International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 05 Issue 08, April, 2013

Pages: 110-112

Date of Publication: 25-Apr-2013


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DEPRESSION AMONG GERIATRICS:PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS

Author: Sreejith S. Nair, S.G. Hiremath, Ramesh, Pooja, Sreekanth S. Nair

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Method: 182 participants aged over 60 from an urban area, Ashapur, Raichur were interviewed to assess their psychiatric morbidity and associated factors using geriatric depression scale. Objective: To establish prevalence of depression and associated factors in geriatrics in Ashapur urban area, Raichur Dist, Karnataka., India. Type of study: Cross sectional. Methodology: The cross sectional epidemiological study was conducted in urban slums of Ashapur, Raichur Dist. The study area has a population of 25486 with a geriatric population of 2536.A sample size of 182 was estimated using Random Sampling Technique. Study group: 182 Study area: Ashapur urban area, Raichur Dist, Karnataka. Study period: July17 to October 17 . Study tool: Pretested Questionnaire. Analysis: Descriptive statistics and other appropriate statistical studies will be used. Results: This study revealed that 32.4% of individuals were suffering from depression. We conclude that depression in elderly is associated with poor socio economic status, unemployment, disrupted marital status, illiteracy, and substance abuse. Conclusion: By the end of the study we concluded that prevalence of depression in geriatrics is significantly high. It is mainly associated with substance abuse, unemployment, disrupted mental status, illiteracy and poor economic status.

Keywords: geriatrics, associated factors, depression.

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

Aging is a universal phenomenon. India is the second largest country in the world, with 72 million elderly persons above 60 years of age as of 2001.From 1990 to 2025, the elderly population in Asia will rise from 50 per cent of the world's elderly to 58 per cent, in Africa and Latin America from 5 to 7 percent, but in Europe the figure will drop from 19 to 12 per cent of the world's elderly. According to projections, the elderly in the age group 60 and above is expected to increase from 72 million in 2001 to 179 million in 2031, and further to 301million in 2051.The life span has increased in India from 32 years in 1947 to more than 62 years now. In India, the 60 plus population in 1951 was just 5.43% that had gone up to more than 7.7% in 2001. Of all the diseases the senior citizens meet, depression is the most hideous. Depression in elderly people often goes untreated because many people think that depression is a normal part of aging and a natural reaction to chronic illness, loss and social transition. It remains highly prevalent in the elderly population, and certain vulnerable populations of older adults are at special risk. Further, the morbidity of late-life depression on physical health, social support systems, and overall functioning is considerable, making depression a leading cause of disability in elderly adults and a risk factor for mortality and suicide as well. Depression is associated with morbidity as well as disability among the elderly. They constitute a major public health problem worldwide and their prevalence rates range between 10 and 55%. The long-term prognosis of geriatric depression is bleak with incomplete recovery and higher relapse rates. Along with the physiological and psychological changes associated with aging, changes in the associated risk factors also modify the prevalence and prognosis of geriatric depression. Medical co-morbidity and cognitive impairment have a complex bidirectional relationship with geriatric depression. Available Indian study employing the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), a screening tool, in a small sample of elderly has reported prevalence of up to 45.9% (Jain and Aras5 , in 2007). Another larger Indian study evaluating the Hindi version of the GDS studied only the depressive symptoms and not the depressive disorders, Ganguli2 ET al1999)...There is dearth of community studies from India investigating geriatric depression and its associated factors. This study aim to establish the prevalence and factors associated with geriatric depression in an urban study area in India.

METHODOLOGY

The cross sectional epidemiological study was conducted in urban slums of Ashapur, Raichur Dist. The study area has a population of 25486 with a geriatric population of 2536.A sample size of 182 was estimated using Random Sampling Technique .Individuals above 60 years of age not residing in the study area, residing in old age homes and critically ill were excluded. The questionnaire was based on semi structured Performa. Geriatric Depression scale was used for the assessment of depression. The data was collected by home visit, analyzed by computer of statistics Epi info 2000 and SPSS (version17).

RESULTS

This study revealed that 32.4% of individuals were suffering from depression. The median GDS score calculated was 5. Mean age was 68.07+/- 12.98. Depression in elderly is associated with poor socio economic status, unemployment, disrupted marital status, illiteracy, and substance abuse. (Table 1)

DISCUSSION

Our study showed no significant relationship between age and prevalence of depression similar to Hussaini1 . Illiteracy leads to unproductive life and cause greater difficulty in getting jobs, leading to depression, which was well depicted in our study similar to the study done earlier. Elderly suffering from acute/chronic illnesses showed higher prevalence of depression i.e. 61.5% similar to Hughes et al4 . Foley DJ 3 et al found depressed mood associated with insomnia same as shown in our study. Thus we can conclude that depression in elderly is associated with poor socio economic status, unemployment, disrupted marital status , illiteracy ,and substance abuse.

CONCLUSION

By the end of the study we concluded that prevalence of depression in geriatrics is significantly high. It’s mainly associated with substance abuse, unemployment, disrupted mental status, illiteracy and poor economic status.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Authors acknowledge the great help received from the scholars whose articles cited and included in reference of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed. Authors are grateful to IJCRR editorial board members and IJCRR team of reviewers who have helped to bring quality to this manuscript.

References:

1. Hussaini Ph.D., Bagar A. Predictors of depression among the elderly: racial differences over time. American Orthopsychiatric Association 1997; G7 (1), 48-58.

2. Ganguli M, Dube S, Johnston JM, Pandav R, Chandra V, Dodge HH. Depressive Symptoms, Cognitive impairment and Functional impairment in a Rural Elderly Population in India: A Hindi version of the geriatric depression scale (GDSH).International journal of Geriatric psychiatry 1999; 14(10):807-820.

3. Foley DJ et al; Incidence and remission of insomnia among the elderly adults in a biracial Cohort. Epidemiology, demography and biometry program, national institute on ageing, Bethesda, MD 20892-9205, US Sleep (LJ.S) May 1, 1999; 22 p ,373- 8.ISSN:0161-8105.

4. Hughes RN, Dana C, Demaillie, Diane and Blazer, Dan G. Age makes a diff. in the effects of physical health and social support on the outcome of a major depressive episode. American journal of psychiatry.1993; 150(5); 728-733.

5. R.K. Jain, R.Y. Aras, Depression in geriatric population in urban slums of Mumbai. Indian Journal of Public Health.2007; AprilJune 51(2):112-3

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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

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A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by situs slot and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. situs slot "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
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A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma situs slot entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
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A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression situs slot
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A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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