International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - vol 05 issue 05, March, 2013

Pages: 95-100

Date of Publication: 22-Mar-2013

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Author: Hema C., A. Subramani

Category: General Sciences

Abstract:The present investigation deals with the effect of the copper on the germination of seedling on four groundnut cultivars (Co-6, VRM, Co-7, KM-2 ) of Vigna radiata were procured from Agricultural Office, Walajapet and Tamilnadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore for this study. The seeds of these four cultivars were treated with various concentrations of Copper and chromium solutions (0, 5,10,25,50 and 100).Three replicates were maintained for each concentration. The seeds were treated with distilled water as control separately. Both the treated and controlled seeds were grown in water soaked filter papers kept in petridishes under the room temperature. Seeds were treated regularly with various concentrations of copper sulphate and chromium solution respectively. The germination of seedlings were calculated on 7th day after sowing. The results obtained from this treatment shows that the copper and chromium decrease the germination of seedlings with increase in concentration. The germination of seedlings increase in 5% than control. While the concentrations increases other than 5% the germination gradually becomes decreases. In the 100% conentration very low germination or absent.The inhibition germination of these four cultivars of Vigna radiata were proportional to the higher concentrations of copper and chromium.

Keywords: Germination

Full Text:

Heavy metal toxicity is one of the major abiotic stresses leading to hazardous effects in plants. Most environmental problems caused by industrialization are the increment in the concentration of heavy metals in the air, land and water. Although heavy metals form an essential part of human and plant nutrition, but their higher levels of plants uptake cause carcinogenic and mutagenic effects (Goyer., et al.1977).Excessive level of heavy metals in the soil environment adversely affect the germination of seeds, plant growth, alter the level of biomolecules in the cells and interfere with the activities of many key enzymes related to normal metabolic and developmental processes (Zhang et al., 2009; Rahoui et al., 2010). It is involved in numerous physiological functions as a component of several enzymes, mainly those which participate in electron flow, catalyze redox reactions in mitochondria and chloroplasts (Hansch and Mendel, 2009).The presence of heavy metals in the environment causes deleterious effects to human beings, particularly at certain levels of exposure and absorption. Metals like copper are essential for life processes. Excessive quantities of copper becomes toxic as it interferes with photosynthetic and respiratory processes, protein synthesis and development of plant organelles (Agarwala et al., 1995; Upadhyay and Panda,

2009).Chromium interferes with several metabolic processes, causing toxicity to plants as exhibited by reduced seed germination or early seedling development (Sharma et al., 1995).As the chromium concentration in plants increases, it adversely affects several biological parameters. Ultimately there is loss of vegetation, and land some times becomes barren (Dube et al., 2003).Vigna radiata and Vigna mungo are the most commonly used pulse crop plants with high economical value. In recent years much interest has been exhibited in the use of diluted effluents for irrigating crops. Ionic toxicity may be the cause of drastic effects of heavy metal salts on seed germination or it could be due to osmotic effect (Shaukat et al., 1999).Copper is also one of the essential micronutrients for plant growth (Lolkema., et al, 1986). The accumulation of chromium by germinating seedlings appears to be significantly affected by Cr concentration and occurred in a linear manner (Azmat et al., 2005).

The present investigation phyto toxin of copper and chromium on seed germination percentage of Vigna radiata, L. was carried out .For this research Co-6, Co-7,KM-2 and VRM cultivars of Vigna radiata have been selected. All the experiments were conducted in the Laboratory of the PG and Research, Department of Plant Biology and Plant Biotechnology, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, villupuram, Tamilnadu, India. Sample Collection: The present investigation deals with the effect of the copper on the germination of seedling on two cultivars (CO7 and KM2) were procured from Agricultural Office, Walajapet and the other two cultivars Co6 and VRM were procured from Tamilnadu Agricultural University,Coimbatore. The experimental plant, green gram belongs to the family Fabaceae is one of the important pulses of India. Seeds with uniform size, colour and weight were selected and it stored in metal tins as suggested by Roa (1976).The chemicals Cupper sulphate and chromium salts were procured from standedised chemical laboratory. Germination studies were conducted with the V.radiata varieties Co-6, c0-7, KM-2 and VRM by using the various concentrations of these both chemicals simultaneously. The method of germination studies were carried out as recommended by International Seed Testing Association, (1979).The seeds were sterilized for two minutes in 0.2% mercuric chloride (HgCl2 ) solution.the seeds were then thoroughly washed in distilled. The sterilized fifty seeds were arranged equi – especially in sterilized petridishes lined with filter paper. In each petridishes was irrigated uniformly by different concentration of copper and chromium solutions separately. In addition to this, petridishes containing seeds were irrigated with distilled water and maintained as control.The petridishes were kept under room temperature (28± 2° C).The emergence of radicle was taken as criteria for germination. Germination was confirmed by the initial appearance of the radicle by visual observations. The germination percentage was calculated by using the formula. The germinated seeds number was counted 7th day after sowing and germination percentage were calculated.

The phytotoxin effect of copper and chromium research carried out to examine the seed germination percentage of four varieties of Vigna radiata. Results obtained from present study were given in Table-1.The results showed that similar phytotoxi effect of both copper and chromium on seed germination percentage of V.radiata. Both positive and negative effects were seen on seed germination of V.radiata. Copper is also one of the essential micronutrients for plant growth (Hansch., et al.,2009).In low concentration of copper and chromium solution treatment, receiver vegetable crop showed positive effects. From the results 5% concentration treatment shows alone to increased the germination percentage. Low concentration may be stimulatory to plant growth while higher concentrations are inhibitory and toxic to plant growth (Sharma et al., 2000). Germinaition in the 7th day of 5% concentration in the varieties of Co-6, Co-7,KM2 and VRM seeds was increased values ± 4.7, ±4.8, ± 4.45 and ±4.55 respectively than the treatment given control ±4.8, ±4.75, ±4.5 and ±4.5 separately. The concentration of 5% copper treatment exhibit the positive inhibitory seed germination in V.radiata. These studies strongly support the previous findings. High concentrations of copper, the root and shoot elongation was poor with a concominant decrease in root and shoot length (Bouazizi et al., 2008, 2010; Ahsan et al., 2007). While the concentration increases upto 5% treatment, the other concentrations 10, 25 and 50% seed germination exhibited gradually decreased values found similarly in four varieties of V.radiata seeds. In excessive quantities copper becomes toxic as it interferes with protein synthesis and development of plant organelles (Upadhyay and Panda, 2009). Very low negative germination was observed in 100% treated receiver seedlings. The values of Co-6,Co-7,KM2 and VRM shows decreased ±3.45, ±3.6, ±2.90 and± 3.20 in seedlings of V.radiata. The increased values of germination observed in all concentrations of treatment of VRM variety than other three Co-6, Co-7 and KM-2 variteties. Chromium is used on a large-scale in many different industries, including metallurgy, electroplating, production of paints and pigments, tanning, wood preservation, chemical production, and pulp and paper production (Zayed and Terry, 2003).Chromium toxicity produces chlorosis and necrosis in plants (Cervantes et al., 2001). The decreased whole germination percentage was recorded in the seeds germinate in chromium treatment when compared with seeds germinated in copper solution. The slightly decreased values ±4.5, ±4.6 and ±4.20 in 5% chromium treatment given to seeds of Co-6, Co-7 and KM-2 varieties of V.radiata conominantly. The similar germination percentage of seeds obtained in control. The other 10, 25 and 50 percent concentration shows gradual decreased seed germination percentage of these three varieties. Although there are some investigations (Wierzbicka and Obidzinska, 1998; Seregin and Kozhevnikova, 2005) about comparative mechanisms effect of heavy metals as chromium on seed germination .The very high negative germination decreased perentage was recorded in the 7th day treatment of 100% concentration of chromium in all varieties of V.radiata for this study. The lower germination values ±2.75, ±2.95 and± 2.20 observed in 100% treatment. The reduced germination of seeds under Cr stress could be a depressive effect of Cr on the activity of amylases and on the subsequent transport of sugars to the embryo axes (Zeid, 2001). The higher negative effect was found in chromium than copper treatment. The increased positive values in 5%(±4.55) , negative values in 10%(±4.20),25%(±3.90),50%(±3.50) and 100%(±3.20) chromium treatment of VRM variety. This investigation showed that germination of seeds was significantly negative affected, when the concentration increased. Excess of copper and chromium applications inhibited germination properties in four varieties of V.radiata. There are several reports on the promotary and inhibitory effect of copper and chromium treatment on various plant species. Symptoms of Cr phytotoxicity include inhibition of seed germination or of early seedling development, reduction of root growth, leaf chlorosis and depressed biomass (Sharma et al., 1995). Low concentrations shows growth promotary and higher concentrations shows germination inhibitory effect in four varieties of V.radiata. Some heavy metals are essential micronutrients for plants but their excess may result in metabolic disorders and growth inhibition in most of the plant species (Claire ., et al., 2000). Significant increase in the growth, possibly due to copper is required by plants in trace amount (Reichman, 2002).

Heavy metals are the intrinsic component of the environment with both essential and non essential types. It is usually accumulated due to unplanned municipal waste disposal, mining and use of extensive pesticides.The results from these study clearly revealed that the copper and chromium concentrations exhibited a promotary germination effect in 5% concentrations in Co-6,Co-7,KM-2 and VRM varieties of Vigna radiata seeds.The decreased germination percentage was observed in all other concentrations (10,25 and 50%) concentrations of both copper and chromium metal treatments over control .The intensity of higher inhibitory effects showed in the seed germination of all four varieties ,when seeds treated in 100% concentration of both copper and chromium treatment. The intensity of inhibition of seed germination increased as the concentration of copper and chromium solution increased. The intensity of decrease as concentration dependent. The intensity of inhibition was directly proportional of the concentration of solution employed. Among the different concentrations of copper and chromium salt solution and the 5% treatment alone showed a positive promontory effect while the other concentrations 10, 25 ,50 and 100% exhibited inhibitory negative effect on the germination of the varieties Co-6,Co-7,KM-2 and VRM of Vigna radiata crop seeds. The exposure of Vigna radiata variety to Copper and chromium results Shows decrease in germination at high concentrations and at lower concentration of heavy metals increase in germination was observed but very low germination was observed at higher concentrations.


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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

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‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to for more details.

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A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by Leow Jun Xian and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. entitled "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma COLAKOGLU entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by Arpita M. et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
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A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award

Awardees of COVID-19 Research

Woman Researcher Award

A Study by Neha Garg et al. entitled "Optimization of the Response to nCOVID-19 Pandemic in Pregnant Women – An Urgent Appeal in Indian Scenario" published in Vol 12 issue 09

A Study by Sana Parveen and Shraddha Jain entitled "Pathophysiologic Enigma of COVID-19 Pandemic with Clinical Correlates" published in Vol 12 issue 13

A Study by Rashmi Jain et al. entitled "Current Consensus Review Article on Drugs and Biologics against nCOVID-19 – A Systematic Review" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Emerging Researcher Award

A Study by Madhan Jeyaraman et al. entitled "Vitamin-D: An Immune Shield Against nCOVID-19" published in Vol 12 issue 09

Study by Dheeraj Kumar Chopra et al. entitled "Lipid-Based Solid Dispersions of Azilsartan Medoxomil with Improved Oral Bioavailability: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation" published in Vol 12 issue 19

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