International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, CiteFactor, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), Indian Journals Index (IJINDEX), Internet Archive, IP Indexing, Google Scholar, Scientific Indexing Services, Index Copernicus, ResearchBib, Science Central, Revistas Medicas Portuguesas, EBSCO, BOAI, SOROS, NEWJOUR, ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, DocStoc, PdfCast, getCITED, SkyDrive, Citebase, e-Print, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services), Electronic Journals Library by University Library of Regensburg, SciPeople.

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Readers around the world

Full Html

IJCRR - vol 05 issue 05, March, 2013

Pages: 135-139

Date of Publication: 22-Mar-2013


Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

PREVALENCE OF DENTAL CARIES AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FLUORIDE ION CONCENTRATIONS AMONG THE SCHOOL CHILDREN IN NALGONDA DISTRICT

Author: Vikas C. Desai, Manjula M., Rajendra Reddy E., Hussain Saheb Shaik

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Dental caries is the most common oral disease seen in children and adolescents. This study was conducted to assess prevalence of dental caries at different water fluoride levels in Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh. A total of 1800 school children aged 12-15 years were selected by stratified cluster sampling from three areas with different levels of natural fluoride concentrations in drinking water. Water samples were collected and analyzed for fluoride concentration. Dental caries was recorded using Dentition Status and Treatment Need index. The overall prevalence of dental caries in the study population was 35.2% and the remaining 64.8% of the children were caries free. The prevalence of caries in below optimal was the highest (57%) followed by above optimal fluoride areas (33.3%). The lowest prevalence of caries was found in the optimal fluoride areas (17.2%). The difference in the prevalence of dental caries between different fluoride areas was statistically significant. The prevalence of dental caries was more in below optimal fluoride area followed by areas where fluoride concentration was 5ppm and above. The lowest caries prevalence was found in optimal fluoride areas. There was a positive correlation between severity of dental fluorosis and prevalence of dental caries. There was a negative correlation between fluoride concentration and dental caries. The prevalence of dental caries decreased with increasing concentration of fluoride in the drinking water up to 5 ppm.

Keywords: Dental caries, Fluoride ion, Drinking Water.

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION
The prevalence of dental caries has decreased in the past two decades in developed countries. Contributing factors for this decline are water fluoridation, dentifrices, improved oral hygiene, changes in diet and awareness. However dental caries still exists as a smouldering disease in developing and under developed countries where there are inadequate resources of dental treatment, lack of public awareness and motivation1. The prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis varies from place to place depending mainly upon the fluoride concentration of the local drinking water. Dental fluorosis is a disorder effecting the mineralization of teeth as a result of exposure to excess amount of fluoride during tooth development. Although fluorosis is much more prevalent in high fluoride areas there is no evidence of an overall detrimental effect on caries susceptibility. According to the survey conducted by Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission, fluorosis was prevalent in almost all districts of Andhra Pradesh, where Nalgonda district tops the list of fluorosis affected districts2 . Nalgonda district is one such endemic fluorosis area of Andhra Pradesh, where 1122 out of the 3321 habitations have fluoride levels of above 1 ppm in the drinking water. There are reports of not only dental fluorosis, but also crippling skeletal fluorosis from this region. Similar geographic and climatic conditions have been existing in this place but people are exposed to drinking water with different concentrations of fluoride, ranging from as low as 0.2 ppm to as high as 12 ppm3 . The correlation between dental caries and fluorosis has not been documented in this place so far. This makes Nalgonda an ideal place for the present study, to assess the prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis and their correlation at different concentrations of fluoride in drinking water. The aim of the study is to assess the relationship between drinking water fluoride levels and dental caries among 12 to 15 year old school children of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Source of Data: Total study population was 1800 school going children. Data was collected from 12-15year old school going children of Nalgonda district, who lived in the same place since their birth and who consumed drinking water from a single source, at least in the initial 12 years of their life. Study Design: This was a cross sectional Analytical study. Data was collected by means of structured questionnaires, intra oral examinations; and collection and analysis of drinking water samples (ground water) for fluoride concentrations. The questionnaire was used to collect information about their residential status, demographic details, eating, oral hygiene practices and exposure to fluoride. Clinical and visual examination was conducted to detect dental caries. A stratified random sampling technique was used. The entire geographical area of Nalgonda district was divided into 3 strata based on the concentrations of naturally occurring fluoride in drinking water. Sample size was equally divided among the three strata. Schools were selected randomly from each stratum. From each selected school, all the children who satisfied the inclusion criteria were considered, till the required numbers of children were selected. Information on drinking water fluoride levels was obtained from the documented records of the office of the Chief Engineer, Department of Rural Water Supply (RWS), Nalgonda. Criteria followed for diagnosis of dental caries and dental fluorosis: The criteria suggested by World Health Organization (WHO) in 1997 were followed to diagnose the carious lesions. Dental caries was recorded using “Dentition status and treatment need index”4 . The information collected from questionnaires, clinical examinations and Fluoride analysis was computerized and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16.0).

RESULTS
This cross sectional study was conducted on a total of 1800 school children in the age group of 12 – 15 years. The number of children in 12 years, 13 years, 14years and 15 years was 444, 446, 425 and 485 respectively. The study had 1102 male and 698 female children. There was no statistically significant difference in the age distribution of the study population across the gender groups. Among 1800 school children, 560 were from below optimal fluoride areas. The corresponding number of children from optimal and above optimal fluoride areas was 612 and 628 respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of children in different fluoride areas. Prevalence of Dental caries: The overall prevalence of dental caries in the study population was 35.2% and the remaining 64.8% of the children were caries free. The prevalence of caries in below optimal was the highest (57%) followed by above optimal fluoride areas (33.3%). The lowest prevalence of caries was found in the optimal fluoride areas (17.2%). The difference in the prevalence of dental caries between different fluoride areas was statistically significant (p=0.000). Prevalence of dental caries between males and females: The prevalence of dental caries among males in the study was 34.85% and among females it was 35.67%. There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of dental caries between male and female children in the present study (p=0.720). Prevalence of dental caries in different age groups: The prevalence of dental caries among 12 years group was 35.36%. The corresponding values among 13, 14, and 15 years groups were 35.65%, 35.06%, and 34.64% respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of dental caries in different age groups (p=0.990). Distribution of DMF component among the study population in different fluoride areas: The mean DMFT in the study population was 0.59 with a standard deviation of 1.01. The mean DMFT score was highest in the below optimal fluoride area (1.17±1.42) followed by above optimal fluoride area (0.43±0.67) and optimal fluoride area (0.21±0.50) in the descending order. The difference in the mean DMFT score among the study population in different fluoride areas was statistically significant (p=0.000). The finding was true even when the comparison was made among different age groups in different fluoride areas.

DISCUSSION
The effect of drinking water fluoride concentration on human health, particularly dental health has been a matter of debate since the works of McKay and Dean. Dean’s landmark epidemiologic studies had conceptualized that 1 ppm of fluoride in drinking is ‘optimum’ for dental health, which offers maximum protection against dental caries, with minimal or no dental fluorosis5 . Galagon designed a formula (E= - 0.038+0.0062 X temperature in F0 . where E is estimated water intake) for optimal concentration of fluoride in drinking water, based on mean annual temperature of the area6,7 . Nalgonda district is a known endemic area for fluorosis, with a wide spectrum of severity, ranging from mild dental fluorosis to crippling skeletal fluorosis8 . The study was intended to find the prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis in relation to fluoride ion concentration in drinking water. Commonly, all the deciduous teeth are exfoliated and all the permanent teeth, except third molars are erupted by 12 years of age9,10. The study population contained about 61.2% of boys and 38.8% of girls. Socio-economic status of the individuals is known to influence dental caries11 . Sample size was 1800 and the samples were almost equally selected from the three areas with different water fluoride levels. To record dental caries, Dentition status and Treatment Need Index5 was used. Caries diagnosis was based on the guidelines given by WHO in 1997 for assessment of dental caries. The average prevalence of dental caries in the present study was 35.2%, lower than average Andhra Pradesh caries prevalence of 41.5% for 15 year age group, as reported by National Oral Health Survey and Fluoride Mapping- 2002- 200312. In the present study 67.06% of the children had dental fluorosis. National oral health survey and fluoride mapping by Dental council of India (2002 -03) found the prevalence of dental fluorosis in the state of Andhra Pradesh to be around 5% which was significantly less12 . The least prevalence of dental caries was found in level 2 (0.71 –1.2 ppm). Many studies concluded that dental caries and fluorosis are minimum at about 1ppm water fluoride concentration13,14. . Menon A, Indushekar. K. R (1999)15 in their study among 6-16 year old school children in Gadag and Dharwad district of Karnataka, India and reported the prevalence of dental caries to be 33% and the DMFT to be 0.65 in low fluoride area (below optimal fluoride area with a fluoride concentration of 0.5 ppm) and the prevalence of caries in high fluoride area (optimal fluoride area with a fluoride concentration of 1.2 ppm) was 16% and the mean DMFT was 0.39. The caries experience was more in below optimal fluoride area than in optimal fluoride area. The results of the present study were consistent with the findings of this study. V.V.Subba Reddy & A.Tiwari (1992)16 in their study among 1750 school children in the age group 12 – 17 years, on the prevalence of dental caries in relation to fluoride levels of drinking water, in Punjab, India found the prevalence to be lowest in areas where the fluoride concentration was 1.1 ppm (dental caries prevalence was 61.24%) and 2 ppm (dental caries prevalence was 54.72%). The dental caries prevalence was relatively high in areas where the fluoride concentration was 0.3 ppm (89.03%), 3.4 ppm (72.77%), 5.4 ppm (73.61%) and 10.4 ppm (85.47%). The caries experience was more in below optimal and above optimal fluoride areas than compared to optimal fluoride areas. The results of the present study were in harmony with the conclusions of this study. A 1995 investigation by The National Committee on Oral Health of China (NCOH)17 showed the relationship between average number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) of urban residents and fluoride concentration in drinking water to be negatively correlated but not forming a good linear relationship. A study conducted in China (2005)18 reported that there was a statistically significant reduction in dental caries as the fluoride content of the drinking water increased from 0.4 to 5.6 ppm. The present study is in accordance with the above study in concluding that there was significant reduction in caries prevalence from 0.7 – 5.3ppm. In the present study the prevalence of dental caries (57%) and mean DMFT (1.17± 1.42) was found to be the highest in below optimal fluoride area and least in optimal fluoride area (17.2% and 0.21± 0.50). The caries experience in the above optimal fluoride area was intermediate (33.3% and 0.43±0.67). The present study found an overall weak negative correlation between concentration of fluoride in drinking water and caries experience.

CONCLUSION
There was a strong positive relationship between fluoride concentration in drinking water and the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. The prevalence of dental caries was more in below optimal fluoride area followed by areas where fluoride concentration was 5ppm and above. The lowest caries prevalence was found in optimal fluoride areas. There was a negative correlation between fluoride concentration and dental caries. The prevalence of dental caries decreased with increasing concentration of fluoride in the drinking water up to 5 ppm.

References:

1. Kulkarni S.S, Deshpande S.D. Caries prevalence and treatment needs in 11-15 year old children of Belgaum city. J Indian Soc Pedo Prev Dent 2002; 20(1):12-5.

2. Prevention and control of fluorosis. Health aspects volume I. Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking water Mission. New Delhi, 1993.

3. http://nalgonda.ap.nic.in/climate_rainfall.htm .01/12/2012.

4. World Health Organization. Oral health surveys, Basic methods, 4th edition. Geneva: WHO, 1997.

5. Dean HT. Endemic fluorosis and its relation to dental caries. Public Health Rep 1938;53:1443 52.

6. E. S. Budipramana, A. Hapsoro, E. S. Irmavati, S. Kuntari. Dental fluorosis and caries prevalence in the fluorosis endemic area of Assemblages, Indonesia. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2002; 12:415- 22.

7. A.K. Susheela. Epidemiology and control of fluorosis in India, J of Nutrition foundation of India, April 1984.

8. KM Sudhir, GM Prashant, VV Subba Reddy, U Mohandas, GN Chandu Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among 13- to 15- year-old school children of an area known for endemic fluorosis: Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh. J Indian Soc Pedo Prev Dent 2009:27(4):190-196.

9. Ralph E. McDonald. Dentistry for child and adolescent, 8th edition, Mosby publications, 2004.

10. Sathananthan K, Vos T, Bango G. Dental caries, fluoride levels and oral hygiene practices of school children in Matebeleland South, Zimbabwe. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1996; 24:21-4.

11. Akpata ES, Akinremisi EO. Anti bacterial activity of extracts from some African chewing sticks. Oral Surg 1977; 44:717-22.

12. National oral health survey and fluoride mapping 2002-2003, India. Dental Council of India, New Delhi, 2004.

13. Manji F. Gingivitis, dental fluorosis and dental caries in primary school children in Nairobi, Kanya; E.Afr Med. J 1984;61:524- 32.

14. Grobler SR, Louw AJ, van Kotze TJ. Dental fluorosis and caries experience in relation to three different drinking water fluoride levels in South Africa. Int J Paediatric Dent 2001; 11:372 9.

15. Menon A, Indushekar K.R. Prevalence of dental caries and co-relation with fluorosis in low and high fluoride areas. J Indian Soc Pedo Prev Dent Mar 1999.

16. V V Subba Reddy and A. Tewari. Prevalence of dental caries to different levels of fluoride in drinking water. JIDA 1992;63(11):455-9.

17. Wang B, Zheng B, Zhai C, Yu G, Liu X. Relationship between fluorine in drinking water and dental health of residents in some large cities in China. Environ Int. 2004; 30(8):1067-73.

18. Jian-Ping Ruan, Zhuang-Qun Yang, Zhi-Lun Wang, Anne Nordrehaug Astrom, Asgeir Bardsen and Kjell Bjorvatn. Dental fluorosis and dental caries in permanent teeth: rural school children in high fluoride areas in the shaanxi province, China. Acta Odontologica Scandanavica 2005;63(5):258-65.

Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

SCOPUS (2014, 2019, 2020, 2021 (Till June) currently under re-evaluation)

COPE guidelines for Reviewers


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Leow Jun Xian and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. entitled "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease
88 Percent Of Delhi Population Has Vitamin D Deficiency: ASSOCHAM Report

List of Awardees

A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


Awardees of COVID-19 Research

Woman Researcher Award

A Study by Neha Garg et al. entitled "Optimization of the Response to nCOVID-19 Pandemic in Pregnant Women – An Urgent Appeal in Indian Scenario" published in Vol 12 issue 09

A Study by Sana Parveen and Shraddha Jain entitled "Pathophysiologic Enigma of COVID-19 Pandemic with Clinical Correlates" published in Vol 12 issue 13

A Study by Rashmi Jain et al. entitled "Current Consensus Review Article on Drugs and Biologics against nCOVID-19 – A Systematic Review" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Madhan Jeyaraman et al. entitled "Vitamin-D: An Immune Shield Against nCOVID-19" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Study by Dheeraj Kumar Chopra et al. entitled "Lipid-Based Solid Dispersions of Azilsartan Medoxomil with Improved Oral Bioavailability: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation" published in Vol 12 issue 19


RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in


Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: We at IJCRR voluntarily adopt policies on Code of Conduct, and Code of Ethics given by OASPA and COPE. To know about IJCRRs Code of Conduct, Code of Ethics, Artical Retraction policy, Digital Preservation Policy, and Journals Licence policy click here

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



Company name

International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

Contact

148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

editor@ijcrr.com

editor.ijcrr@gmail.com


Copyright © 2021 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions