International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 04 Issue 24, December, 2012

Pages: 43-51

Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001


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A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY OF MORBIDITY PATTERN OF RURAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN SOUTH INDIA

Author: Kulkarni Rajesh R., Shivaswamy M.S., Mallapur M.D.

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Background and aims: 72% of Indian population lives in rural area, where their main occupation is agriculture. Agriculture workers do not have trade unions and have no access to occupational health services. The present study was aimed to know the morbidities of agricultural workers. Methods and Material: This cross-sectional study was done from January 2009 to December 2009 among 400 agricultural workers of age 16 to 60 years residing at a sub-centre area of the PHC administrated by Medical College in South India, using predesigned and pretested questionnaire. Statistical analysis was done by using percentages and chi square test. Results: Among the study participants 55.75% were men and 44.25% were women, with male to female ratio of 1.25:1. Most of the agricultural workers (89.5%) were Hindus and 47% were illiterates; of the 400 study participants, 295 (73.75%) belonged to Class V socio-economic status. Majority (62%) of agricultural workers suffered from morbidities associated with oral cavity, followed by morbidities associated with musculoskeletal system (21.7%) and respiratory system (19%). Increasing age, gender and poor educational status were significantly associated with morbidities of oral cavity, musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, anaemia and animal bites. Conclusion: The present study suggests that, agricultural workers had a multitude of health problems. In order to overcome the situation, information, education and communication (IEC) activities needs to be strengthened and special health check-up camps to be conducted with emphasis on improvement of health.

Keywords: Agricultural workers; Morbidity pattern; Occupational health

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION
The literature linking health to labour productivity is built on the concepts of household production theory developed by Becker (1965). In Becker’s framework, households are treated also as producers of “commodities” instead of solely consumers of goods and services. This framework was extended by Grossman (1972, 1999) to analyze the demand for health. In Grossman’s model, health is viewed as a durable capital stock that yields an output of healthy time. [1] India lives in its 600,000 villages. Nearly 72% of Indian community lives in rural area, where their main occupation is agriculture. Indian agriculture accounts for 25% of total gross domestic product (GDP) on which 75% of country’s population depends on. Agricultural workers do not have trade unions and have no access to occupational health services. [2] Occupational health in the agricultural sector is a new concept. These agricultural workers have a multitude of health problems, a fact which is often forgotten because of misconception that occupational health is mainly concerned with industry and industrialized countries. These health problems of workers in agriculture may be accidents (machine injuries, snake and insect bites), toxic hazards (chemical exposures and insecticide poisoning), physical hazards (extreme conditions, solar radiation), respiratory problems (farmer’s lung, occupational asthma). [3] A study of women farmers in mixed cropping systems found that the vast majority suffered from intense muscular fatigue, heat exhaustion, and skin disorders, forcing them to take days off from attending to crops.[4] Poor health will result in a loss of days worked or in reduced worker capacity, which, when family and hired labour are not perfect substitutes or when there are liquidity constraints, is likely to reduce output.[5] For example, prolonged exposure to pesticides could cause cardiopulmonary problems, neurological and hematological symptoms, and adverse dermal effects, which could significantly hamper farmers’ work capacity in the field and reduce their management and supervision abilities.[6] As pointed by the World Bank (2007), illness and death from HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and other diseases reduce agricultural productivity through the loss of labour, knowledge of productive adults and assets to cope with illness. [7] Morbidity has been defined by World Health Organization (WHO) as any departure, subjective or objective, from a state of physiological well being. The term is used equivalent to such terms as sickness, illness, disability etc. The WHO Expert Committee on Health Statistics noted in its sixth report that morbidity could be measured in terms of three units that is persons who were ill, illness (period or spell of illness) that these persons experienced and duration (days, weeks etc) of these illnesses. [8] The lack of coordination of policy making between agriculture and health undermines efforts to overcome ill health among the rural poor and gives short shrift to agriculture’s role in alleviating many of the world’s most serious health problems. [9] .

 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
To assess the morbidity pattern of agricultural workers residing in rural field practice area of Medical College in South India

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Study design, period and area This community based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2009 in the rural field practice area of Primary Health Center (PHC) attached to Medical College in South India. The PHC has five sub-centers catering 18 villages having total population of 31,510. One sub-centre was selected among the five sub-centres using sample random sampling technique. Sample size and technique Since no previous studies had been recorded on agricultural workers morbidity in this area, the prevalence was considered to be 50% and the sample size was calculated as 400. All agricultural workers residing in six villages coming under selected sub-centre were listed. By four digit random number table method, 400 participants were selected. Selection criteria Agricultural workers residing in the study area for at least one year preceding the date of survey aged between 16 years to 60 years were included in the study. Recent migrants, pregnant and lactating women working as agricultural workers were excluded from the study. Procedure The study was approved from Institutional Ethics Committee of the Medical College. The study participants were interviewed in their households/fields. Based on the selection criteria, the study participants were selected and written informed consent was obtained from all the participants. The data was collected using predesigned and pretested proforma. Data regarding demographic variable like place of residence, age, sex, education status, marital status, socio-economic status and type of family were recorded. The personal history was taken for diet, sleep pattern, appetite and personal habits. Study variables Self reported illness symptoms experienced by the subjects (one month preceding the survey) were enquired and noted. History of trauma, animal bite, allergy, zoonotic diseases, and poison consumption one month preceding the survey were enquired and noted. A thorough general physical examination and systemic examination was conducted by the investigator to know the morbidities. Two more subsequent visits were made to collect data from those who were absent during first visit. Statistical analysis The data was tabulated using MS Excel sheet and analysis was done using percentages, rates and ratios. Chi square test was used to find the association between attributes.

RESULTS
Among the study participants 55.75% were males and 44.25% were females with male to female ratio of 1.25:1. Equal distribution (39%) was seen in the age group of 30 to 45 years and 45 to 60 years. There were 87 (21.75%) people with age between 15 to 30 years. Majority of the people were (89.5%) Hindus and 10.5% were to Muslims. The other demographic features are as shown in Table 1. Morbidity Pattern The general physical examination revealed majority (31%) had pallor, followed by fever (10.75%), skin abnormalities (4.5%), icterus (0.5%) and kyphosis (0.25%). The tachycardia and tachypnoea were noted in 20.25% and 9.75% respectively. The blood pressure measurement findings showed 17.25% of subjects had hypertension. Provisional diagnosis among the study participants showed, majority (62%) suffered from morbidity associated with oral cavity like dental caries (25.50%), dental stains (21.75%), dental calculus (11.50%) and oral submucous fibrosis (3.75%). The other morbidities seen were as mentioned in Table 2. Among the top ten morbidities, majority (62.5%) of the study participants had morbidities associated with oral cavity followed by musculoskeletal system (21.75%) and respiratory system (19%) (Graph 1). The present study showed significant association between morbidities of oral cavity, musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, cardiovascular system, eyes, central nervous system, anaemia and endocrine system with increasing age (Table 3). Also significant association was found between morbidities of oral cavity, musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, cardiovascular system, eye, gastrointestinal system, skin and animal bites with educational status (Table 4). However no significant association was found between socioeconomic status with morbidity pattern.

DISCUSSION
India, a land of agriculture, has formed the scaffolding for many agro-based industries. Morbidity is more common among these industrial workers; being a developing nation, India is faced with traditional public health problems like communicable diseases, malnutrition, poor environmental sanitation and inadequate medical care.[10] However, globalization and rapid industrial growth in the last few years has resulted in emergence of occupational health related issues. Agriculture is the main occupation in India giving employment to about 58% of the people. This is in contrast to the industrialized nations, like USA and Western Europe, where the employment in the agricultural sector is between 4 - 12%. [11]

Agriculture being the principle occupation in the country exposes a considerable proportion of population to this occupational related hazard. The major occupational diseases/morbidity of concern in India are silicosis, musculo-skeletal injuries, coal workers’ pneumoconiosis, chronic obstructive lung diseases, asbestosis, byssinosis, pesticide poisoning and noise induced hearing loss. [11] India is a developing nation and presents the demographic features similar to the other developing nations of the world. Emerging occupational health problems are to be tackled along with the existing traditional public health problems like communicable diseases, malnutrition, poor environmental sanitation and inadequate medical care. [11] Hence the present study was undertaken to assess the morbidity pattern of agricultural workers. In the present study among the study participants majority (62%) suffered form morbidity associated with oral cavity like dental caries (25.50%), dental stains (21.75%), dental calculus (11.50%) and oral sub-mucous fibrosis (3.75%), followed by musculoskeletal system (21.75%) and respiratory system (19%). The statistics for the over [11] A study estimated an annual incidence of occupational disease between 924,700 and 1,902,300 and 121,000 deaths in India. [12] Based on the survey of agriculture injury incidence study in Northern India, they estimated annual incidence of 17 million injuries per year, (two million moderate to serious) and 53,000 deaths per year in agriculture alone. [13] A study in 2006 showed that women farmers in mixed cropping systems found that the vast majority suffered from intense muscular fatigue heat exhaustion and skin disorders .[4] According to ILO, the agricultural sector is one of most hazardous health world wide. Agricultural work possesses several characteristics that are risky for health; exposure to wealth, close contact with animals and plant, extensive use of chemicals and biological products, difficult working posture and lengthy house and use of hazardous agricultural tools and machinery. [14] In the present study significant association was found between morbidities of oral cavity like dental caries, dental stain, dental calculus, Oral submucous fibrosis, musculoskeletal system, morbidity like osteoarthritis, sciatica, spondylosis, respiratory system, morbidities like upper respiratory tract infection, lower respiratory tract infection, hypertension, eye morbidities, stroke, anaemia, diabetes mellitus with increasing age. Also morbidities of oral cavity, musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, cardiovascular system, eyes, gastrointestinal system, skin trauma and animal bites were significantly associated with educational status of study participants. However, this study finding were limited to the self reported symptoms and signs elicited only and laboratory investigations could not be done in all cases due to time restraint.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Agricultural workers had a multitude of health problems associated with oral cavity, musculoskeletal and respiratory system. Creating awareness about benefits of toilets and harms of open air defecation may help to reduce the morbidities to a greater extent. Further strengthening the information, education and communication (IEC) activities and special health check-up camps with emphasis on improvement of health and awareness could help to combat the situation. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Dr. V. D. Patil, Principal Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belgaum for the permission to conduct this study; Staff of Primary Health Centre, Vantmuri and Sub centre of Bhutaramanahatti, Belgaum and all study subjects who participated in the study for their cooperation in data collection.

References:

1. Ulimwengu J. Farmers’ health and agricultural productivity in rural Ethiopia. AFJARE 2009; 3(2): 83-100.

2. Lal S, Adarsh, Pankaj. Text book of Community Medicine – Preventive and Social Medicine. 2nd ed., New Delhi: CBS Publishers; 2009.

3. Park K. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine. 20th Ed., Jabalpur, India: Banarasidas Bhanot; 2009.

4. Cole D. Understanding the Links between Agriculture and Health for Food, Agriculture, and the Environment. Washington, DC; International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI): 2006.

5. Antle JM, Pingali PL. Pesticides, productivity, and farmer health: A Philippine case study. American J of Agricultural Economics 1994; 76(3): 418–30.

6. Spear R. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology: General Principles. New York: Academic Press; 1991.

7. World Bank. World Development Report: Agriculture for development. Washington, DC: The World Bank; 2007.

8. WHO Expert Committee on Health Statistics. Sixth Report. WHO Technical Report Series, No. 164. Geneva: World Health Organization: 1959.

9. Lipton M, De Kadt E. Agriculture: Health linkages. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1988.

10. Prakash S, Manjunatha S, Shashikala C. Morbidity patterns among rice mill workers: A cross sectional study. Ind J Occup Environ Med 2010; 14(3): 91-3.

11. Saiyed HN, Tiwari RR. Occupational Health Research in India. Industrial Health 2004; 42: 141–8.

12. Leigh J, Macaskill P, Kuosma E, Mandryk J. Global burden of disease and injuries due to occupational factors. Epidemiol 1999; 10: 626-31.

13. Mohan D, Patel R. Design of safer agricultural equipment: Application of ergonomics and epidemiology. Int J Ind Ergonomics 1992; 10: 301-9.

14. Duggal R, Amin S. Cost of health care: A household level survey in an Indian district. Bombay: Foundation for Research in Community Health; 1989.



  



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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

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This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

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‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by situs slot and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. situs slot "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma situs slot entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by situs slot et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression situs slot
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease situs slot
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List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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