) Increased lipid peroxidation is observed in the plasma of cervical cancer patients also. (20) In our present work we noticed increased levels of circulating TBARS in liver cancer patients which can be attributed to the deficiency of antioxidant defense mechanisms. The antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT widely distributed in all cells are present in high amounts in erythrocytes. SOD protects against O2 - by dismutation of the highly reactive superoxide anion to O2 and to a less reactive species to H2O2 . (21) Catalase protects the cell from H2O2. (22) In our case, we have observed low levels of SOD and Catalase in liver cancer patients. This correlates with the increase peroxidation activity. A decrease in the activity of catalase and SOD could be due to increase in lipid peroxidation products Malondialdehyde (MDA) which forms cross links inactivating several membrane bound enzymes and increase in lipid peroxides could be responsible for decreased SOD levels. Decreases catalase could be due to use of the enzyme because of increased peroxidation. Antioxidant vitamin E present in the cell along cell membrane. (23) and vitamin C is radical scavenging antioxidant (24) present in all cells as a reducing agent. A lipid peroxidation and its positive correlation with antioxidant vitamin E and vitamin C has been documented (25). Many studies regarding ovarian and other cancers also show inverse relationship between circulating levels of vitamin C and vitamin E. (26,27) )Due to low economic status and trends of using less fruits and vegetables people here are malnourished and thus prone to malignancy and thus associated with cancers (28) and also in liver cancer. (29)

Comparative prospective study was undertaken between healthy and liver cancer subjects with respect to lipid peroxidation and antioxidant level. MDA (malondialdehyde) levels (2.47±0.68) in healthy and patients had 3.93± 0.68 were significantly higher than controls. SOD (superoxide dismutase) levels were significantly lowered in patients as compared to healthy controls. Catalase levels were lower in patients than healthy controls. Vitamin C and Vitamin E were significantly lower in patients than healthy controls.

We sincerely thank R.N.T. Medical College and associated hospital, Udaipur for extending all the facilities for conducting the work. Authors acknowledge the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed.


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27. Bidoli E, Lavecchia C, Talamini R, et al., Micronutrients and ovarian cancer: a case – control study in Italy. Ann. Oncol 2001; 12: 1589-1593.

28. Aaron T.F, Sara H O, Laura M, Neal S and Susan H. Dietary antioxidant supplements, and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Nutr. Cancer 2002; 40: 92-98.

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Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

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Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

Best Article Award

A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by situs slot and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. situs slot "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma situs slot entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by situs slot et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression situs slot
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease situs slot
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List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

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