International Journal of Current Research and Review
ISSN: 2231-2196 (Print)ISSN: 0975-5241 (Online)
Bootstrap Slider

Indexed and Abstracted in: Crossref, CAS Abstracts, Publons, CiteFactor, Open J-Gate, ROAD, Indian Citation Index (ICI), Indian Journals Index (IJINDEX), Internet Archive, IP Indexing, Google Scholar, Scientific Indexing Services, Index Copernicus, ResearchBib, Science Central, Revistas Medicas Portuguesas, EBSCO, BOAI, SOROS, NEWJOUR, ResearchGATE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, DocStoc, PdfCast, getCITED, SkyDrive, Citebase, e-Print, WorldCat (World's largest network of library content and services), Electronic Journals Library by University Library of Regensburg, SciPeople.

Search Articles

Track manuscript

Advertisement

Full Html

IJCRR - Vol 05 Issue 08, April, 2013

Pages: 41-46

Date of Publication: 25-Apr-2013


Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

DRUG RESISTANCE IN CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY- AN OVERVIEW

Author: Ambili Remesh

Category: Healthcare

Abstract:Drug resistance is one of the primary obstacles in cancer chemotherapy. The causes of drug resistances are varied. The primary resistance attributed to genomic instability while alteration in membrane permeability of drug and inability to reach the target sites, drug inactivation by enzymes, mutation and altered expression of target proteins there by affecting drug target interactions are some of the mechanism of acquired drug resistance. In addition to genetic changes there are epigenetic changes or non mutational mechanisms which occur quickly in response to environmental changes. Normal tissues never develop resistance to chemotherapy, because they possess intact genetic machinery. Drug resistance in addition to reducing clinical effectiveness, result in early termination of treatment, reduced relapse free interval and survival. There are various methods for overcoming these major disadvantages of cancer chemotherapy. Combination chemotherapy with clear understanding of the biochemical, molecular and pharmacokinetic mechanisms of interaction between the individual drugs in a given combination is one method.Optimal cancer drug scheduling is also a strategy for controlling resistance to therapy. Control avenues of drug administration and dose intensification provide better outcome. Despite various measures to overcome drug resistance, the problem especially multidrug resistance is still casting its shadow in successful chemotherapy. A better understanding of mechanism of drug resistance, its genetic and epigenetic links will open up new avenues in circumventing this fundamental problem and prolong the life expectancy of the patient. This article gives an overview of drug resistance encountered in cancer chemotherapy.

Keywords: Cancer, Chemotherapy, Cell cycle, Drug resistance

Full Text:

INTRODUCTION

The term chemotherapy coined by Paul Ehrlich (‘magic bullet’) referred to the use of chemical compounds in the treatment of diseases, without injuring the host cells1. Nowadays this term broadly refers to anti-neoplastic drugs in the management of neoplastic diseases. Advances in chemotherapy have provided important proof of the principle that anti cancer drugs can cure cancer, and subsequently have been integrated into treatment programmes with surgery and radiation therapy2.

 Chemotherapy  currently has various roles like   in  induction treatment for advanced diseases, as an adjunct to local forms of treatment, and as neoadjuvant therapy for localised disease3.The term induction therapy implies the use of chemotherapy as the primary treatment for patients who present with advanced cancer for which no alternate treatment exists. Adjuvant chemotherapy denotes the use of systemic treatment after the primary treatment has been controlled by an alternative modality such as radiotherapy and surgery. Neo adjuvant chemotherapy refers to the use of chemotherapy as the initial treatment for patients who present with localised cancer4. Chemotherapy targets proliferating cells but exerts little selectivity on the proliferating normal tissues5.The primary obstacles to the clinical efficacy of chemotherapy have been the toxicity to the normal tissues of the body and the development of cellular resistance to these chemotherapeutic agents. Drug resistances occur in most tumours treated with chemotherapy. Normal tissues never develop resistance to chemotherapy, because they possess intact genetic machinery 6. Sensitive cancer cells later develop resistance because of drug-induced mutations in their DNA7. In the last decade, molecular techniques for analysis of the DNA of normal and neoplastic cells identified some of the critical mechanisms through which chemotherapy induces cell death8. A new level of understanding of the molecular path ways through which chemotherapy works has opened up avenues for novel therapeutic approaches. Such   strategies not only enhance the chemo sensitivity of malignant cells to treatment, but also reduce toxicities and prevent the emergence of drug resistance.

MECHANISM OF DRUG RESISTANCE

One of the frequent problems encountered in cancer chemotherapy is drug resistance. Only tumour cells that are sensitive to the action of drugs are killed9.  There are several types of drug resistances which are broadly divided into primary or inherent and acquired. Various mechanisms are attributed to drug resistance. Alteration in membranes permeability causing inability to enter the target cells, increased drug   efflux, inactivation by enzymes  affect  the concentration of drug within the cancer cells10. Drug target interaction is prevented by mutation or altered expression of the target protein.  Defects in apoptosis, senescence, repair mechanisms affect signalling pathways of drug target receptors11. Alterations in complex pathways   associated with growth factors, ion and nutrient transports and utilization, hormone responsiveness, oncogene and protein kinase signalling pathways, chromosome structure and gene expressions are   involved in drug resistance 12, 13. The efflux mechanisms especially by efflux pumps like P-glycoprotein and the multidrug-resistance protein which belongs to Adenosine Triphosphate – Binding Cassette family are particularly important in multidrug resistance13.  There are various studies confirming the importance of genetic changes for acquired resistance during cancer chemotherapy 13. Mutational changes can be single step or multistep. In addition to genetic changes there are epigenetic changes or non mutational mechanisms which occur quickly in response to environmental changes 14.

Tumour growth rate along with phase and cell cycle specificity are other major factors that determine the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapy15. The growth of a neoplasm depends on several interrelated factors like normal cell cycle time, growth fraction, total number of cells in the population and the intrinsic cell death rate16. Cells progress through a cell cycle comprising four phases: G1, S, and G2, M. At the end of the G2M phase, cells divide and new cells begin their cycle in G1. Cells remain in the quiescent phase G0 (quiescence) in the absence of external changes, otherwise they may return to the proliferative cycle (at the first step of S phase)17.There are certain check points in between cell cycle phase transition, the most important of which occur at the G1=S and G2=M transitions17. There are exchanges of cells between phases G0 and G1 all the time till restriction point occur at G1.  Then the proliferation of cells continues until actual division. This can be prematurely   interrupted by anticancer drugs17.Many anticancer drugs cause direct damage to DNA, which triggers cellular checkpoints18.The resistant cells survive and multiply and result in re growth of cancer cells not sensitive to the administered drug 19, 20. Figure 1 depicts the cell cycle 16, 19

The cytotoxic effects of cancer drugs follow log cell kill kinetics. According to the log-cell-kill hypothesis constant fraction of tumour cells are eliminated21. i.e Cell kill is proportional regardless of tumour burden. The viability and character of remaining tumour cells can be analysed by histological examination of residual tumour cells22.The experimental data in human solid cancers  follows Gompertzian kinetics ie, the growth fraction of tumour is not constant but decreases exponentially with time 22 . The location of tumour is in its particular growth curve determines the response to chemotherapy in drug sensitive tumour23.Figure 2 depicts log cell kill hypothesis16, 21, 22.

DISCUISSION

a.Clinical significance of drug resistance

The efficacy of a treatment regime is determined by the complete response rate21and the relapse-free survival from the time treatment is discontinued. The relapse-free survival is the major end point in adjuvant programmes. If a patient is having good response to chemotherapy, further treatment need to be continued while a poor response points out the need to consider an alternative method of treatment24. Drug resistance in addition to reducing clinical effectiveness, result in early termination of treatment and reduced relapse free interval and survival.

b. Measures for overcoming drug resistance

There are various methods for overcoming these major disadvantages of cancer chemotherapy. Combination chemotherapy using conventional cytotoxic agents attain several important objectives not achieved with single agents25.It provides maximal cell killing with tolerable side effects and in addition can slow or prevent the development of resistance26. Principle of selection of drugs in an effective drug combination follows the following principle; like only drugs known to be partially effective against a given tumour when used alone should be selected; drug selection should be based on the spectrum of toxicities without any overlap in toxicities21.  There should be a clear understanding of the biochemical, molecular and pharmacokinetic mechanisms of interaction between the individual drugs in a given combination to allow for maximal effect16,27.

Drug discovery efforts are now directed toward restoring apoptosis in tumour cells, as this process or their absences have profound influence on tumour cell sensitivity to drugs 28. In high grade tumours although more aggressive, drugs are generally more effective in combination and may be synergistic through biochemical interactions29. New regimens are designed based on useful interactions 30. When the drugs share common mechanism of resistance or have overlapping toxicities combinations are considered irrational31. Tumour cells in population in patients with visible disease exceed 1gm or 109 cells and   each cycle of therapy kills less than 99% of cells. So treatments are repeated with multiple cycles to effectively kill the entire tumour cells32. Optimal cancer drug scheduling is a way of controlling resistance to therapy. Control avenues of drug administration and dose intensification provide better outcome16.

CONCLUSION

Despite various strategies to overcome drug resistance, the problem especially multidrug resistance is still casting its shadow in successful treatment of cancer therapy.  A better understanding of mechanism of drug resistance, its genetic and epigenetic links will open up new vistas in   circumventing   this  problem and prolong the life expectancy of the patient.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Authors acknowledge the great help received from the scholars whose articles cited and included in references of this manuscript. The author is  also grateful to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles, journals and books from where the literature for this article has been reviewed and discussed. Authors are grateful to IJCRR editorial board members and IJCRR team of reviewers who have helped to bring quality to this manuscript.

References:

  1. H. P. Rang, M. M. Dale and J. M. Ritter, 2012.Anticancer drugs, Text book of Pharmacology, ( 7th Eds ) Elsevier,pp: 673-88.
  2. Paul Calabresi and Bruce A chabner, 2001. Chemotherapy of Neoplastic diseases, Introduction: The pharmacological basis of therapeutics, (10th Eds), Goodman and Gilman. pp: 1381 – 88.
  3. Devita VT, Hellman S and Rosenberg SA, 2008.Cancer: Principles and Practise of Oncology, (8th Edn), Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
  4. DeVita V T. 1988. On the value of response criteria in therapeutic research. Le Bulletin du cancer, colloque INSERM-John Libbey series. Proceedings of the 21 International congress on Neo-Adjuvant Chemotherapy: 75, pp: 863.
  5. Airley, R, 2009. Anticancer drugs. 1st Edn., Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester.
  6. Weinberg RA, 1996. How Cancer Arises. Scientific American; 275: 42-48
  7. Nielsen LL, Maneval DC, 1998. P53 tumor suppressor gene therapy for cancer. Cancer Gene Ther, 5: 52-63.
  8. Mimeault M, Hauke R, Batra  S.K , 2008.Recent advances on the molecular mechanism involved in the drug resistance of cancer cells and novel targeting therapies. Clin. Pharmacol Ther, 83:673-691.
  9. Kruh GD, 2003.Introduction to resistance to anticancer agents. Oncogene, 22: 7262–7264.    CrossRef 
  10. Hsing-Pang Lu, Chuck C.K Chao, 2012. Cancer cells Acquire Resistance to Anticancer Drugs; An Update. Biomed J, 35 (6): 464-72
  11. Zornig M, Hueber A. O, Baum W, Evan G,2001.Apoptosis regulators and their role in tumorogenesis. Biochim. Biophys Acta, 1551:F1-F37
  12. Talapatra S, Thompson C.B,2001 .Growth factor implications for cancer treatment. J. Pharmacol.Exp.Ther, 298:873-878
  13. Gottesman M.M, Fojo T, Bates S.E, 2002. Multi drug resistance in cancer: role of ATP dependant transporters. Nat. Rev. cancer, 2:48-56
  14. Glasspool RM, Teodoridis JM, Brown R., 2006.Epi genetics as a mechanism of  driving polygenic clinical drug resistance. Br. J Cancer, 94: 1087-92
  15. Rolland T Skeel., 1995. Handbook of Cancer Therapy. (5thEds), Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, pp: 630-2.
  16. Edward Chu, Alan C. Sartorelli, 2009.Cancer chemotherapy. Basic and Clinical pharmacology Bertram G. Katzung, Susan B.Masters, Anthony J. Trevor, (11th Eds). Mc Graw Hill., pp:935-61
  17. Simon JA etal., 2000.   Differential toxicities of anticancer agents among DNA repair and checkpoint mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cancer Res, 60(2) 15 : 328-33
  18.  Fojo, T.  , Bates, S., 2003. Oncogene22, pp: 7512-7523. CrossRef 
  19. George M. Brenner, Craig W. Stevens, 2010. Antineoplastic drugs. Text book of Pharmacology, ( 3rd Eds) Saunders Elsevier, pp: 493-511.
  20. Smith JK, Mamoon NM, Duhe RJ., 2004. Oncol Res , 14(4-5):175-225.
  21. DeVita V.T. and Schein P.S., 1973. The use of drugs in combination for treatment of cancer. Rational and results. N Engl J Med,  288:998-1006
  22. A. K. Laird, 1969. Dynamics of growth in tumors and in normal organisms. Monograph 30, National Cancer Institute, Washington, D.C. pp: 29-50.
  23. Chabner BA, Longo DL, 2006.Cancer chemotherapy and Biotherapy: Principles and Practice,4th Edn, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins
  24. Muggia FM. 1985. Primary chemotherapy: concepts and issues. In: Primary Chemotherapy in Cancer Medicine. New York: Alan R. Liss, pp:377-383.
  25. Robert Souhami, Jeffrey Tobias, 1995. Cancer and its management. pp: 547-549.
  26. George M. Brenner, Craig W. Stevens, 2010. Antineoplastic drugs, Text book of Pharmacology, (3rd Eds) Saunders Elsevier, pp: 493-511.
  27. Chu E, Devita VT Jr, 2009. Cancer chemotherapy drug manual. 9th Edn, Jones and Bartlett.
  28. Schmitt CA, Lowe SW., 1999. Apoptosis and therapy. J Pathol; 187:127­37.
  29. Kufe DW, Pollock RE, Weichselbaum RR, et al., 2003. Cancer Medicine. 6th Edn, Hamilton, BC Decker.
  30. Weinberg RA, 2006. Biology of cancer, Taylor and Francis.
  31. Redmond KM et al, 2008. Resistance mechanisms to cancer chemotherapy. Front Biosci, 13:5138
  32. Goldie JH, 2001.Drug Resistance. The Chemotherapy Source Book (3rd Eds )  Michael C., Perry, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Publishers

Announcements

Dr. Pramod Kumar Manjhi joined Editor-in-Chief since July 2021 onwards

COPE guidelines for Reviewers

SCOPUS indexing: 2014, 2019 to 2021


Awards, Research and Publication incentive Schemes by IJCRR

Best Article Award: 

One article from every issue is selected for the ‘Best Article Award’. Authors of selected ‘Best Article’ are rewarded with a certificate. IJCRR Editorial Board members select one ‘Best Article’ from the published issue based on originality, novelty, social usefulness of the work. The corresponding author of selected ‘Best Article Award’ is communicated and information of award is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Women Researcher Award:

This award is instituted to encourage women researchers to publish her work in IJCRR. Women researcher, who intends to publish her research work in IJCRR as the first author is eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of women researchers based on the originality, novelty, and social contribution of the research work. The corresponding author of the selected manuscript is communicated and information is displayed on IJCRR’s website. Under this award selected women, the author is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.

Emerging Researcher Award:

‘Emerging Researcher Award’ is instituted to encourage student researchers to publish their work in IJCRR. Student researchers, who intend to publish their research or review work in IJCRR as the first author are eligible to apply for this award. Editorial Board members decide on the selection of student researchers for the said award based on originality, novelty, and social applicability of the research work. Under this award selected student researcher is eligible for publication incentives. Drop a mail to editor@ijcrr.com for more details.


Best Article Award

A Study by Amr Y. Zakaria et al. entitled "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of ATP-Binding Cassette Gene(ABCC3 rs4793665) affect High Dose Methotrexate-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Children with Osteosarcoma" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 19
A Study by Kholis Ernawati et al. entitled "The Utilization of Mobile-Based Information Technology in the Management of Dengue Fever in the Community Year 2019-2020: Systematic Review" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 18
A Study by Bhat Asifa et al. entitled "Efficacy of Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Carbapenemase Detection and Comparative Evaluation with Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Identification of Carbapenemase Producing Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 17
A Study by Gupta R. et al. entitled "A Clinical Study of Paediatric Tracheostomy: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 16
A Study by Chandran Anand et al. entitled "A Prospective Study on Assessment of Quality of Life of Patients Receiving Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 15
A Study by Rosa PS et al. entitled "Emotional State Due to the Covid – 19 Pandemic in People Residing in a Vulnerable Area in North Lima" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 14
A Study by Suvarna Sunder J et al. entitled "Endodontic Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Anterior Tooth with Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, and Blood Clot - A Comparative Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 13
A Study by Mona Isam Eldin Osman et al. entitled "Psychological Impact and Risk Factors of Sexual Abuse on Sudanese Children in Khartoum State" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 12
A Study by Khaw Ming Sheng & Sathiapriya Ramiah entitled "Web Based Suicide Prevention Application for Patients Suffering from Depression" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 11
A Study by Purushottam S. G. et al. entitled "Development of Fenofibrate Solid Dispersions for the Plausible Aqueous Solubility Augmentation of this BCS Class-II Drug" is awarded Best article for Vol 13 issue 10
A Study by Kumar S. et al. entitled "A Study on Clinical Spectrum, Laboratory Profile, Complications and Outcome of Pediatric Scrub Typhus Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit from a Tertiary Care Hospital from Eastern India" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 09
A Study by Mardhiah Kamaruddin et al. entitled "The Pattern of Creatinine Clearance in Gestational and Chronic Hypertension Women from the Third Trimester to 12 Weeks Postpartum" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 08
A Study by Sarmila G. B. et al. entitled "Study to Compare the Efficacy of Orally Administered Melatonin and Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response During Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation in Gastrointestinal Surgeries" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 07
A Study by M. Muthu Uma Maheswari et al. entitled "A Study on C-reactive Protein and Liver Function Tests in Laboratory RT-PCR Positive Covid-19 Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06 Special issue Modern approaches for diagnosis of COVID-19 and current status of awareness
A Study by Gainneos PD et al. entitled "A Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Salivary IgA in HIV Affected Children and the Children of the General Population within the Age Group of 9 – 12 Years – A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 05 Special issue on Recent Advances in Dentistry for better Oral Health
A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 06
A Study by Chen YY and Ghazali SRB entitled "Lifetime Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder Symptoms and Early Adolescence Risk Factors for Poor Physical Health Outcome Among Malaysian Adolescents" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04 Special issue on Current Updates in Plant Biology to Medicine to Healthcare Awareness in Malaysia
A Study by Kumari PM et al. entitled "Study to Evaluate the Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Tamilnadu - A Cross-Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 05
A Study by Anu et al. entitled "Effectiveness of Cytological Scoring Systems for Evaluation of Breast Lesion Cytology with its Histopathological Correlation" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 04
A Study by Sharipov R. Kh. et al. entitled "Interaction of Correction of Lipid Peroxidation Disorders with Oxibral" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 03
A Study by Tarek Elwakil et al. entitled "Led Light Photobiomodulation Effect on Wound Healing Combined with Phenytoin in Mice Model" is awarded Best Article of Vol 13 issue 02
A Study by Mohita Ray et al. entitled "Accuracy of Intra-Operative Frozen Section Consultation of Gastrointestinal Biopsy Samples in Correlation with the Final Histopathological Diagnosis" is awarded Best Article for Vol 13 issue 01
A Study by Badritdinova MN et al. entitled "Peculiarities of a Pain in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in the Presence of Individual Combines of the Metabolic Syndrome" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 24
A Study by Sindhu Priya E S et al. entitled "Neuroprotective activity of Pyrazolone Derivatives Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 23
A Study by Habiba Suhail et al. entitled "Effect of Majoon Murmakki in Dysmenorrhoea (Usre Tams): A Standard Controlled Clinical Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 22
A Study by Ghaffar UB et al. entitled "Correlation between Height and Foot Length in Saudi Population in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 21
A Study by situs slot and Siti Sarah Binti Maidin entitled "Sleep Well: Mobile Application to Address Sleeping Problems" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 20
A Study by Avijit Singh et al. situs slot "Comparison of Post Operative Clinical Outcomes Between “Made in India” TTK Chitra Mechanical Heart Valve Versus St Jude Mechanical Heart Valve in Valve Replacement Surgery" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 19
A Study by Sonali Banerjee and Mary Mathews N. entitled "Exploring Quality of Life and Perceived Experiences Among Couples Undergoing Fertility Treatment in Western India: A Mixed Methodology" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 18
A Study by Jabbar Desai et al. entitled "Prevalence of Obstructive Airway Disease in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Hypertension" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 17
A Study by Juna Byun et al. entitled "Study on Difference in Coronavirus-19 Related Anxiety between Face-to-face and Non-face-to-face Classes among University Students in South Korea" is awarded Best Article for Vol 12 issue 16
A Study by Sudha Ramachandra & Vinay Chavan entitled "Enhanced-Hybrid-Age Layered Population Structure (E-Hybrid-ALPS): A Genetic Algorithm with Adaptive Crossover for Molecular Docking Studies of Drug Discovery Process" is awarded Best article for Vol 12 issue 15
A Study by Varsha M. Shindhe et al. entitled "A Study on Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Pulmonary Function Tests in Class IV Workers of USM-KLE (Universiti Sains Malaysia-Karnataka Lingayat Education Society) International Medical Programme, Belagavi" is awarded Best article of Vol 12 issue 14, July 2020
A study by Amruta Choudhary et al. entitled "Family Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Women of Reproductive Age from Rural Area of Central India" is awarded Best Article for special issue "Modern Therapeutics Applications"
A study by Raunak Das entitled "Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunctions in Interstitial Lung Diseas epatients by Correlating the Levels of Serum NT PRO BNP and Microalbuminuria (Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Dysfunction) with Echocardiographic, Bronchoscopic and HighResolution Computed Tomography Findings of These ILD Patients" is awarded Best Article of Vol 12 issue 13 
A Study by Kannamani Ramasamy et al. entitled "COVID-19 Situation at Chennai City – Forecasting for the Better Pandemic Management" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 12
A Study by Muhammet Lutfi SELCUK and Fatma situs slot entitled "Distinction of Gray and White Matter for Some Histological Staining Methods in New Zealand Rabbit's Brain" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 11
A Study by Anamul Haq et al. entitled "Etiology of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents – Emphasis Upon Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 10
A Study by situs slot et al entitled "Estimation of Reference Interval of Serum Progesterone During Three Trimesters of Normal Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 09
A Study by Ilona Gracie De Souza & Pavan Kumar G. entitled "Effect of Releasing Myofascial Chain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Clinical Trial" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 08
A Study by Virendra Atam et. al. entitled "Clinical Profile and Short - Term Mortality Predictors in Acute Stroke with Emphasis on Stress Hyperglycemia and THRIVE Score : An Observational Study" is awarded best article for  Vol 12 issue 07
A Study by K. Krupashree et. al. entitled "Protective Effects of Picrorhizakurroa Against Fumonisin B1 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice" is awarded best article for issue Vol 10 issue 20
A study by Mithun K.P. et al "Larvicidal Activity of Crude Solanum Nigrum Leaf and Berries Extract Against Dengue Vector-Aedesaegypti" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 14 of IJCRR
A study by Asha Menon "Women in Child Care and Early Education: Truly Nontraditional Work" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 13
A study by Deep J. M. "Prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization in 7-13 Years Old Children of Biratnagar, Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study" is awarded Best Article for Vol 10 issue 11 of IJCRR
A review by Chitra et al to analyse relation between Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is awarded 'Best Article' for Vol 10 issue 10 by IJCRR. 
A study by Karanpreet et al "Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Study on Its Multisystem Involvement" is given Best Paper Award for Vol 10 issue 09
Late to bed everyday? You may die early, get depression situs slot
Egg a day tied to lower risk of heart disease situs slot
Hacked By Idamane Ayang
img { opacity: 0.6; }
Hacked By Idamane Ayang



Batin Tak Kuatke Ngo Ngempet Larane Mergo Aku Tresno Kowe

contact me: westaukelaran404@protonmail.com

Kelelawar Cyber Team - Pancasila Cyber Team - Jombang Hacker Crew - Padang Black Hat - Jawa Timur Cyber Team - Cidro Xploit - Ponorogo1337 - Ponorogo Black Hat - Ponorogo Cyber Team - Jawa6etar - Ponorogo Hacker Team



List of Awardees

A Study by Ese Anibor et al. "Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Among Delta State University Students in Abraka, Nigeria" from Vol 13 issue 16 received Emerging Researcher Award


A Study by Alkhansa Mahmoud et al. entitled "mRNA Expression of Somatostatin Receptors (1-5) in MCF7 and MDA-MB231 Breast Cancer Cells" from Vol 13 issue 06 received Emerging Researcher Award


RSS feed

Indexed and Abstracted in


Antiplagiarism Policy: IJCRR strongly condemn and discourage practice of plagiarism. All received manuscripts have to pass through "Plagiarism Detection Software" test before Toto Macau forwarding for peer review. We consider "Plagiarism is a crime"

IJCRR Code of Conduct: We at IJCRR voluntarily adopt policies on Code of Conduct, and Code of Ethics given by OASPA and COPE. To know about IJCRRs Code of Conduct, Code of Ethics, Artical Retraction policy, Digital Preservation Policy, and Journals Licence policy click here

Disclaimer: International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal.



Company name

International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR) provides platform for researchers to publish and discuss their original research and review work. IJCRR can not be held responsible for views, opinions and written statements of researchers published in this journal

Contact

148, IMSR Building, Ayurvedic Layout,
        Near NIT Complex, Sakkardara,
        Nagpur-24, Maharashtra State, India

editor@ijcrr.com

editor.ijcrr@gmail.com


Copyright © 2022 IJCRR. Specialized online journals by ubijournal .Website by Ubitech solutions