International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
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IJCRR - Vol 05 Issue 08, April, 2013

Pages: 99-103

Date of Publication: 25-Apr-2013


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KAPAL BHATI PRANAYAMA MODIFIES VISUAL REACTION TIME

Author: Neera Goel, Varun Malhotra, Usha Dhar, Archana, Niketa

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Kapalbhatti is form of Pranayama, which means („breath of life?). This exercise helps to regulate and control breathing. It is useful in clearing of mind, weight loss, diabetes, it improves the quality of life in people with heart diseases and prostrate enlargement. This procedure uses excess inhaled air to flush the blood vessels in the heart and clear them of nascent block. It involves taking normal breaths, diaphragm and abdominal muscles are to be moved violently and the air is exhaled with that movement. This is done for 2 minutes and Reaction times are recorded before and after the procedure. During normal breathing, we just take shallow breaths, and we don?t fill our lungs to capacity. Shallow breath causes excessive weight. Kapalbhatti teaches us how to take deep breath which increases oxygen supply to body and removes waste products. Continuous inhalation of oxygen and expulsion of carbon dioxide converts the venous blood to oxygenated blood. The heart's function to pump blood to the lungs is sub-served by the breathing technique. The heart is given extraordinary rest. Hyperventilation washes out carbon dioxide which leads to central vasoconstriction that leads to a filling of emptiness in the head. This possibly explains, scientifically why kapalbhatti cleanses the head. This is the reason we ventured to see reaction times in our study.

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

Patanjali, foremost exponent of Yoga, described pranayama as the gradual unforced cessation of breathing. Pranayama is derived from two Sanskrit words - prana (life) and yama (control). Pranayama or control of prana or life force yields heart beat, pulse and mind control. Kapalbhatti is a form of pranayama, whose root meaning comes from the words kapal (skull) and bhatti (shining). This breathing exercise involves expulsion of the air with violent movements of abdomen and diaphragm. It helps in clearing the mind, weight loss and improves quality of life in people with heart diseases and prostrate enlargement, as it uses excess inhaled air to flush out the blood vessels in heart and clear them from nascent block. This technique stimulates the kapal (forehead region) through rapid breathing movements and sensitizes the frontal region to the touch of air. The impact is on the Swadisthan and Ajna chakras corresponding to sacral and medullary plexus (23). Our study is designed to observe the effect to kapalbhatti pranayama on visual reaction time.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The pranayama is performed before meals. Twenty normal male MBBS subjects at Santosh Medical College, Ghaziabad were seated in a comfortable sitting posture with spine straight, body relaxed. Kapalbhatti pranayama starts with a short inhalation followed by exhalation of air with violent movements of diaphragm and abdominal muscles. The procedure was done for two minutes. Visual reaction time is taken before and after the kapalbhatti pranayama. Reaction time test was taken online (24). It consists of a traffic light signal of red, yellow and green. The subject is instructed to click on a button to begin when ready, to wait for the stoplight to turn green, and click the button when it turns green quickly! The average of five responses in seconds is taken as a reading.

RESULTS

 

Twenty subjects took the online reaction time. There visual reaction time decreased from 0.44 ± 0.12 to 0.37 ± 0.11 at p<0.002. (Figure 1 and Table)

DISCUSSION

Pranayama appears to be a specialized respiratory exercise capable of inducing series of beneficial effects besides causing improvement of respiratory functions. It increases oxygen supply to body and decreases carbon dioxide which leads to loss of hypercapnic drive and subsequent cessation of breathing and apnea. Deep inhalation prolongs the period of apnea because there is no anoxic stimuli to stimulate breathing. Continuous inhalation of oxygen and expulsion of carbon dioxide converts the venous blood to oxygenated blood; the heart is given some extraordinary rest as its function to pump blood to the lungs is served by kapalbhatti breathing technique. Yoga asanas and pranayama have been observed to lower rate of respiration, increase FEV/FVC, increase slow vital capacity, maximal voluntary ventilation, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), expansion of chest, vital capacity, ability to hold breath and reduce bronchial hyperactivity (1-5). The exact mechanism involved is not known however, pranayama releases epinephrine that helps reduce parasympathetic bronchomotor tone resulting in increasing basal airway caliber (6). In Kapalbhatti pranayama, the abdominal wall is brought into activity. This in turn works on the diaphragm and moves it better, thus helping the lungs empty efficiently. The individual is relaxed in pranayamic breathing, the basic need of oxygen decreases. There occurs neither oxygen debt nor increased levels of lactic acids as is otherwise associated during heavy exercises. The minimum production of carbon dioxide during stillness and inactivity of physical muscles after kapalbhatti pranayama results in slowing the activity of the lungs and heart. (7).Voluntary control by conscious effort on thoracic muscles and abdominal muscles alters the blood gas concentration. Breathing out forcefully decreases the p CO2, which acts on the chemoreceptor area of the brain to modify activity of the generator neurons of respiration in the respiratory centre. (8) .With pranayamic breathing the subjects felt good. Yoga relaxes, relieves stress, makes the patient feel good, alert, active and exhilarated by relaxing opioids and altering adrenocortical activity that gives pleasurable sensations and keeps body fit. (9). This helps to increase concentration that improves reaction times, as noted in our study. Yoga employs stable postures or asanas and breath control or pranayama. Through regular practice of these, the autonomic equilibrium shifts towards a relative parasympathetic dominance. (10, 12) Parasympathetic balance is essentially concerned with conserving and restoring bodily resources and energies. This is achieved by inhibiting the heart and alimentary activity promoting secretion. (11) Changes of heart rate and respiration accompanying a yogic subjective activity are intended to alter the state of mind alone. (13). It has been seen that certain Yogis can alter the patterns of their cardiovascular functions voluntarily create atrial fibrillations or stop the heart at will. (14, 15) Other types of voluntary control of heart such as tachycardia, bradycardia, reduction of P wave amplitude, achieving Twave amplitude more than that of R- wave and atrial flutter have also been recorded. (16) There is a reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in hypertensive subjects after two or three weeks of yoga practice. The relief from high blood pressure diminishes gradually if kapalbhatti pranayama is discontinued. The blood pressure was observed to return to normal in patients who started yoga asanas. This confirms the “cause and effect” relationship between yoga and blood pressure levels. (10, 17, 18) In contrast to physical exercises such as walking that improve blood flow by movement of skeletal muscles, kapalbhatti pranayama restores internal balance and homeostasis of the body by influencing the organ system, restoring the internal secretion to their normal value by securing the health of all organs. (10) The subjects felt relaxed. In previous studies the patients have showed lower scores in excitability, aggressiveness, openness, emotionality and somatic complaints. (19) They felt happy which has been associated with increased levels of endorphins and enkephalins after yoga. (20) Meditation often helps to relax the small vessels that control the blood pressure wall and would help reduce the pressure inside them. In a study of 112 subjects performing transcendental meditation the mean systolic blood pressure was 13.7 to 24.5 mm Hg lesser than the population mean. The analysis also showed that the meditators with more than five year experience had a mean systolic blood pressure 7.5 mm Hg lower than meditators with less than five years of experience. (22) Asanas and Pranayama have beneficial effects on the body. They improve the functions of different systems of the body, increasing longevity. They bring equipoise between psychic and somatic aspects of bodily functions. They help in curing certain diseases and improve the quality of life. They invigorate the activity of lungs and heart. They calm the mind increase the concentration and give the ability to cope with tension, as seen in decrease in visual reaction time. They are a complete system for personal development promoting total physical and spiritual well being. (21)

CONCLUSION

Continuous inhalation of oxygen and expulsion of carbon dioxide converts the venous blood to oxygenated blood. The heart's function to pump blood to the lungs is sub-served by the breathing technique. The heart is given extraordinary rest. Hyperventilation washes out. Carbon dioxide which leads to central vasoconstriction that leads to a filling of emptiness in the head. This possibly explains, scientifically why kapalbhatti cleanses the head. The pranayama cuts the life-force to the five sense telephones, concentrating the energies to the brain and thus decreases reaction time. This helps increase concentration of mind.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Authors acknowledge the great help received from the scholars whose articles cited and included in references of this manuscript. The authors are also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed. Authors are grateful to IJCRR editorial board members and IJCRR team of reviewers who have helped to bring quality to this manuscript.

References:

1. Nagarthna R, Nagendra HR. Yoga for bronchial asthma –controlled study. British Medical Journal 1985; 291:977-1079.

2. Murthy KJR, Sahay BK, Madhavi S, Sitaramaraju P, Yogi R, Venkat Reddy M, Annapurna N, Ramesh M, Vijaylakshmi P, Eshwar Reddy EM: Effect of yoga on ventilatory functions in normal healthy volunteers. Lung India 1983; 1:189-192.

3. Murthy KJR, Sahay BK, Madhavi S, Sitaramaraju P, Yogi R, Venkat Reddy M, Annapurna N, Ramesh M, Vijaylakshmi P, Eshwar Reddy EM. Effect of Pranayama (Rechaka, Puraka, Kumbaka) on bronchial asthma-an open study. Lung India 1984; 2: 187-191.

4. Kumar A, Kumar GK, Kumar GD, Sahay BK, Murthy KJR. Immediate effects of Pranayama in airway obstruction. Lung India 1985; 3: 77-81.

5. Udupa KN, Singh RH, Settiwar RM. A comparative study on the effect of some individual yogic practices in normal person. Indian J Med Res 63:1055-1071.

6. Telles S, Nagarthna R, Nagendra HR. Breathing through a particular Nostril can alter Metabolism and Autonomic Activities. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1994; 38 (2): 133-137.

7. M.V. Bhole. A Comparative Study of Minute Ventilation in Deep and Pranayamic Breathing. Yoga Mimasa July 1977; October 1978 Vol 19:8-20.

8. Conceicao Santos-e-Fonseca MC, Manco Jove, Gallo Lourenco Jr, Bareira Amilton A, Foss Milton C. Cholinergic Bronchomotor tone and airway caliber in IDDM. Chest 1992; 101:1038.

9. Raju P.S., Anil Kumar K, Reddy SS, Madhavi S, Gnanakumar K, Bhaskaracharya C, Sahay BK, Murthy KJR. Effect of Yoga in exercise tolerance in normal healthy volunteers. Indian J Physiol Pharmac AprilJune 1986; 121-132.

10. Savita Singh, V Malhotra, KP Singh, SV Madhu, OP Tandon.Role of Yoga in Modifying Certain Cardiovascular Functions in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. JAPI Vol 52, March 2004; 203-206.

 11. Varun Malhotra, Savita Singh, KP Singh, P Gupta, SB Sharma, SV Madhu, OP Tandon. Study of Yoga Asanas in Assessment of Pulmonary Function in NIDDM Patients. Indian J Physiol Pharmacology 2002; 46 (3): 313-320.

12. Patel C. Randomised control trial of Yoga and biofeedback in management of hypertension. The Lancet 1975; 19:93-95.

13. Wallace KW, Baron H. The physiology of meditation. Sc. Amer. 1972; 262: 84-90.

14. Anand BK, China GS. Investigation on yogis claiming to stop their heart beats. Ind J Med Res 1961; 49; 90-94.

15. Sri Sri Paramhansa Yogananda. Scientific Healing Affirmations. Theory and Practice of Concentration. Chapter 3. Healing Body, Mind, and Soul. 20-21.

16. Kavalyananda Swamy. Pranayama. Popular Prakashan. Bombay 1968:24-29.

17. Dang KK, Sahay BK, Singh MM. Yoga and meditation. The Association of Physicians of India. Medicine Update. APICON, New Delhi. Chapters 57 and 58, Part 1, 1999; 9:502-506, 507,512.

18. Goleman. Meditation as an intervention in stress activity. J Consult Clin Psychol 1976, 44:456-66.

19. Udupa KN, Singh RH, Settiwar RM. A comparative study on the effect of some individual yogic practices in normal persons. Indian J Med Res 1975; 63:1066-55.

20. Jain Suresh C, Uppal Alka, Bhatnagar SOD, Talukdar BA. Study of response pattern of Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes to Yoga Therapy. Diabetic Research and Clinical Practice 1993; 69-74.

21. Sri Sri Paramhansa Yogananda, God Talks to Arjuna. The Bhagvad Gita. Royal Science of God Realization, Permanent Shelter in Spirit Through Yoga Meditation. Krishna?s Advise for Succesful practice of yoga, Chapter VI Verse II Volume II, 2000.

22. Lajpat Rai, Selvamurthy W, Sawhney RC. Meditation techniques and their scientific evaluation. Section 9.3. Meditationeffect on blood pressure and hypertension in Meditators and Physiological effects 179- 189. (Anubav Rai publications 1996).

23. R.L. Bijlani. Understanding Medical Physiology. Edition. Section 14 Yoga. Chapter 14.2 Physilogical Understanding of Yogic techniques. Page 892.

24. The Online Reaction Time Test http:/

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One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

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This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

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‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
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A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by situs slot and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. situs slot "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma situs slot entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
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A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression situs slot
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A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


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